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This paper deals with the calculation of eddy current in a copper cylinder. This cylinder rotates in an applied static magnetic field. The electromagnetic problem is solved in two-dimension by considering transient motion. Two methods for eddy current computation are compared: stochastic method and classical finite element method. The main goal of this paper is to compare these methods.
Belgium until recently lacked a systematic survey of dietary habits of its inhabitants. The present study evaluated dietary composition in Belgium with respect to energy and macronutrient intakes. Information on food intake was collected using a repeated non-consecutive 24 h recall (2–8 weeks apart) with the validated software package EPIC-SOFT, in combination with a FFQ (self-administered) covering sixty food items. The database of consumed food items was linked to food composition data. Usual macronutrient intake was estimated by the Nusser method. A representative sample of the Belgian population was randomly selected from the national register following a multi-stage procedure. Information on dietary intake was obtained from 3245 subjects aged 15 years and older. Mean energy percentage (E %) of total fat (37·9 E %) and SFA (16·0 E %) was higher than the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Mean E % of total carbohydrates (45·8 E %) was lower than the DRI, while mean E % of mono/disaccharides was 20·3. Total fat and SFA intakes were higher and total carbohydrate and sugar intakes were lower in the older age categories than in the younger age categories. The percentage of energy from SFA intake was lower and that from carbohydrates was higher than that found in an earlier Belgian study. Further efforts are necessary to improve dietary macronutrient intake, taking into account differences in age categories. In addition, it will be important to monitor its changes regularly using trend analyses.
To evaluate the prevalence and identify some predictors of misreporting in an elderly Belgian population and to assess the effect of underreporting on estimated intakes of macronutrients and foods.
A 1-day food record was completed by 2083 adult men and women aged 65 years or more. Individuals whose energy intake was lower than 0.90 × BMR (basal metabolic rate) were defined as underreporters. Overreporting was defined as energy intake greater than 2 × BMR.
Underreporting and overreporting occurred in 13.6% and 7.9% of food records, respectively. Results from logistic regression models indicated that gender and body mass index (BMI) were predictors of misreporting. Whereas women were more likely to underreport energy intake, the prevalence of overreporting was higher in men. Underreporting was more prevalent among obese people and overreporting more prevalent in normal-weight subjects. Smoking status and education level did not predict underreporting; however, overreporting was more likely to occur in more highly educated subjects. A cultural difference in reporting of nutrient intakes was also found, with the percentage of underreporters being higher among Walloons compared with Flemish.
BMI seemed to be one of the most important factors in misreporting. This calls for special attention when dietary surveys are performed on obese or lean people.
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Observatory on Cerro Paranal (2635
m) in Northern Chile is approaching completion. After the four 8-m
Unit Telescopes (UT) individually saw first light in the last years,
two of them were combined for the first time on October 30, 2001 to
form a stellar interferometer, the VLT Interferometer. The remaining
two UTs will be integrated into the interferometric array later this
year, so that any two UTs can be used for interferometry. In this
article, we will describe the subsystems of the VLTI and the planning
for the following years.
Commercial n-type 4H-SiC wafers were implanted with doses of MeV alpha particles, high enough to cause majority carrier modification. Analysis of infrared reflectivity spectra shows that the implanted crystals can be divided into three layers: a surface layer of about 30 nm followed by a compensation layer where the energy transfer of the incident particles is low and an overdoping layer in the region of maximum defect production, i.e. near the theoretical mean range of ions Rp
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