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The first series of C14 dates obtained in the C14 Laboratory of the above Institute, since it became operational in August 1961, are presented. The chemical and counting procedures adopted for the measurement of C14 in our laboratory have been described in some detail (Kusumgar et al., 1962). For the sake of completeness some points relevant to the determination of dates are described below.
In this paper are reported C14 dates of archaeologic samples from the Neolithic, Harappan and Early Historic sites of India. C14 activity was counted in an Oeschger-Houtermans’ gas proportional counter. The counting gas, acetylene, was synthesized using the technique described earlier (Kusumgar and others, 1963). The dates presented here are based on 5568 yr for the half-life of C14. The conversion to A.D./B.C. scale has been made using a.d. 1950 as the reference year.
The C14 dates presented here have been obtained by counting acetylene, synthesised from the sample, in an Oeschger-Houtermans’ gas proportional counter. The chemical and counting procedures have been described in some detail (Kusumgar et al., 1963a).
Dates are based on the C14 half-life value of 5568 yr. For conversion of b.p. dates to a.d./b.c. scale, a.d. 1950 has been taken as the reference yr. Ninety-five % activity of NBS oxalic acid has been adopted as the value for the pre-1900 age-corrected wood.
All samples were treated with dilute HCl. Whenever NaOH pretreatment was possible, it has been mentioned in the date list. In the case of bones, only the inorganic fraction has been dated.
In this paper, we review the production of radiocarbon and other radionuclides in extraterrestrial materials. This radioactivity can be produced by the effects of solar and galactic cosmic rays on solid material in space. In addition, direct implantation at the lunar surface of 14C and other radionuclides can occur. The level of 14C and other radionuclides in a meteorite can be used to determine its residence time on the Earth's surface, or “terrestrial age”. 14C provides the best tool for estimating terrestrial ages of meteorites collected in desert environments. Age control allows us to understand the time constraints on processes by which meteorites are weathered, as well as mean storage times. Third, we discuss the use of the difference in 14C/12C ratio of organic material and carbonates produced on other planetary objects and terrestrial material. These differences can be used to assess the importance of distinguishing primary material formed on the parent body from secondary alteration of meteoritic material after it lands on the earth.
In recent years, the government of Bangladesh has encouraged private sector involvement in producing mid-level health cadres including Medical Assistants (MAs). The number of MAs produced has increased significantly. We assessed students’ characteristics, educational services, competencies and perceived attitudes towards health service delivery in rural areas.
We used a mixed method approach using quantitative (questionnaire survey) and qualitative (key informant interviews and roundtable discussion) methods. Altogether, five public schools with 238 students and 30 private schools with 732 students were included. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA v-12. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically.
The majority of the students in both public (66%) and private medical assistant training schools (MATS) (61%) were from rural backgrounds. They spent the majority of their time in classroom learning (public 45% versus private 42%) and the written essay exam was the common form of a students’ performance assessment. Compared with students of public MATS, students of private MATS were more confident in different aspects of educational areas, including managing emerging health needs (P<0.001); evidence-based practice (P=0.002); critical thinking and problem solving (P=0.02), and use of IT/computer skills (P<0.001). Students were aware of not having adequate facilities in rural areas (public 71%, private 65%), but they perceived working in rural areas will offer several benefits, including use of learnt skills; friendly rural people; and opportunities for real-life problem solving, etc.
This study provides a current picture of MATS students’ characteristics, educational services, competencies and perception towards working in rural areas. The MA students in both private and public sectors showed a greater level of willingness to serve in rural health facilities. The results are promising to improve health service delivery, particularly in rural and hard-to-reach areas of Bangladesh.
In most mental illnesses, onset occurs before the age of 25 and the earliest stages are critical. The youth bear a large share of the burden of disease associated with mental illnesses. Yet, Canadian youths with mental health difficulties face delayed detection; long waiting lists; inaccessible, unengaging services; abrupt transitions between services; and, especially in remoter regions, even a complete lack of services. Responding to this crisis, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announced a 5-year grant that was awarded to ACCESS, a pan-Canadian network of youths, families, clinicians, researchers, policymakers, community organisations and Indigenous communities. Using strategies developed collaboratively by all stakeholders, ACCESS will execute a youth mental healthcare transformation via early detection, rapid access and appropriate, high-quality care. The project includes an innovative, mixed-methods service research component. Similar in many respects to other national youth mental health initiatives, ACCESS also exhibits important differences of scale, scope and approach.
Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recognized by the WHO as ‘Neglected Diseases’. Minimal attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal distribution of disease incidence patterns. Using disease notification data, we detected spatio-temporal clusters of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis across three time periods: (i) 1997–2000, (ii) 2001–2004, (iii) 2005–2008. There was substantial variation in the geographical location and timing of recurrent cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis clusters. Statistically significant (P < 0·05) giardiasis clusters tended to occur in predominantly urban areas with little apparent seasonal influence, while statistically significant cryptosporidiosis clusters were detected in spring, in areas with high livestock land use. The location and timing of cryptosporidiosis clusters suggest an influence of livestock production practices, while urban exposures and host behaviour are likely to influence giardiasis clusters. This approach provides a resource-efficient method for public health authorities to prioritize future research needs and areas for intervention.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep hygiene, excessive daytime sleepiness and work hours among resident physicians in Chandigarh, India. Data were collected from 350 volunteering junior resident doctors and included sociodemographic variables, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep hygiene as measured by the Sleep Hygiene Index and hours worked. Almost half of the resident physicians studied reported a problem of EDS and maladaptive sleep hygiene practices. Physicians working more than 80 hours per week and physicians with more maladaptive sleep behaviours were much more likely to report EDS. The authors propose that sleep hygiene and number of hours slept should be considered as EDS prevention and treatment strategies, especially for physicians working less than 80 hours per week. The authors also propose that the most salient intervention for physicians working more than 80 hours per week is one of workplace advocacy, where the government is encouraged to adopt legally binding guidelines as seen in other countries.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
This study describes the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in New Zealand using notified, hospitalized and fatal cases over a 12-year period (1997–2008). The average annual incidence for notifications was 42·8/100 000 population and 3·6/100 000 population for hospitalizations. Incidence was about twice as high in summer as in winter. Rural areas had higher rates than urban areas (rate ratio 1·23, 95% confidence interval 1·22–1·24 for notifications) and a distinct spring peak. Incidence was highest in the 0–4 years age group (154·2 notifications/100 000 and 11·3 hospitalizations/100 000). Hospitalizations showed higher rates for Māori and Pacific Island populations compared to Europeans, and those living in more deprived areas, whereas notifications showed the reverse, implying that notifications are influenced by health-seeking behaviours. Salmonella Typhimurium was the dominant serotype followed by S. Enteritidis. For a developed country, salmonellosis rates in New Zealand have remained consistently high suggesting more work is needed to investigate, control and prevent this disease.
Crohn's disease is one of the leading causes of intestinal failure. The term ‘type 2’ intestinal failure is used to describe the relatively rare type of intestinal failure that occurs in association with septic, metabolic and complex nutritional complications, typically following surgical resection and/or laparostomy for intra-abdominal sepsis. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients with type 2 intestinal failure is crucial, and it is helpful to approach patient care in a structured manner using the ‘sepsis-nutrition-anatomy-plan’ algorithm: resolution of sepsis is required before adequate nutritional repletion can be achieved, and it is crucial to optimise nutritional status, and define intestinal anatomy before delineating a definitive medical or surgical plan. A structured approach to the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who have developed type 2 intestinal failure, should reduce the likelihood of these patients developing ‘type 3’ intestinal failure, which is characterised by the need for long-term parenteral nutrition. However, Crohn's disease is still the commonest indication for home parenteral nutrition in the UK.
We have investigated the photophysical properties of surface capped CdS and CdS:Mn nanoparticles in the form of spin coated thin films of the pure nanoparticles and nanoparticle -polymer blends. The organic capping reagent was p-thiocresol. Electroluminescence (EL) devices were fabricated and characterized by their current/voltage characteristics and EL emission performance. This is to our knowledge the first report on Mn doped CdS nanoparticles applied in EL devices with a single layer device structure (ITO/CdS:Mn/Al). Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation measurements were performed on CdS:Mn nanoparticles in pyridine dispersion and on thin films. The PL excitation spectrum shows a narrow peak at 390nm. Excitation at this wavelength yields a broad PL spectrum spanning from about 450 to 700nm, which is dominated by a strong emission band at 585nm. This emission is attributed to transitions involving Mn levels in previous works. The EL emission peak is shifted to the red compared to the PL emission spectra. The characteristics and performance of these new types of EL devices will be presented and discussed.
Lithium niobate single crystal is an excellent material for various optical applications such as frequency conversion, optical switches, optical modulators and others. An automatic diameter control Czochralski crystals growth system has been designed and fabricated. A brief description of the entire system along with software developed has been described. With optimized growth parameters, pure and Fe/Mn doped crystals have been successfully grown using this system. Preliminary characterizations of these crystals have also been presented.
Nanocomposite materials for application in photonics were developed by sol-gel processing and reverse micellar microemulsion techniques. The capability of incorporating many materials with different functional properties in sol-gel processed glass matrices has been explored in making these materials. The large pore volume fraction and the enormous surface area of the sol-gel glasses enables one to introduce many materials in a phase separated fashion, where the phase separation is in the nanometer range. It is possible to introduce an active material on to the pore surface by solution infiltration and subsequent removal of the solvent, then filling the pores with a monomer containing another active material, and polymerizing inside the pores. Using this approach we have developed composite materials for optical power limiting applications at different wavelengths and a tunable solid state dye lasing medium
Optically transparent polyimide:TiO2 composite waveguide materials were prepared by the dispersion of nano-sized TiO2 particles into a polyimide matrix. The particles were produced through reverse micelles using the sol-gel method, and were incorporated into the fluorinated polyimide solution. A polyimide:TiO2 (4 wt %) composite waveguide was produced from the solution. Since the particle size is so small, no noticeable scattering loss was observed. The measured optical propagation loss at 633 nm was 1.4 dB/cm, which is equivalent to that of the pure polyimide. The refractive index was increased from 1.550 to 1.560 by the incorporation of TiO2
Molecular materials comprised of inorganic:organic composites are of considerable interest in photonics, optoelectronics and biophotonics. We report broad band lasing and tunable filters in sol-gel processed poly (p-phenylene vinylene) PPV: Silica composites. Optical power limiting in near IR wavelength region is also reported in dye doped PPV: silica multiphasic nanocomposites. For making hybrid inorganic: organic composites the reverse micelle mediated synthesis technique has been exploited to synthesize dye encapsulated metal oxide particles, thiocresol capped CdS clusters, Cul and AgI nanoparticles. These particles were dispersed in polymeric matrix for applications in photoconductivity and photorefractive measurements.
Solid solution series of the type K2Bi8-xSbxSe13, K2-xRbxBi8Se13 as well as K2Bi8Se13-xSx were prepared and the distribution of the atoms (Bi/Sb, K/Rb and Se/S) on different crystallographic sites, the band gaps and their thermoelectric properties were studied. The distribution Se/S appears to be more uniform than the distribution of the Sb and Rb atoms in the β-K2Bi8Se13 structure that shows preference in specific sites in the lattice. Band gap is mainly affected by Sb and S substitution. Seebeck coefficient measurements showed n-type character for of all Se/S members. In the Bi/Sb series an enhancement of p-type character was observed. The thermoelectric performance as well as preliminary high temperature measurements suggest the potential of these materials for high temperature applications.
To describe the syndrome of optic nerve involvement in cases of allergic fungal sinusitis.
Academic tertiary care centre.
Analysis of prospectively accrued data for 10 consecutive cases (three bilateral, giving 13 eyes) with visual loss secondary to optic nerve compression, from a total of 70 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis undergoing surgical treatment between June 1997 and May 2007.
The mean duration of rhinological symptoms prior to the onset of visual loss was 22 months. At presentation, visual loss ranged from a visual acuity of 6/12 to complete loss of light perception. Bilateral involvement was noted in three of the 10 cases. Urgent surgical decompression with removal of all fungal debris and decompression of the optic nerve resulted in visual recovery in seven of the 13 eyes. On univariate analysis, recovery was less likely in cases with long standing visual loss, and in cases with complete visual loss.
Long standing allergic fungal sinusitis may be complicated by visual loss due to compression of the optic nerve. Urgent surgery to clear the sinuses and decompress the optic nerve is successful in reversing visual loss in cases with partial visual loss.
We suggest a diversity-dependent strategy, based on Principle Component Analysis, for selecting distinct accessions/parents for breeding from a soybean germplasm collection comprising of 463 lines, characterized and evaluated for 10 qualitative and eight quantitative traits. A sample size of six accessions included all the three states, namely low, medium and high of the individual quantitative traits, while a sample of 16–19 accessions included all the 60–64 distinct states of qualitative as well as quantitative traits. Under certain assumptions, the paper also develops an expression for estimating the size of a target population for capturing maximum variability in a sample three accessions.