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This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
Although the deviations of brain volume deficits in sporadic and familial first-episode schizophrenia patients (FEP) had been presented, the difference of brain asymmetries remained unidentified.
To assess the potential differences of volumetric asymmetries of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between groups.
To find out the different injury alteration of sporadic FEP and familial FEP.
42 sporadic and 30 familiar drug-naïve FEP with and 72 matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and scanned by a 3.0T MRI to obtain T1-weighted and DTI images. Lateralization distribution maps of GM and WM volume were generated by employing optimized voxel-based morphometry. The asymmetries were analyzed by comparing calculating Laterality Index (LI) voxel by voxel.
All three groups showed similar overall brain torque. Familiar FEP have more regional extensive GM asymmetry brain lesions compared to sporadic FEP. There was no shared regional lesion between two groups. LIGM and LIWM in right superior temporal were negatively correlated. Significant negative correlations were also found between LIGM of left superior parietal lobule and LIWM of right superior parietal lobule, and between LIGM of right inferior parietal lobule and LIWM of left inferior parietal lobule. The asymmetry in distinct brain regions were related to cognitive deficits especially in the domains of language and memory.
The two patient groups had different alteration in injuries of brain asymmetry. Familiar FEP has more GM extensive asymmetry brain region, which may correlate with their high genetic burdens.
Psychiatry wards are witness to violent behavior. Mental health professionals are called upon to prevent/deescalate potential violence.
Understand the causal factors that led to a serious group violence event in a psychiatric ward and review strategies to minimize the risk.
Provide a better understating and review current evidence.
Description of a group violence event. Non-systematic literature review concerning violence on psychiatric wards.
In a 29-bed acute closed-door mixed-gender general-hospital psychiatry ward staff had detected that a small group of patients increasingly defied instructions, refused treatment and intimidated users. Later, two of these patients, on cue from the psychotic content of another user with schizophrenia, intruded patients’ bedrooms and assaulted a 63 year-old female patient. These two patients, with bipolar disorder, were unemployed and had a history of previous psychiatric admissions, drug abuse, criminal offenses and treatment drop-out. De-escalation techniques failed and security was summoned. Offending patients were admitted to seclusion bedrooms and restrained. Upon a crisis meeting these two patients were transferred to two nearby psychiatric departments. There are several risk factors for violence in psychiatry wards, pertaining to the ward, staff, patients and psychopathology. Prevention measures are typically related to the timely detection of these variables and deescalation techniques. When these fail, seclusion, forced medication or mechanical restraint may be necessary.
This case report confirms that violence rarely erupts without warning. Additional staff training on violence prevention and tackling is required. Some variables (e.g. overcrowding) are current structural weaknesses of the health system.
Novel commercially available software has enabled registration of both CT and MRI images to rapidly fuse with X-ray fluoroscopic imaging. We describe our initial experience performing cardiac catheterisations with the guidance of 3D imaging overlay using the VesselNavigator system (Philips Healthcare, Best, NL). A total of 33 patients with CHD were included in our study. Demographic, advanced imaging, and catheterisation data were collected between 1 December, 2016 and 31 January, 2019. We report successful use of this technology in both diagnostic and interventional cases such as placing stents and percutaneous valves, performing angioplasties, occlusion of collaterals, and guidance for lymphatic interventions. In addition, radiation exposure was markedly decreased when comparing our 10–15-year-old coarctation of the aorta stent angioplasty cohort to cases without the use of overlay technology and the most recently published national radiation dose benchmarks. No complications were encountered due to the application of overlay technology. 3D CT or MRI overlay for CHD intervention with rapid registration is feasible and aids decisions regarding access and planned angiographic angles. Operators found intraprocedural overlay fusion registration using placed vessel guidewires to be more accurate than attempts using bony structures.
Extrapyramidal symptoms are well known as side effects in therapy with antipsychotics. Explore this side effects is mandatory because they normally are a cause of treatment discontinuation or assess a change in medication. Some studies notice how long acting injectable antipsychotic cause less extrapyramidal symptoms than oral treatment, others does not find differences.
The aim of this study is to analyze the extrapyramidal symptoms presented on a group of patients treated with aripiprazole long acting injectable (ALAI) follow-up in a mental health care center.
Descriptive study of a group of patients treated with ALAI. To assess the possible extrapyramidal symptoms due to treatment we have used the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS). The follow up was 3 months after initiation of treatment.
Six patients were included in the study, 2 women (33.3%) and 4 men (66.7%). The mean age of the sample was 37 years old. The different diagnoses of the group were 4 patients with psychotic disorder (66.7%; 2 schizophrenia, 1 schizoaffective disorder and 1 delusional chronic disorder) and the other 2 had an affective disorder (33.3%; both bipolar disorder). The average score for the SAS was 1.2 meaning normal results and therefore no significant extrapyramidal symptoms.
In our sample the average of the results obtained by applying the SAS is considered within normal limits. In our case as to extrapyramidal effects ALAI treatment has been well tolerated. A larger sample would be needed to obtain more reliable results.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Relapse prevention is one of the major goals in psychiatry because it will mark the prognosis and quality of life in patients. In this aspect, plays a very important role insight and adherence to treatment. Some studies show that long acting injectable treatments improve adherence as compared with oral medications.
The objective of this study is to analyse the degree of insight and adherence to treatment of a group of patients with aripiprazole long acting injectable ALAI treatment.
Descriptive study in a group of patients treated with ALAI. Three months of follow-up. To assess the insight we had use the 3 first items of the Unawareness of Mental Disorder SUMD. Adherence to treatment is evaluated by monitoring if patients come to administrate ALAI.
n = 6, 2 women (33.3%) and 4 men (66.7%). The mean age of the sample was 37 years. Diagnoses were 4 patients with psychotic disorder (66.7%;) 2 with bipolar disorder (33.3%). At the SUMD, mean score for the items consciousness of having a disorder and awareness of the effects of medication was 3, and for the item awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder 4. The mean score for the total punctuation was 10. Five (83.3%) had a 100% of adherence, just 1 patient discontinued de treatment on the third month.
On our sample adherence, it was almost complete in all patients. To highlight the scores for SUMD which means low insight. A large sample is required to increase the reliability of the study.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Unplanned readmissions rates are an important indicator of the quality of care provided in a psychiatric unit. However, there is no validated risk model to predict this outcome in patients with psychotic spectrum disorders.
This paper aims to establish a clinical risk prediction model to predict 28-day unplanned readmission via the accident and emergency department after discharge from acute psychiatric units for patients with psychotic spectrum disorders.
Adult patients with psychotic spectrum disorders discharged within a 5-year period from all psychiatric units in Hong Kong were included in this study. Information on the socioeconomic background, past medical and psychiatric history, current discharge episode and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) scores were used in a logistic regression to derive the risk model and the predictive variables. The sample was randomly split into two to derive (n = 10 219) and validate (n = 10 643) the model.
The rate of unplanned readmission was 7.09%. The risk factors for unplanned readmission include higher number of previous admissions, comorbid substance misuse, history of violence and a score of one or more in the discharge HoNOS overactivity or aggression item. Protective factors include older age, prescribing clozapine, living with family and relatives after discharge and imposition of conditional discharge. The model had moderate discriminative power with a c-statistic of 0.705 and 0.684 on the derivation and validation data-set.
The risk of readmission for each patient can be identified and adjustments in the treatment for those with a high risk may be implemented to prevent this undesirable outcome.
The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) can only be applied to children under 5 years of age and does not contemplate obesity. The aim of this study was to propose an Extended CIAF (ECIAF) that combines the characterization of malnutrition due to undernutrition and excess weight, and apply it in six Argentine provinces.
ECIAF excludes children not in anthropometric failure (group A) and was calculated from a percentage of children included in malnutrition categories B: wasting only; C: wasting and underweight; D: wasting, stunting and underweight; E: stunting and underweight; F: stunting only; Y: underweight only; G: only weight excess; and H: stunting and weight excess.
Cross-sectional study conducted in Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut, Jujuy, Mendoza and Misiones (Argentina).
10 879 children of both sexes aged between 3 and 13·99.
ECIAF in preschool children (3 to 4·99 years) was 15·1 %. The highest prevalence was registered in Mendoza (16·7 %) and the lowest in Misiones (12·0 %). In school children (5 to 13·99 years) ECIAF was 28·6 %. Mendoza also recorded the highest rate (30·7 %), while Catamarca and Chubut had the lowest values (27·0 %). In the whole sample, about 25 % of the malnutrition was caused by undernutrition and 75 % by excess weight.
The ECIAF summarizes anthropometric failure by both deficiency and excess weight and it highlights that a quarter of the malnutrition in the Argentine population was caused by undernutrition, although there are differences between Provinces (P < 0·05). ECIAF estimates are higher than those of CIAF or under-nutrition.
Disasters, such as cyclones, create conditions that increase the risk of infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemic forecasts can be valuable for targeting highest risk populations before an outbreak. The two main barriers to routine use of real-time forecasts include scientific and operational challenges. First, accuracy may be limited by availability of data and the uncertainty associated with the inherently stochastic processes that determine when and where outbreaks happen and spread. Second, even if data are available, the appropriate channels of communication may prevent their use for decision making.
In April 2019, only six weeks after Cyclone Idai devastated Mozambique’s central region and sparked a cholera outbreak, Cyclone Kenneth severely damaged northern areas of the country. By June 10, a total of 267 cases of cholera were confirmed, sparking a vaccination campaign. Prior to Kenneth’s landfall, a team of academic researchers, humanitarian responders, and health agencies developed a simple model to forecast areas at highest risk of a cholera outbreak. The model created risk indices for each district using combinations of four metrics: (1) flooding data; (2) previous annual cholera incidence; (3) sensitivity of previous outbreaks to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle; and (4) a diffusion (gravity) model to simulate movement of infected travelers. As information on cases became available, the risk model was continuously updated. A web-based tool was produced, which identified highest risk populations prior to the cyclone and the districts at-risk following the start of the outbreak.
The model prior to Kenneth’s arrival using the metrics of previous incidence, projected flood, and El Niño sensitivity accurately predicted areas at highest risk for cholera. Despite this success, not all data were available at the scale at which the vaccination campaign took place, limiting the model’s utility, and the extent to which the forecasts were used remains unclear. Here, the science behind these forecasts and the organizational structure of this collaborative effort are discussed. The barriers to the routine use of forecasts in crisis settings are highlighted, as well as the potential for flexible teams to rapidly produce actionable insights for decision making using simple modeling tools, both before and during an outbreak.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that in dual-purpose goats, exposure to 1 h of extra-light given from 16 to 17 h after dawn (pulse of light) in winter stimulates milk yield. One group of goats was maintained under natural short photoperiod (natural day; ND (n = 7)). Another group of lactating females was submitted to an artificial long-day photoperiod consisting of 16 h light and 8 h darkness (long days; LD (n = 7)). A third group of females received one single hour of extra-light 16 h after the fixed dawn (pulse of light; PL (n = 6)). Goats from LD and PL yielded 30% more milk than goats from ND. Mean percentages of fat, protein and lactose contents in milk did not differ between the 3 groups at any stage of lactation, but these components in grams/day were higher in goats from PL than in the others two groups within the first 45 d of lactation. In conclusion, dual-purpose lactating goats that started their lactation during natural short days, the daily exposition to a 1-h pulse of light is sufficient to stimulate milk yield compared to females maintained under natural short photoperiod.
The first period of agrarian reforms with clear state control over the land (African socialisms) took place between 1945 and 1980, but then a second period started in which market agrarian reforms have prevailed. This work synthesizes agrarian structural reform policies (property systems and land tenure) between 1980 and 2016 in African countries, especially those that had or have bureaucratic bourgeoisie governments (one-party and/or African socialist). The two periods are complementary, rather then being opposed to each other, as state agrarian reforms smoothed the path to market agrarian reforms. Although there is not yet sufficient empirical research on the results of the agrarian reforms implemented during this period, our hypothesis is that they are helping to: increase the unequal structure of property; develop tenure systems and non-capitalist contractual labour relations in new ways, both non-associative (the grabbing of vast tracts of land) and associative (renewed control of customary lands by traditional authorities); and force peasant expropriation and the subsequent increase in the number of landless non-proletarianized peasants. Therefore, the problem of poor agrarian structures in Africa is still unresolved.
We present a numerical methodology for construction of reduced-order models (ROMs) of fluid flows through the combination of flow modal decomposition and regression analysis. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the model and, at the same time, filter the proper orthogonal decomposition temporal modes. The regression step is performed by a deep feedforward neural network (DNN), and the current framework is implemented in a context similar to the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics algorithm. A discussion on the optimization of the DNN hyperparameters is provided for obtaining the best ROMs and an assessment of these models is presented for a canonical nonlinear oscillator and the compressible flow past a cylinder. Then the method is tested on the reconstruction of a turbulent flow computed by a large eddy simulation of a plunging airfoil under dynamic stall. The reduced-order model is able to capture the dynamics of the leading edge stall vortex and the subsequent trailing edge vortex. For the cases analysed, the numerical framework allows the prediction of the flow field beyond the training window using larger time increments than those employed by the full-order model. We also demonstrate the robustness of the current ROMs constructed via DNNs through a comparison with sparse regression. The DNN approach is able to learn transient features of the flow and presents more accurate and stable long-term predictions compared to sparse regression.
We propose the N-learning practical approach for teaching and learning behaviors in a multirobot system, which is performed through mandatory behavior acquisition based on interactions between the robots at execution time. The proposed methodology can be used to self-program the robots of a team by programming only a single robot with a set of codes that contain behaviors to be transferred and used by other robots as necessary. These codes are implemented in a modular fashion. An advantage of our approach is that when a team of robots is required to perform a specific mission, the set of behaviors required to accomplish that mission can be implemented only once in a single robot or in a distributed fashion. Then, these distributed behaviors are transferred to each of the other robots in the team according to their demand, without the need to reprogram them by hand since the robots in the team can share them autonomously. As an application example, a human critic can teach (or program) only one or a few robots, and these robots are thus able to exchange knowledge with the other team members since they have been preinstalled to run the N-learning system basics. Simulated and real robot experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validation of our approach.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.
The incorporation of triturated tire particles as an aggregate in the concrete mixture is one of the ways to take advantage of this Waste Rubber (WR) in order to improve concrete properties, such as mechanical behavior. In this research we evaluated mechanical behavior of concrete specimens prepared with different amounts WR, which partially substituted the fine aggregate, under an indirect tensile test. In contrast with other’s researcher’s findings, our results show that the specimens with 5% WR present the highest value of indirect tensile strength (TP) of 4.36 MPa. Polynomial relationships between TP and compression strength (f´c), where Tp ranges from 0.1f´c to 0.2f´c. Specimens with the 0, 5 and 10% WR content show two types of failure: normal tension and tiple-cleft failure, described in the norm ASTM 1144-89. Nevertheless, specimens with 15 and 20% WR show a new failure not described in the norm, which is thought to be occurring due to the high amount of WR used.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
The aim of this investigation was to study castor, canola, and sesame vegetable oils in order to evaluate their potential use as lubricants in steel mechanical components. For this purpose, densities of each oil were evaluated using the pycnometer method, as well as their dynamic viscosities through a Brookfield DV-II rotational viscometer. Both properties were evaluated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 100 °C. Additionally, viscosity indexes were determined according to ASTM D 2270. These rheological properties were used to estimate the lubrication regime considering parameters of real contact conditions in mechanical components. Friction and wear analyses were carried out to investigate the behaviour of the vegetable oil as lubricants. Such tests were carried out at room temperature on a CSM tribometer with pin-on-disk configuration by using castor, canola and sesame oils as lubricants. AISI 4140 hardened steel against AISI 100Cr6 steel pin was used as a mechanical component. From the rheological study, it was observed that canola and sesame oils behave as dilatant fluids at the evaluated temperatures, while castor oil behaves like a Newtonian fluid at 25 and 40 °C. Castor oil showed the highest density value among oils studied, but it also exhibited the lowest value of viscosity index (271). Contrarily, sesame oil was the least dense, but it exhibited the highest viscosity index (545). On the other hand, the lubrication regime study showed that by using castor oil as a lubricant in the mechanical component (4140/100Cr6), the system worked in a mixed lubrication regime while by using canola and sesame oils the system operated in boundary lubrication conditions. Finally, the kinetic friction coefficients were different for each lubricant obtaining the lowest value with castor oil while the highest value of friction coefficient was exhibited by the sesame oil lubricant.
To investigate whether amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) identified with visual memory tests conveys an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (risk-AD) and if the risk-AD differs from that associated with aMCI based on verbal memory tests.
4,771 participants aged 70.76 (SD = 6.74, 45.4% females) from five community-based studies, each a member of the international COSMIC consortium and from a different country, were classified as having normal cognition (NC) or one of visual, verbal, or combined (visual and verbal) aMCI using international criteria and followed for an average of 2.48 years. Hazard ratios (HR) and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis analyzed the risk-AD with age, sex, education, single/multiple domain aMCI, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as covariates.
All aMCI groups (n = 760) had a greater risk-AD than NC (n = 4,011; HR range = 3.66 – 9.25). The risk-AD was not different between visual (n = 208, 17 converters) and verbal aMCI (n = 449, 29 converters, HR = 1.70, 95%CI: 0.88, 3.27, p = 0.111). Combined aMCI (n = 103, 12 converters, HR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.13, 4.84, p = 0.023) had a higher risk-AD than verbal aMCI. Age and MMSE scores were related to the risk-AD. The IPD meta-analyses replicated these results, though with slightly lower HR estimates (HR range = 3.68, 7.43) for aMCI vs. NC.
Although verbal aMCI was most common, a significant proportion of participants had visual-only or combined visual and verbal aMCI. Compared with verbal aMCI, the risk-AD was the same for visual aMCI and higher for combined aMCI. Our results highlight the importance of including both verbal and visual memory tests in neuropsychological assessments to more reliably identify aMCI.
The influence of the concentration of carbon black nanoparticles on the mechanical behavior of a structural adhesive was studied to evaluate and understand the stiffness, strength, and deformation behavior of a reinforced epoxy adhesive. Two carbon black nanoparticles with different dielectric properties and sizes (Monarch® 120 and Vulcan® XC72R) were studied. A bi-component structural epoxy adhesive was selected. Specimens with different concentrations of carbon black were manufactured (0, 5, 10, and 20% on volume of resin) for each type of nanoparticle. The specimens were cured in a hydraulic hot-plates press machine. The mechanical behavior of the adhesives was found not to vary significantly as a function of carbon black nanoparticles amount. A scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the fracture surface. The fracture surfaces of specimens were correlated with the mechanical response obtained through tensile tests.