To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
All intensity data in a powder XRD pattern can be used to provide useful results for the interpretation of the mineralogical variability of geological samples. Simple statistical methods using Bonferroni's theorem permit the recognition of areas usually associated with mineral peaks where sample patterns are different at a predetermined level of confidence. Intensity/frequency histograms reveal subtle differences in low intensity regions of the XRD patterns that are also indicative of sample variability. These procedures facilitate the comparison of samples and may reduce the total analytical error because the weight percent determination can be eliminated.
Traditional manufacturing methods restrict the expansion of thermoelectric technology. Here, we demonstrate a new manufacturing approach for thermoelectric materials. Selective laser melting, an additive manufacturing technique, is performed on loose thermoelectric powders for the first time. Layer-by-layer construction is realized with bismuth telluride, Bi2Te3, and an 88% relative density was achieved. Scanning electron microscopy results suggest good fusion between each layer although multiple pores exist within the melted region. X-ray diffraction results confirm that the Bi2Te3 crystal structure is preserved after laser melting. Temperature-dependent absolute Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT are characterized up to 500 °C, and the bulk thermoelectric material produced by this technique has comparable thermoelectric and electrical properties to those fabricated from traditional methods. The method shown here may be applicable to other thermoelectric materials and offers a novel manufacturing approach for thermoelectric devices.
Introduction: Screening for organ and tissue donation is an essential skill for emergency physicians. In 2015, 4564 individuals were on a waiting list for organ transplant and 242 died while waiting. As Canadas donation rates are less than half that of other comparable countries, it is crucial to ensure we are identifying all potential donors. Patients deceased from poisoning are a source that may not be considered for referral as often as those who die from other causes. This study aims to identify if patients dying from poisoning represent an under-referred group and determine what physician characteristics influence referral decisions. Methods: In this cross-sectional unidirectional survey study, physician members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians were invited to participate. Participants were presented with 20 organ donation scenarios that included poisoned and non-poisoned deaths, as well as one ideal scenario for organ or tissue donation used for comparison. Participants were unaware of the objective to explore donation in the context of poisoning deaths. Following the organ donation scenarios, a range of follow-up questions and demographics were included to explore factors influencing the decision to refer or not refer for organ or tissue donation. Results were reported descriptively and associations between physician characteristics and decisions to refer were assessed using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: 208/2058 (10.1%) physicians participated. 25% did not refer in scenarios involving a drug overdose (n=71). Specific poisonings commonly triggering the decision to not refer included palliative care medications (n=34, 18%), acetaminophen (n=42, 22%), chemical exposure (n=48, 27%) and organophosphates (n=87, 48%). Factors associated with an increased likelihood to refer potential donors following overdose included previous organ and tissue donation training (OR=2.6), having referred in the past (OR=4.3), available donation support (OR=3.9), greater than 10 years of service (OR=2.1), large urban center (OR=3.8), holding emergency medicine certification (OR=3.6), male gender (OR=2.2, CI), and having indicated a desire to be a donor on government identification (OR=5.8). Conclusion: Scenarios involving drug overdoses were associated with under-referral for organ and tissue donation. As poisoning is not a contraindication for referral, this represents a potential source of donors. By examining characteristics that put clinicians at risk for under-referral of organ or tissue donors, becoming aware of potential biases, improving transplant knowledge bases, and implementing support and training programs for the organ and tissue donation processes, we have the opportunity to improve these rates and reduce morbidity and mortality for Canadians requiring organ or tissue donation.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate locomotor strategies during development in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus); we were motivated, in part, by current efforts to improve the design of housing systems for laying hens which aim to reduce injury and over-exertion. Using four strains of laying hens (Lohmann Brown, Lohmann LSL lite, Dekalb White and Hyline Brown) throughout this longitudinal study, we investigated their locomotor style and climbing capacity in relation to the degree (0 to 70°) of incline, age (2 to 36 weeks) and the surface substrate (sandpaper or wire grid). Chicks and adult fowl performed only walking behavior to climb inclines ⩽40° and performed a combination of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) or aerial ascent on steeper inclines. Fewer birds used their wings to aid their hind limbs when climbing 50° inclines on wire grid surface compared with sandpaper. The steepness of angle achieved during WAIR and the tendency to fly instead of using WAIR increased with increasing age and experience. White-feathered strains performed more wing-associated locomotor behavior compared with brown-feathered strains. A subset of birds was never able to climb incline angles >40° even when using WAIR. Therefore, we suggest that inclines of up to 40° should be provided for hens in three-dimensional housing systems, which are easily negotiated (without wing use) by chicks and adult fowl.
Background: Oligodendroglioma (ODG), a molecularly defined subtype of glioma, is a treatment responsive, slow growing tumour strongly associated with IDH mutation and 1p19q co-deletion. Mutations in Capicua (CIC), located on chromosome 19q, have been found in up to 70% of IDH mutated, 1p19q co-deleted ODGs; suggesting that loss or altered function of CIC may be crucially associated with ODG’s unique biology. CIC and ATXN1L have previously been implicated in neurodegeneration, however, this interaction has not been studied in cancer. Methods: Transcriptome profiling of CIC knockout HEK293 cell lines generated using CRISPR was performed using microarray. CIC and ATXN1L interaction was confirmed using immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Transcript and protein changes of CIC targets were tested using RT-qPCR and Western blot following ATXN1L siRNA knockdown. Results: Transcriptomic profiling of CIC knockout cell lines resulted in a list of candidate CIC target genes validated against clinical samples. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence confirmed CIC and ATXN1L interaction. Derepression of candidate CIC targets at transcript and protein levels was seen upon siRNA knockdown of ATXN1L. Conclusions: The interaction between CIC and ATXN1L is necessary for the repression of CIC target genes, including known oncogenes. Further research into the relationship between CIC and ATXN1L may lead potentially novel avenues of therapeutic approaches for less favorable gliomas.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Somatic mutations in the Capicua (CIC) gene were first identified in Type I low-grade gliomas (LGGs), which are characterized by 1p/19q co-deletions and IDH mutations. They are found at frequencies of ~50-70% in this glioma subtype, and have since been identified in ~40% of stomach adenocarcinomas (STADs) of the microsatellite instability (MSI) subtype; however, the role of these somatic mutations in malignancy has yet to be established. In Drosophila, CIC functions as a transcriptional repressor whose activity is inhibited upon activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. Though mammalian CIC appears to retain these functions, only three of its target genes have been established in human cells: ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 (ETV1/4/5). To further probe CIC’s transcriptional network, we developed CIC knockout cell lines and performed transcriptomic and proteiomic analyses in these and in control cell lines expressing wild type CIC, identifying a total of 582 differentially expressed genes. We also used RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for Type I LGGs and STADs to perform additional differential expression analyses between CIC-deficient and CIC-expressing samples. Though gene-level overlap was limited between the three contexts, we found that CIC appears to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, metabolism, and developmental processes in all three contexts. These results shed light on the pathological role of CIC mutations and may help explain why these have been associated with poorer outcome within Type I LGGs.
Introduction: Despite strong evidence that antithrombotic drugs in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) patients reduce stroke risk, previous emergency department (ED) pre-novel anticoagulant (NOAC) studies have shown that most discharged patients are not optimally treated. This study sought to determine baseline antithrombotic management in AF patients, and appropriate antithrombotic prescription upon ED discharge since the introduction of NOACs. Methods: Consecutive AF patients discharged by the ED physician from three academic EDs in Toronto, Canada were retrospectively identified using ECG data. Primary AF was defined as AF in patients ≥18 years without congenital heart disease or other acute medical conditions. All management and disposition decisions were left to the discretion of the emergency doctor. Results: From July 2012 to October 2014, 691 patients with primary AF were identified. Of these, 34.4% (n=238) had new onset AF and 66.4% (n=459) were discharged home directly from the ED. Of those with previously known AF (n= 453), 44.2% (n=200) were on anticoagulation at ED arrival (warfarin 59.5%, dabigatran 23.0%, rivaroxaban 11.5%); 25.6% (n=116) on antiplatelets, and 29 (6.4%) on both. Based on 2012 Canadian AF guidelines, 60.1% of those who should have received anticoagulation were receiving it. In discharged patients meeting de novo criteria for anticoagulation (n=130), 20.0% (n=26) were started on anticoagulation and 23.1% (n=30) on antiplatelets. In patients with CHADS2 score ≥ 2 (n=61), 26.2% (n=16) were started on anticoagulation. Warfarin (73.1%) was most commonly prescribed followed by dabigatran (15.4%) and rivaroxaban (11.5%). Age was the only inverse independent predictor for appropriate anticoagulation (OR 0.92 per 5 year of age 95% CI 0.89-0.95, p <0.0001) i.e. older patients were less likely to be anticoagulated. The CHADS2 score was not an independent predictor of appropriate anticoagulation. Conclusion: Our study shows a persistent gap in the antithrombotic treatment of ED AF patients irrespective of their risk.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
The magnetized dusty plasma experiment (MDPX) is a newly commissioned plasma device that started operations in late spring, 2014. The research activities of this device are focused on the study of the physics, highly magnetized plasmas, and magnetized dusty plasmas. The design of the MDPX device is centered on two main components: an open bore, superconducting magnet that is designed to produce, in a steady state, both uniform magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla and non-uniform magnetic fields with gradients of 1–2 T m−1 and a flexible, removable, octagonal vacuum chamber that provides substantial probe and optical access to the plasma. This paper will provide a review of the design criteria for the MDPX device, a description of the research objectives, and brief discussion of the research opportunities offered by this multi-institution, multi-user project.
It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.
The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) device is a newly constructed research instrument for the study of dusty (complex) plasmas. The MDPX device is envisioned as an experimental platform in which the dynamical behavior of all three charged plasma components, the electrons, ions, and charged microparticles (i.e., the ‘dust’) will be significantly influenced by the magnetic force. This brief paper will provide a short overview of the design, magnetic performance, and initial plasma measurements in the MDPX device.
Up to half of dairy cows are affected by at least one of metritis, purulent vaginal discharge, endometritis or cervicitis in the postpartum period. These conditions result from inadequate immune response to bacterial infection (failure to clear pathogenic bacteria from the uterus) or persistent inflammation that impairs rather than enhances reproductive function. The degree of mobilization of fat and how effectively it is used as a metabolic fuel is well recognized as a risk factor for metabolic and infectious disease. Release of non-esterified fatty acids has direct effects on liver and immune function but also produces pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6), which contribute to systemic inflammation and to insulin resistance. Therefore, reproductive tract inflammatory disease may be a function of both local and systemic inflammatory stimuli and regulation as well as regulation of fat metabolism. Better understanding of variables associated with insulin resistance and inflammatory regulation in the liver and adipose tissue may lead to improvement of reproductive tract health. This paper reviews factors that may contribute to postpartum reproductive tract inflammatory diseases in dairy cows and their inter-relationships, impacts and treatment.
Afin d’évaluer les conséquences des rejets radioactifs provenant des réacteurs
accidentés de la centrale nucléaire de Fukushima-Daichi sur l’environnement terrestre
français, l’IRSN a renforcé son plan de surveillance en échantillonnant notamment de la
végétation de prairie, du lait et de la viande des troupeaux en pâture entre avril et
novembre 2011. Ces prélèvements et ces mesures ont, entre autres, permis d’évaluer dans
des conditions de dépôts réels la chronologie des transferts du césium-134 de l’herbe au
lait et à la viande. Les premières mesures significatives en 134Cs apparaissent
dans l’herbe et dans le lait cinq à sept jours après la première mesure significative dans
l’air. Les activités maximales atteignent 0,4 Bq.kg–1 d’herbe fraiche et
0,028 Bq.L–1 dans le lait. Dans la viande, les premières mesures
significatives apparaissent mi-avril avec une activité maximale mesurée de 0,036
Bq.kg–1, avec de fortes variations d’une espèce animale à une autre. Les
coefficients de transfert moyens calculés sont proches de ceux disponibles dans la
littérature avec 0,22 j.kg–1 pour la viande de mouton, et de 0,09 et
0,0014 j.L–1 pour le lait de chèvre et de vache, respectivement.
Ultraclean semiconductor processes were developed for ULSI technologies to significantly reduce metallics, foreign materials, and to preserve silicon surface morphology. State-of-the-art detection techniques (Elymat, TXRF, VPD, and SPV) were implemented in all critical process sectors. Acceptable levels of metallic contamination were derived from previous experience and from published work on this subject relating metallic contamination levels to gate oxide reliability and retention time.
A comprehensive diagnostic/characterization system was utilized in evaluating a wide variety of test structures emulating key device process interactions. Advanced techniques were employed for measurement of reliability and surface morphology. Also root causes for all integration problems are identified.
In many learning situations, we need to determine to which cues to attend, particularly in cases when these cues conflict. These conflicts appear often in English orthography. In two experiments, we asked children to spell two-syllable words that varied on two dimensions: morphological and orthographic structure. In one set of these words, the two sources of information conflicted. Results of Experiment 1 suggest that seven- to nine-year-old children are sensitive to both orthographic and morphological dimensions of words, and that this dual sensitivity sometimes leads to correct spelling and sometimes to incorrect spelling. Results of Experiment 2 suggest that orthographic information dominates young (six-year-old) children's spelling, at least in a case when there is a strong orthographic regularity. Taken together, these experiments suggest that children are sensitive to the multiple dimensions of regularity in English orthography and that this sensitivity can lead to mistakes.
In this paper, we analyse the characteristics of the elliptic instability in a finite cylinder in the presence of both background rotation and axial stratification. A general formula for the linear growth rate of the stationary sinuous modes is derived including viscous and detuning effects in the limit of small eccentricity. This formula is discussed and compared to experimental results which are obtained in a cylinder filled with salted water for two different eccentricities by varying the stratification, the background rotation and the cylinder rotation. A good agreement with the theory concerning the domain of instability of the sinuous modes is demonstrated. Other elliptic instability modes, oscillating at the cylinder angular frequency are also evidenced together with a new type of instability mode, which could be connected to a centrifugal instability occurring during the experimental phase of spin-up. The nonlinear regime of the elliptic instability is also documented. In contrast with the homogeneous case, no cycle involving growth, breakdown and re-laminarization is observed in the presence of strong stratification. The elliptic instability in a stratified fluid seems to yield either a persistent turbulent state or a weakly nonlinear regime.
The diversity of physical phenomena embraced by the study of Chemically Peculiar (CP) stars results in an associated research community with interests that are equally diverse. This fact became once more evident during the CP#Ap Workshop that took place in Vienna (Austria) in September 2007, and which gathered over 80 members of this research community. Besides the excellent scientific outcome of the meeting, during the workshop the community had the opportunity to discuss its organization and plans for the future. Following on those plans, the Working Group has submitted a proposal for a Joint Discussion during the IAU XXVII General Assembly, in Rio de Janeiro, which has meanwhile been accepted. Moreover, through an ApN newsletter forum, the Working Group has compiled requests from the community concerning atomic and related data. These requests have been put together and will be shared with Commission 14.