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Hobbes’s striking On the Citizen position that “all the mind’s pleasure is either glory (or to have a good opinion of oneself), or refers to glory in the end” disappears in Leviathan. In this chapter, Lloyd argues that in stepping back from his On the Citizen assertion of a universal basic motive, which she analyzes as aiming to secure self-admiration, Hobbes loses sight of a tremendous potential resource for stabilizing political society. This motive can, in a properly designed commonwealth, motivate compliance with the requirements of morality; and adherence to a correct morality, such as that which Hobbes would have to be taught to all, is enormously helpful in securing civil peace. Re-attention to On the Citizen helps us to recover that insight, and from it to develop an argument that Hobbes could have used to his benefit.
Our group has reported the imprint formation of biological material on polycarbonate nuclear track detectors by UV-C exposure, which is used as an approach to simultaneously visualize cell imprints and nuclear tracks coming from the boron neutron capture reaction. Considering that the cell nucleus has a higher UV-C absorption than the cytoplasm and that hematoxylin preferentially stains the nucleus, we proposed to enhance the contrast between these two main cell structures by hematoxylin staining before UV-C sensitization. In this study, several experiments were performed in order to optimize UV-C exposure parameters and chemical etching conditions for cell imprint formation using the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell line. The proposed method improves significantly the resolution of the cell imprints. It allows clear differentiation of the nucleus from the rest of the cell, together with nuclear tracks pits. Moreover, it reduces considerably the UV-C exposure time, an important experimental issue. The proposed methodology can be applied to study the boron distribution independently from the chosen cell line and/or boron compounds.
Life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface has adapted and evolved mechanisms to survive under extremes of energy limitation, temperature, pressure, radiation, and/or water availability. New developments in nucleic acid sequencing, high-pressure biochemistry, and high-pressure biophysics have expanded our understanding of the mechanisms used by deep life. This chapter synthesizes these new developments and highlights remaining gaps in understanding.
Over recent decades, biomass gains in remaining old-growth Amazonia forests have declined due to environmental change. Amazonia’s huge size and complexity makes understanding these changes, drivers, and consequences very challenging. Here, using a network of permanent monitoring plots at the Amazon–Cerrado transition, we quantify recent biomass carbon changes and explore their environmental drivers. Our study area covers 30 plots of upland and riparian forests sampled at least twice between 1996 and 2016 and subject to various levels of fire and drought. Using these plots, we aimed to: (1) estimate the long-term biomass change rate; (2) determine the extent to which forest changes are influenced by forest type; and (3) assess the threat to forests from ongoing environmental change. Overall, there was no net change in biomass, but there was clear variation among different forest types. Burning occurred at least once in 8 of the 12 riparian forests, while only 1 of the 18 upland forests burned, resulting in losses of carbon in burned riparian forests. Net biomass gains prevailed among other riparian and upland forests throughout Amazonia. Our results reveal an unanticipated vulnerability of riparian forests to fire, likely aggravated by drought, and threatening ecosystem conservation at the Amazon southern margins.
In politically contested health debates, stakeholders on both sides present arguments and evidence to influence public opinion and the political agenda. The present study aimed to examine whether stakeholders in the Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) debate sought to establish or undermine the acceptability of this policy through the news media and how this compared with similar policy debates in relation to tobacco and alcohol industries.
Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles discussing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation published in eleven UK newspapers between 1 April 2015 and 30 November 2016, identified through the Nexis database. Direct stakeholder citations were entered in NVivo to allow inductive thematic analysis and comparison with an established typology of industry stakeholder arguments used by the alcohol and tobacco industries.
Proponents and opponents of SSB tax/SDIL cited in UK newspapers.
Four hundred and ninety-one newspaper articles cited stakeholders’ (n 287) arguments in relation to SSB taxation (n 1761: 65 % supportive and 35 % opposing). Stakeholders’ positions broadly reflected their vested interests. Inconsistencies arose from: changes in ideological position; insufficient clarity on the nature of the problem to be solved; policy priorities; and consistency with academic rigour. Both opposing and supportive themes were comparable with the alcohol and tobacco industry typology.
Public health advocates were particularly prominent in the UK newspaper debate surrounding the SDIL. Advocates in future policy debates might benefit from seeking a similar level of prominence and avoiding inconsistencies by being clearer about the policy objective and mechanisms.
The essays in this volume provide a state-of-the-art overview of the central elements of Hobbes's political philosophy and the ways in which they can be interpreted. The volume's contributors offer their own interpretations of Hobbes's philosophical method, his materialism, his psychological theory and moral theory, and his views on benevolence, law and civil liberties, religion, and women. Hobbes's ideas of authorization and representation, his use of the 'state of nature', and his reply to the unjust 'Foole' are also critically analyzed. The essays will help readers to orient themselves in the complex scholarly literature while also offering groundbreaking arguments and innovative interpretations. The volume as a whole will facilitate new insights into Hobbes's political theory, enabling readers to consider key elements of his thought from multiple perspectives and to select and combine them to form their own interpretations of his political philosophy.
To date there have been few studies on equine personality, with many equine studies on individual differences focussing on the measurement of temperament. Personality is defined by Pervin and John (1997, ) as “Those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving” and is different to temperament in that it has a greater emphasis on social aspects of behaviour. Interest in this area of research has recently increased, which could be attributed to the potential implementation of personality assessment in management practices, welfare issues and potential applications in equine veterinary medicine (Mills, 1998).
Assessment of animal personality often involves using human raters to assess the personality of animals familiar to them. In order to demonstrate reliable personality data three criteria should be met, these are as follows; 1) assessments made by independent observers must agree with one another, 2) these assessments must predict behaviours and real-world outcomes and 3) observer ratings must be shown to reflect genuine attributes of the individual rated and not just the observers’ implicit theories about personality (Kenrick and Funder, 1988; Gosling and Vazire, 2002).
Persistence of the embryonic “fifth aortic arch” in postnatal life is a rare, enigmatic – and at times controversial – condition, with variable anatomical forms and physiological consequences. First described in humans over 40 years ago by Van Praagh, the condition was labelled the “great pretender” by Gerlis 25 years later, because of its apparent propensity to mimic anatomically similar structures. Despite many subsequent case reports citing the condition, the true developmental origin of these structures remains unresolved, and has been the subject of debate among embryologists for more than a century. A persistent fifth aortic arch has been defined as an extrapericardial structure, arising from the ascending aorta opposite or proximal to the brachiocephalic artery, and terminating in the dorsal aorta or pulmonary arteries via a persistently patent arterial duct. This description may therefore encompass various anatomical forms, such as a unilateral double-lumen aortic arch, an unrestrictive aortopulmonary shunt, or a critical vascular channel for either the systemic or pulmonary circulation. The physiological properties of these vessels, such as their response to prostaglandins, may also be unpredictable. In this article, we demonstrate a number of cases that fulfil the contemporary definition of “persistent fifth aortic arch” while acknowledging the embryological controversies associated with this term. We also outline the key diagnostic features, particularly with respect to the use of new cross-sectional imaging techniques.
The study aim was to establish and quantify suicide risk following acute admissions for all major physical illnesses, for confirmatory purposes, from two independent information sources from different countries.
Record linkage of inpatient and death certificate data for 11 004 389 acute admissions for physical illnesses in England and 713 496 in Wales. The main outcome measure was standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide at 1 year following discharge from hospital.
There were 1781 suicides within 1 year of discharge in England (SMR = 1.7; 95% = 1.6–1.8) and 131 in Wales (SMR = 2.0; 1.7–2.3). Of 48 major physical illnesses that were associated with at least eight suicides in either country, there was high consistent suicide mortality (significant SMR >3) in both countries for constipation (SMR = 4.1 in England, 7.5 in Wales), gastritis (4.4 and 4.9) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (3.4 and 4.5). There was high suicide mortality in one country for alcoholic liver disease, other liver disease and chronic pancreatitis; for epilepsy and Parkinson's disease; for diabetes, hypoglycaemia and hypo-osmolality & hyponatraemia; and for pneumonia, back pain and urinary tract infections.
There is little or no increased suicide mortality following acute admissions for most physical illnesses. Much of the increased suicide mortality relates to gastrointestinal disorders that are often alcohol related or specific chronic conditions, which may be linked to side effects from certain therapeutic medications. Acute hospital admissions for physical illnesses may therefore provide an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention among people with certain conditions, particularly alcohol related disorders.
Screening Antiquity is a new series of cutting-edge academic monographs and edited volumes that present exciting and original research on the reception of the ancient world in film and television. It provides an important synergy of the latest international scholarly ideas about the onscreen conception of antiquity in popular culture and is the only book series to focus exclusively on screened representations of the ancient world.
The interactions between cinema, television, and historical representation is a growing field of scholarship and student engagement; many Classics and Ancient History departments in universities worldwide teach cinematic representations of the past as part of their programmes in Reception Studies. Scholars are now questioning how historical films and television series reflect the societies in which they were made, and speculate on how attitudes towards the past have been moulded in the popular imagination by their depiction in the movies. Screening Antiquity explores how these constructions came about and offers scope to analyse how and why the ancient past is filtered through onscreen representations in specific ways. The series highlights exciting and original publications that explore the representation of antiquity onscreen, and that employ modern theoretical and cultural perspectives to examine screened antiquity, including: stars and star text, directors and auteurs, cinematography, design and art direction, marketing, fans, and the online presence of the ancient world.
The series aims to present original research focused exclusively on the reception of the ancient world in film and television. In itself this is an exciting and original approach. There is no other book series that engages head-on with both big screen and small screen recreations of the past, yet their integral interactivity is clear to see: film popularity has a major impact on television productions and for its part, television regularly influences cinema (including film spin-offs of popular television series). This is the first academic series to identify and encourage the holistic interactivity of these two major media institutions, and the first to promote interdisciplinary research in all the fields of Cinema Studies, Media Studies, Classics, and Ancient History.
Screening Antiquity explores the various facets of onscreen creations of the past, exploring the theme from multiple angles.
In this case study, we evaluated a point-mapping method for simultaneously collecting data while controlling three invasive woody plant species: black locust, Chinese privet, and hardy orange. The study in Arkansas Post National Memorial included seven project areas ranging in size from 2.7 to 27.3 ha and spanned six field seasons (2010 to 2015). The control techniques varied depending on plant size and always included the application of herbicide, which also varied over the course of the study to include glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr. Each person responsible for controlling plants simultaneously collected global positioning system point data to estimate the foliar cover of the plants treated. The resulting data demonstrated evidence of decreases in all three plant species in most project areas during the 6-yr period. Initial increases in area treated for some species–area combinations reflected differences in the preliminary efforts required to control invasive plants in entire project areas, but by 2012 six of seven project areas were treated in their entirety. Despite a high level of reduction, in some cases, the plants persisted at low levels even during the sixth year of the project. Our findings support the ability of this method to granularly detect changes in plant abundance while simultaneously controlling invasive plants. With several acknowledged limitations, this streamlined project-based monitoring approach provides data that allow managers to assess the effectiveness of weed control treatments.