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The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD.
370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia, and the outcome liver histological severity, was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology.
Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite NASH than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.79, 95%CI 1.31-5.95, p=0.008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43.8% vs. 17.2%, p=0.031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (p-value for interaction=0.006).
Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
We investigate kinetic entropy-based measures of the non-Maxwellianity of distribution functions in plasmas, i.e. entropy-based measures of the departure of a local distribution function from an associated Maxwellian distribution function with the same density, bulk flow and temperature as the local distribution. First, we consider a form previously employed by Kaufmann & Paterson (J. Geophys. Res., vol. 114, 2009, A00D04), assessing its properties and deriving equivalent forms. To provide a quantitative understanding of it, we derive analytical expressions for three common non-Maxwellian plasma distribution functions. We show that there are undesirable features of this non-Maxwellianity measure including that it can diverge in various physical limits and elucidate the reason for the divergence. We then introduce a new kinetic entropy-based non-Maxwellianity measure based on the velocity-space kinetic entropy density, which has a meaningful physical interpretation and does not diverge. We use collisionless particle-in-cell simulations of two-dimensional anti-parallel magnetic reconnection to assess the kinetic entropy-based non-Maxwellianity measures. We show that regions of non-zero non-Maxwellianity are linked to kinetic processes occurring during magnetic reconnection. We also show the simulated non-Maxwellianity agrees reasonably well with predictions for distributions resembling those calculated analytically. These results can be important for applications, as non-Maxwellianity can be used to identify regions of kinetic-scale physics or increased dissipation in plasmas.
Individuals with tardive dyskinesia (TD) who completed a long-term study (KINECT 3 or KINECT 4) of valbenazine (40 or 80 mg/day, once-daily for up to 48 weeks followed by 4-week washout) were enrolled in a subsequent study (NCT02736955) that was primarily designed to further evaluate the long-term safety of valbenazine.
Participants were initiated at 40 mg/day (following prior valbenazine washout). At week 4, dosing was escalated to 80 mg/day based on tolerability and clinical assessment of TD; reduction to 40 mg/day was allowed for tolerability. The study was planned for 72 weeks or until termination due to commercial availability of valbenazine. Assessments included the Clinical Global Impression of Severity-TD (CGIS-TD), Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).
At study termination, 85.7% (138/161) of participants were still active. Four participants had reached week 60, and none reached week 72. The percentage of participants with a CGIS-TD score ≤2 (normal/not ill or borderline ill) increased from study baseline (14.5% [23/159]) to week 48 (64.3% [36/56]). At baseline, 98.8% (158/160) of participants rated their prior valbenazine experience with a PSQ score ≤2 (very satisfied or somewhat satisfied). At week 48, 98.2% (55/56) remained satisfied. Before week 4 (dose escalation), 9.4% of participants had ≥1 TEAE. After week 4, the TEAE incidence was 49.0%. No TEAE occurred in ≥5% of participants during treatment (before or after week 4).
Valbenazine was well-tolerated and persistent improvements in TD were found in adults who received once-daily treatment for >1 year.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains irreplaceable in the treatment of several psychiatric conditions. However, evidence derived using data from a national database to support its safety is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality among patients with psychiatric conditions treated with and without ECT.
Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2013, we identified 828,899 inpatients with psychiatric conditions, among whom 0.19% (n = 1571) were treated with ECT.
We found that ECT recipients were more frequently women, were younger and physically healthier, lived in more urbanized areas, were treated in medical centers, and had longer hospital stays. ECT recipients had lower odds of in-hospital mortality than did those who did not receive ECT. Moreover, no factor was identified as being able to predict mortality in patients who underwent ECT. Among all patients, ECT was not associated with in-hospital mortality after controlling for potential confounders.
ECT was indicated to be safe and did not increase the odds of in-hospital mortality. However, ECT appeared to be administered only on physically healthy but psychiatrically compromised patients, a pattern that is in opposition with the scientific evidence supporting its safety. Moreover, our data suggest that ECT is still used as a treatment of last resort in the era of modern psychiatry.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
Unlike English and other Western languages, many Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese do not delimit words by space. Word segmentation and new word detection are therefore key steps in processing these languages. Chinese word segmentation can be considered as a part-of-speech (POS)-tagging problem. We can segment corpus by assigning a label for each character which indicates the position of the character in a word (e.g., “B” for word beginning, and “E” for the end of the word, etc.). Chinese word segmentation seems to be well studied. Machine learning models such as conditional random field (CRF) and bi-directional long short-term memory (LSTM) have shown outstanding performances on this task. However, the segmentation accuracies drop significantly when applying the same approaches to out-domain cases, in which high-quality in-domain training data are not available. An example of out-domain applications is the new word detection in Chinese microblogs for which the availability of high-quality corpus is limited. In this paper, we focus on out-domain Chinese new word detection. We first design a new method Edge Likelihood (EL) for Chinese word boundary detection. Then we propose a domain-independent Chinese new word detector (DICND); each Chinese character is represented as a low-dimensional vector in the proposed framework, and segmentation-related features of the character are used as the values in the vector.
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens in Beijing, China, is rarely reported. In this study, 34 911 symptomatic outpatients with suspected genital infections who attended outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital were included to investigate the updated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a decrease trend (UU, CT, NG and HSV) in male and an increase trend (UU, CT and NG) in female were observed during the period. Patients aged 20–39 years old were mostly affected by these pathogens, while the prevalence in patients aged 20–29 years old was the highest, The prevalence of UU in male was significantly lower than in female (31.5% vs. 49.3%, P < 0.05), while the prevalence of NG in male was significantly higher than in female (2.5% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.05). In patients with co-infections, 60.6% of male and 71.4% of female were co-infected by UU + CT. In total, 11.9% and 88.1% of patients with HSV infections were confirmed to be infected by HSV-1 and HSV-2. This study could contribute to a better understanding of the current epidemiological features of UU, NG, CT and HSV among symptomatic patients attending an outpatient clinic in Beijing, China, and thus facilitate to develop more effective intervention, prevention and treatment of STI.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
Giardia duodenalis is the most common intestinal parasite of humans in the USA, but the risk factors for sporadic (non-outbreak) giardiasis are not well described. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Colorado and Minnesota public health departments conducted a case-control study to assess risk factors for sporadic giardiasis in the USA. Cases (N = 199) were patients with non-outbreak-associated laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection in Colorado and Minnesota, and controls (N = 381) were matched by age and site. Identified risk factors included international travel (aOR = 13.9; 95% CI 4.9–39.8), drinking water from a river, lake, stream, or spring (aOR = 6.5; 95% CI 2.0–20.6), swimming in a natural body of water (aOR = 3.3; 95% CI 1.5–7.0), male–male sexual behaviour (aOR = 45.7; 95% CI 5.8–362.0), having contact with children in diapers (aOR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.01–2.6), taking antibiotics (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.2–5.0) and having a chronic gastrointestinal condition (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–3.0). Eating raw produce was inversely associated with infection (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI 0.1–0.7). Our results highlight the diversity of risk factors for sporadic giardiasis and the importance of non-international-travel-associated risk factors, particularly those involving person-to-person transmission. Prevention measures should focus on reducing risks associated with diaper handling, sexual contact, swimming in untreated water, and drinking untreated water.
Many shorebird populations are in decline along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The rapid loss of coastal wetlands in the Yellow Sea, which provide critical stop-over sites during migration, is believed to be the cause of the alarming trends. The Yalu Jiang coastal wetland, a protected area in the north Yellow Sea, supports the largest known migratory staging populations of Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica (menzbieri and baueri subspecies) and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris. Monitoring of the macrozoobenthos food for these shorebirds from 2011 to 2016 showed declines of over 99% in the densities of the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis, the major food here for both Bar-tailed Godwits and Great Knots. The loss of the bivalve might be caused by any combination of, but not limited to: (1) change in hydrological conditions and sediment composition due to nearby port construction, (2) run-off of agrochemicals from the extensive shoreline sea cucumber farms, and (3) parasitic infection. Surprisingly, the numbers of birds using the Yalu Jiang coastal wetland remained stable during the study period, except for the subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwit L. l. menzbieri, which exhibited a 91% decline in peak numbers. The lack of an overall decline in the number of bird days in Great Knots and in the peak numbers of L. l. baueri, also given the published simultaneous decreases in their annual survival, implies a lack of alternative habitats that birds could relocate to. This study highlights that food declines at staging sites could be an overlooked but important factor causing population declines of shorebirds along the Flyway. Maintaining the quality of protected staging sites is as important in shorebird conservation as is the safeguarding of staging sites from land claim. Meanwhile, it calls for immediate action to restore the food base for these beleaguered migrant shorebirds at Yalu Jiang coastal wetland.
Surface exfoliation was observed on single-crystal silicon surface under the action of compressed plasma flow (CPF). This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the strong transient thermal stress impact induced by CPF. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism, a micro scale model combined with thermal conduction and linear elastic fracture mechanics was built to analyze the thermal stress distribution after energy deposition. After computation with finite element method, J integral parameter was applied as the criterion for fracture initiation evaluation. It was demonstrated that the formation of surface exfoliation calls for specific material, crack depth, and CPF parameter. The results are potentially valuable for plasma/matter interaction understanding and CPF parameter optimization.
Valbenazine (INGREZZA; VBZ) is a novel and highly selective vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. The randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled trials of VBZ evaluated the treatment of TD in patients with a primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder) while on concomitant psychiatric medications to manage these disorders. Since treatment-emergent depression and suicidal ideation/behavior are important clinical concerns in psychiatric patient populations, data from these trials were analyzed to assess the effectsof once-daily VBZ on depression and suicidality.
Data were pooled from three 6-week trials: KINECT (NCT01688037), KINECT 2 (NCT01733121), KINECT 3 (NCT02274558). Outcome data were analyzed in the safety population by pooled VBZ doses (40 mg, 80 mg) and PBO. Outcomes of interest included: treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) related to depression or suicidality; mean score change from baseline to Week 6 in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, for participants with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) or the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, for participants with mood disorder); and, worsening from baseline in Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) suicidal ideation scores. All outcomes were analyzed descriptively.
There were 400 total participants in the pooled safety population; 286 participants had schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (40 mg, n=82; 80 mg, n=70; PBO, n=134) and 114 had a mood disorder (40 mg, n=28; 80 mg, n=42; PBO, n=44). Over one-third of participants had a lifetime history of suicidal ideation or behavior (40 mg, 45%; 80 mg, 39%; PBO, 37%). Few participants had a depression- or suicide-related TEAE, with no apparent differences between VBZ and PBO: suicidal ideation (40 mg, 3.6%; 80 mg, 0.9%; PBO, 2.2%); depression (40 mg, 0%; 80 mg, 1.8%; PBO, 1.1%); depressive symptom (40 mg, 0.9%; 80 mg, 0%; PBO, 0.6%); suicide attempt (40 mg, 0%; 80 mg, 0.9%; PBO, 0%). Mean changes from baseline to Week 6 in depression scale scores were generally small and similar across treatment groups: CDSS total score (40 mg, -0.5; 80 mg, -0.6; PBO, -0.3); MADRS total score (40 mg, -0.2; 80 mg, -1.7; PBO, 0.6). Few participants had a shift from no suicidal ideation at baseline (C-SSRS score=0) to any suicidal ideation during treatment (C-SSRS score=1-5): 40 mg, 3.9% (4/103); 80 mg, 0.9% (1/111); PBO, 2.9% (5/174).
Data from 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials indicate that once-daily VBZ treatment was not associated with a worsening in depression-related symptoms or an increased risk of suicidal ideation or behavior.
This study was funded by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
The efficacy of valbenazine (INGREZZA) in tardive dyskinesia (TD) was demonstrated in placebo-controlled clinical trials, based on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total score (sum of items 1-7). In these trials, mean changes in the AIMS total score were significantly greater with valbenazine 80 mg than with placebo. Currently, no minimal clinically important difference (MCID) has been established for the AIMS total score in patients with TD. Using valbenazine trial data, analyses were conducted to establish a MCID for AIMS total score in TD.
Data were pooled from three 6-week trials: KINECT (NCT01688037), KINECT 2 (NCT01733121), KINECT 3 (NCT02274558). Using the Clinical Global Impression ofChange (CGI-TD) as an anchor comparison, AIMS total score changes from baseline to Week 6 were summarized for all study participants (pooled valbenazine and placebo groups) with a “minimal” CGI-TD score of ≤3 (minimally improved or better) or “robust” ≤2 (much improved or better) at Week 6.
In the pooled population (N=373), 72% and 29% of all participants had CGI-TD scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively. The median (maximum, minimum) change from baseline in AIMS total score at Week 6 was -2 (-13, 8) in participants with CGI-TD score ≤3 and -3 ( 13, 8) in participants with a score ≤2.
Pooled data from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials suggest that a 2 point decrease in AIMS total score may represent the minimal clinically meaningful improvement. Larger AIMS score improvements were associated with “much improved” or “very much improved” CGI TD assessments.
This study was funded by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
The approval of valbenazine (INGREZZA; VBZ) for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults was based on results from double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled trials. These studies demonstrated the efficacy of once-daily VBZ based on intent-to-treat analyses. However, because many different types ofpatients can develop TD, subgroup analyses describing treatment outcomes by various patient factors were also conducted.
Data were pooled from three 6-week trials: KINECT (NCT01688037), KINECT 2 (NCT01733121), KINECT 3 (NCT02274558), with outcomes analyzed by VBZ dose (80 mg, 40 mg) and PBO. Descriptive analyses conducted using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total score included: mean change from baseline to Week 6; and AIMS response, defined as 50% improvement from baseline to Week 6. Subgroups were defined as follows: age (<55 years, ≥55 years), sex (male, female), psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, mood disorder), CYP2D6 genotype (poor metabolizer [PM], non-PM), body mass index (BMI) (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, ≥30 kg/m2), concomitant antipsychotic (yes, no); type of antipsychotic (atypical, typical/both); lifetime history of suicidality (yes, no); concomitant anticholinergic (yes, no); TD duration (<7 years, ≥7 years).
The pooled population included 373 participants (VBZ 80 mg, n=101; VBZ 40 mg, n=114; PBO, n=158). Mean improvements from baseline to Week 6 in AIMS total score were greater overall with VBZ compared to PBO. Within subgroup categories, AIMS score improvement with VBZ 80 mg (recommended dose) was greater in CYP2D6 PMs (n=17; 80 mg, -6.8; 40 mg, 2.4; PBO, 0.5), participants taking no concomitant antipsychotics (n=64; 80 mg, -4.9; 40 mg, -3.0; PBO, 0.0), and overweight participants (BMI 25 to <30 kg/m2, n=115; 80 mg, -4.2; 40 mg, 2.7; PBO, -0.7). Overweight participants also had the highest AIMS response rates at Week 6 (80 mg, 57.7%; 40 mg, 31.6%; PBO, 11.8%), followed by participants taking typical/both antipsychotics (n=67; 80 mg, 57.1%; 40 mg, 20.0%; PBO, 25.0%), and those taking anticholinergics (n=126; 80 mg, 52.9%; 40 mg, 22.7%; PBO, 6.3%).
These preliminary analyses indicate that TD improvements were generally greater with VBZ than PBO across most subgroups. However, the small sizes of some subgroups may need to be considered when interpreting results. Additional analyses within subgroup categories are ongoing and will be presented at the meeting.
This study was funded by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Fermented soybean meal (FSM), which has lower anti-nutritional factors and higher active enzyme, probiotic and oligosaccharide contents than its unfermented form, has been reported to improve the feeding value of soybean meal, and hence, the growth performance of piglets. However, whether FSM can affect the bacterial and metabolites in the large intestine of piglets remains unknown. This study supplemented wet-FSM (WFSM) or dry-FSM (DFSM) (5% dry matter basis) in the diet of piglets and investigated its effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the piglets’ large intestines. A total of 75 41-day-old Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets with an initial BW of 13.14±0.22 kg were used in a 4-week feeding trial. Our results showed that the average daily gain of piglets in the WFSM and DFSM groups increased by 27.08% and 14.58% and that the feed conversion ratio improved by 18.18% and 7.27%, respectively, compared with the control group. Data from the prediction gene function of Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing showed that carbohydrate metabolism function families in the WFSM and DFSM groups increased by 3.46% and 2.68% and that the amino acid metabolism function families decreased by 1.74% and 0.82%, respectively, compared with the control group. These results were consistent with those of other metabolism studies, which showed that dietary supplementation with WFSM and DFSM increased the level of carbohydrate-related metabolites (e.g. 4-aminobutanoate, 5-aminopentanoate, lactic acid, mannitol, threitol and β-alanine) and decreased the levels of those related to protein catabolism (e.g. 1,3-diaminopropane, creatine, glycine and inosine). In conclusion, supplementation with the two forms of FSM improved growth performance, increased metabolites of carbohydrate and reduced metabolites of protein in the large intestine of piglets, and WFSM exhibited a stronger effect than DFSM.
Recent results in the development of diode-driven high energy, high repetition rate, picosecond lasers, including the demonstration of a cryogenic Yb:YAG active mirror amplifier that produces 1.5 J pulses at 500 Hz repetition rate (0.75 kW average power) are reviewed. These pulses are compressed resulting in the generation of
duration, 1 J pulses with 0.5 kW average power. A full characterization of this high power cryogenic amplifier, including at-wavelength interferometry of the active region under
average power pump conditions, is presented. An initial demonstration of operation at 1 kW average power (1 J, 1 kHz) is reported.