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To examine the feasibility of taste testing and point-of-purchase prompting to promote healthier food choices at a food truck event.
A pre-/post-study was conducted where food trucks provided samples of healthy food items to patrons and implemented point-of-purchase prompting (promotional signage; verbal cues). Implementation fidelity, acceptability and initial effectiveness were assessed via observation, patron surveys and sales data. A linear mixed model with a random effect for subject (food truck) and fixed effect for time point (baseline, intervention and post-intervention) was used to assess changes in relative sales of promoted healthy items as a percentage of food items sold.
Weekly food truck event in Buffalo, New York.
Seven food trucks; 179 patrons.
Implementation fidelity data illustrated that all food trucks complied with manualised procedures. Approximately one-third of surveyed patrons accepted a healthy sample, with the majority rating the sample positively. There was no main effect of time when examining changes in relative sales of promoted healthy items across all periods (P = 0·32); however, effect sizes representing changes between individual time points are consistent with an increase from baseline to intervention (d = 0·51), which was maintained through post-intervention (d = 0·03). The change from baseline to post-intervention corresponded to a medium effect size (d = 0·55).
Findings generally support the feasibility of implementing taste testing and point-of-purchase prompting to increase the selection of healthy food items from food trucks; implications for future research in this novel setting are discussed.
We report on the case of a patient who developed an acute meningitis and, after a period of about two weeks, without any neuropsychiatric problems, an acute paranoid-hallucinatory and catatonic syndrome. The symptomatology is discussed, in relation with the diagnostic difficulties of differentiating between a biphasic meningo-encephalitis with an organic psychosis or a first manifestation of an endogenous psychosis.
Genealogical constructions of population processes provide models which simultaneously record the forward-in-time evolution of the population size (and distribution of locations and types for models that include them) and the backward-in-time genealogies of the individuals in the population at each time t. A genealogical construction for continuous-time Markov branching processes from Kurtz and Rodrigues (2011) is described and exploited to give the normalized limit in the supercritical case. A Seneta‒Heyde norming is identified as a solution of an ordinary differential equation. The analogous results are given for continuous-state branching processes, including proofs of the normalized limits of Grey (1974) in both the supercritical and critical/subcritical cases.
The interferometric and single-dish observations of the Extended Green Objects sample have been carried out in order to check the possible common pumping mechanism of class I methanol maser (cIMM) and OH(1720 MHz) maser and their identification with a front of bipolar outflow as a source of interstellar shock stimulating collisional pumping of the molecules. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of OH masers allow us to investigate structure, kinematics, and magnetic field configuration of the inner region of the source, i.e., the outflow ejection region. Analysis of magnetic field strength in a disk area is crucial to understanding of the outflow origin.
We present a review of the properties of Class I methanol masers detected in low-mass star forming regions (LMSFRs). These masers, henceforth called LMMIs, are associated with postshock gas in the lobes of chemically active outflows in LMSFRs NGC1333, NGC2023, HH25, and L1157. LMMIs share the main properties with powerful masers in regions of massive star formation and are a low-luminosity edge of the total Class I maser population. However, the exploration of just these objects may push forward the exploration of Class I masers, since many LMSFRs are located only 200–300 pc from the Sun, making it possible to study associated objects in detail. EVLA observations with a 0.2″ spatial resolution show that the maser images consist of unresolved or barely resolved spots with brightness temperatures up to 5 × 105 K. The results are “marginally” consistent with the turbulent model of maser emission.
The final stages of low-mass stellar evolution are characterized by significant mass loss due to stellar pulsations during the AGB phase, which lead to the development of planetary nebulae. Molecular masers of H2O, SiO, and ground state OH transitions are commonly detected in oxygen-rich late-type stars (OH/IR objects). In contrast, excited OH maser transitions are rare. We discuss our study of the carbon-rich pre-planetary nebula CRL618 (a prototypical post-AGB star). Observations conducted in May 2008 with the 305m Arecibo Telescope resulted in the first detection of a 4765MHz OH maser line in a late-type stellar object; the detection was confirmed a few months later also with Arecibo. Subsequent observations in 2015 and 2017 resulted in non-detection of the 4765MHz OH line. Our observations indicate that the 4765MHz OH maser in CRL 618 is highly variable, possibly tracing a short-lived phenomenon during the development of a pre-planetary nebula.
Using in situ data from 2011 and 2013, we evaluate the ability of CryoSat-2 (CS-2) to retrieve sea-ice freeboard over fast ice in McMurdo Sound. This provides the first systematic validation of CS-2 in the coastal Antarctic and offers insight into the assumptions currently used to process CS-2 data. European Space Agency Level 2 (ESAL2) data are compared with results of a Waveform Fitting (WfF) procedure and a Threshold-First-Maximum-Retracker-Algorithm employed at 40% (TFMRA40). A supervised freeboard retrieval procedure is used to reduce errors associated with sea surface height identification and radar velocity in snow. We find ESAL2 freeboards located between the ice and snow freeboard rather than the frequently assumed snow/ice interface. WfF is within 0.04 m of the ice freeboard but is influenced by variable snow conditions causing increased radar backscatter from the air/snow interface. Given such snow conditions and additional uncertainties in sea surface height identification, a positive bias of 0.14 m away from the ice freeboard is observed. TFMRA40 freeboards are within 0.03 m of the snow freeboard. The separation of freeboard estimates is primarily driven by the different assumptions of each retracker, although waveform alteration by variations in snow properties and surface roughness is evident. Techniques are amended where necessary, and automatic freeboard retrieval procedures for ESAL2, WfF and TFMRA40 are presented. CS-2 detects annual fast-ice freeboard trends using all three automatic procedures that are in line with known sea-ice growth rates in the region.
Heartbeat stars are a relatively new class of eccentric ellipsoidal variable first discovered by Kepler. An overview of the current field is given with details of some of the interesting objects identified in our current Kepler sample of 135 heartbeats stars. Three objects that have recently been or are undergoing detailed study are described along with suggestions for further avenues of research. We conclude by discussing why heartbeat stars are an interesting new tool to study tidally induced pulsations and orbital dynamics.
Class I 44 GHz methanol masers are not as well-known, as common, or as bright as their more famous Class II cousins at 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. Nevertheless, the 44 GHz masers are commonly found in high-mass star forming regions. At times they appear to trace dynamically important phenomena; at other times they show no obvious link to the star formation process. Here, we summarize the major observational efforts to date, including both dedicated surveys and collateral observations. The principal results are presented, some that were expected, and others that were unexpected.
Four Class I maser sources were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz toward chemically rich outflows in the regions of low-mass star formation NGC 1333I4A, NGC 1333I2A, HH25, and L1157. One more maser was found at 36 GHz toward a similar outflow, NGC 2023. Flux densities of the newly detected masers are no more than 18 Jy, being much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation. The brightness temperatures of the strongest peaks in NGC 1333I4A, HH25, and L1157 at 44 GHz are higher than 2000 K, whereas that of the peak in NGC 1333I2A is only 176 K. However, a rotational diagram analysis showed that the latter source is also a maser. The main properties of the newly detected masers are similar to those of Class I methanol masers in regions of massive star formation. The former masers are likely to be an extension of the latter maser population toward low luminosities of both the masers and the corresponding YSOs.
A simple method for preparing radial haemolysis gels for rubella antibody screening is described. In use it gave clear zones of haemolysis when a standard serum was tested at dilutions down to 5·6 i.u./ml rubella antibody. In five lab oratories 8404 sera were screened by the method and the results were read by comparing zones of haemolysis with that of a standard serum diluted to contain 15 i.u./ml antibody. A zone ⋝ 15 i.u./ml, indicating immunity, was given by 7433 (88·4%) of the sera. No zone indicating susceptibility was seen with 748 (8·9%) sera. Small zones, < 15 i.u./ml standard, were given by 189 (2·2%) sera, and in only 34 cases (0·4%) did non-specific haemolysis interfere with the test readings. Further testing of the radial haemolysis negative and low positive sera by the haemagglutination inhibition test gave rise to some discrepant results which are discussed.
We report the first detection of a short-duration (<3 months) outburst of an H2CO 6cm maser based on multi-epoch observations of IRAS18566+0408 obtained with Arecibo, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Very Large Array. The H2CO maser was observed nine times between 2002 and 2005. In May 2006 we began a two-year program of monthly monitoring with the Arecibo Telescope. The H2CO maser in IRAS18566+0408 is coincident with a young massive stellar object and the line profile of the maser suggests that the H2CO emission originates from two different regions, perhaps associated with the kinematics of a circumstellar disk.
We present the results of recent surveys in the 44GHz methanol maser line toward regions of massive star formation using the Haystack 37m telescope and the VLA. We discuss a possible shock origin of this maser line and present evidence for variability from multi-epoch observations of selected sources.
Dilute-nitrogen GaNAs epitaxial layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition were characterized by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). For all samples, the dominant DLTS signal corresponds to an electron trap having an activation energy of about 0.25 to 0.35 eV. The minority-carrier trap density in the p-type material is quantified based on computer simulation of the devices. The simulations show that only about 2% of the traps in the depleted layer are filled during the transient. The fraction of the traps that are filled depends strongly on the depth of the trap, but only weakly on the doping of the layers and on the conduction-band offset. The simulations provide a pathway to obtain semi-quantitative data for analysis of minority-carrier traps by DLTS.
We show that in rapidly oscillating Ap stars with resolved
magnetically split lines, different pulsation behaviours can be
expected for the π and σ line components. We outline the
prospects that this opens for diagnosis of the pulsation of
these stars. We present a first application to the strongly magnetic
star HD 166473. While the predicted effect could not be observed
(possibly due to the low pulsation amplitude), marginal detection of
variation of the mean magnetic field modulus with the pulsation
frequency is achieved.
We have begun a general high resolution spectroscopic survey of the entire class of roAp stars to study systematics of the pulsations for the class, and to make detailed studies of individual stars. We have high spectral resolution (R ~ 110 000), high time resolution VLT UVES data for 16 of the 35 known members of the class, two of which were discovered during this survey. We show here some examples of studies of pulsation amplitude and phase as a function of line depth in Hα and in the 6145 Å line of Nd iii. The two of these lines together give a nearly continuous map of pulsation amplitude and phase as a function of optical depth from about -5 ≤ log τ5000 ≤ -2, or even higher. Our results for these lines and those of Fe support studies showing settling of Fe and levitation of Nd. The pulsation behaviour provides an independent constraint on atmospheric structure and abundance distribution in roAp stars, hence is important in tests of radiative diffusion calculations.
Forward-to-reverse bias step-recovery measurements were performed on In.07Ga.93N/GaN and Al.36Ga.64N/Al.46Ga.54N quantum-well (QW) light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire. With the QW sampling the minority-carrier hole density at a single position, distinctive two-phase optical decay curves were observed. Using diffusion equation solutions to self-consistently model both the electrical and optical responses, hole transport parameters τp = 758 ± 44 ns, Lp = 588 ± 45 nm, and μp = 0.18 ± 0.02 cm2/Vs were obtained for GaN. The mobility was thermally activated with an activation energy of 52 meV, suggesting trap-modulated transport. Optical measurements of sub-bandgap peaks exhibited slow responses approaching the bulk lifetime. For Al.46Ga.54N, a longer lifetime of τp = 3.0 μs was observed, and the diffusion length was shorter, Lp ≈ 280 nm. Mobility was an order of magnitude smaller than in GaN, μp ≈ 10−2 cm2/Vs, and was insensitive to temperature, suggesting hole transport through a network of defects.