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Genealogical constructions of population processes provide models which simultaneously record the forward-in-time evolution of the population size (and distribution of locations and types for models that include them) and the backward-in-time genealogies of the individuals in the population at each time t. A genealogical construction for continuous-time Markov branching processes from Kurtz and Rodrigues (2011) is described and exploited to give the normalized limit in the supercritical case. A Seneta‒Heyde norming is identified as a solution of an ordinary differential equation. The analogous results are given for continuous-state branching processes, including proofs of the normalized limits of Grey (1974) in both the supercritical and critical/subcritical cases.
The interferometric and single-dish observations of the Extended Green Objects sample have been carried out in order to check the possible common pumping mechanism of class I methanol maser (cIMM) and OH(1720 MHz) maser and their identification with a front of bipolar outflow as a source of interstellar shock stimulating collisional pumping of the molecules. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of OH masers allow us to investigate structure, kinematics, and magnetic field configuration of the inner region of the source, i.e., the outflow ejection region. Analysis of magnetic field strength in a disk area is crucial to understanding of the outflow origin.
The final stages of low-mass stellar evolution are characterized by significant mass loss due to stellar pulsations during the AGB phase, which lead to the development of planetary nebulae. Molecular masers of H2O, SiO, and ground state OH transitions are commonly detected in oxygen-rich late-type stars (OH/IR objects). In contrast, excited OH maser transitions are rare. We discuss our study of the carbon-rich pre-planetary nebula CRL618 (a prototypical post-AGB star). Observations conducted in May 2008 with the 305m Arecibo Telescope resulted in the first detection of a 4765MHz OH maser line in a late-type stellar object; the detection was confirmed a few months later also with Arecibo. Subsequent observations in 2015 and 2017 resulted in non-detection of the 4765MHz OH line. Our observations indicate that the 4765MHz OH maser in CRL 618 is highly variable, possibly tracing a short-lived phenomenon during the development of a pre-planetary nebula.
We present a review of the properties of Class I methanol masers detected in low-mass star forming regions (LMSFRs). These masers, henceforth called LMMIs, are associated with postshock gas in the lobes of chemically active outflows in LMSFRs NGC1333, NGC2023, HH25, and L1157. LMMIs share the main properties with powerful masers in regions of massive star formation and are a low-luminosity edge of the total Class I maser population. However, the exploration of just these objects may push forward the exploration of Class I masers, since many LMSFRs are located only 200–300 pc from the Sun, making it possible to study associated objects in detail. EVLA observations with a 0.2″ spatial resolution show that the maser images consist of unresolved or barely resolved spots with brightness temperatures up to 5 × 105 K. The results are “marginally” consistent with the turbulent model of maser emission.
Using in situ data from 2011 and 2013, we evaluate the ability of CryoSat-2 (CS-2) to retrieve sea-ice freeboard over fast ice in McMurdo Sound. This provides the first systematic validation of CS-2 in the coastal Antarctic and offers insight into the assumptions currently used to process CS-2 data. European Space Agency Level 2 (ESAL2) data are compared with results of a Waveform Fitting (WfF) procedure and a Threshold-First-Maximum-Retracker-Algorithm employed at 40% (TFMRA40). A supervised freeboard retrieval procedure is used to reduce errors associated with sea surface height identification and radar velocity in snow. We find ESAL2 freeboards located between the ice and snow freeboard rather than the frequently assumed snow/ice interface. WfF is within 0.04 m of the ice freeboard but is influenced by variable snow conditions causing increased radar backscatter from the air/snow interface. Given such snow conditions and additional uncertainties in sea surface height identification, a positive bias of 0.14 m away from the ice freeboard is observed. TFMRA40 freeboards are within 0.03 m of the snow freeboard. The separation of freeboard estimates is primarily driven by the different assumptions of each retracker, although waveform alteration by variations in snow properties and surface roughness is evident. Techniques are amended where necessary, and automatic freeboard retrieval procedures for ESAL2, WfF and TFMRA40 are presented. CS-2 detects annual fast-ice freeboard trends using all three automatic procedures that are in line with known sea-ice growth rates in the region.
We present high angular resolution centimeter and millimeter continuum observations of several galactic massive star formation regions. Using calibration techniques pioneered at the Very Large Array, we are able to obtain high quality images even under adverse conditions of phase stability. Techniques such as these will be essential if future millimeter arrays are to obtain high quality and high precision images. We provide a current summary of our on-going survey, and present images and a brief discussion of several of the more intriguing sources.
We present the first results from multi-site observations of the δ Scuti star XX Pyx (CD–24°7599). The observations were carried out as the 17th run of the Delta Scuti Network. We collected 583 hr of B, V time-series photometry, resulting in a detection level (4σ) in the amplitude spectrum of 0.5 mmag. We detect 6 new pulsation frequencies, bringing the total number of frequencies known in this star up 19.
Pulsation is ubiquitous among chemically normal A-type stars, but comparatively rare among chemically peculiar Am and Ap stars of the same temperature range. The conventional explanation for this is that diffusion produces the surface abundance anomalies in the Am and Ap stars, and also drains He from the He-II ionisation zone, thus quenching the κ-mechanism that drives δ Scuti pulsation. The pulsating Am and Ap stars exhibit dichotomous pulsation characteristics. The Am stars (and related stars) exhibit low-overtone δ Scuti pulsation, with amplitudes ranging from a few mmag to 0.1 mag. The pulsating Ap stars exhibit high-overtone pulsation with periods in the range 6-16 min and Johnson B semi-amplitudes typically ≤ 5 mmag. These stars are referred to as rapidly oscillating Ap stars, or ‘roAp’ stars (the see review by Martinez & Kurtz 1995).
We present the first results of the analysis of 22 Blazhko stars. We find: 1) Blazhko RRab stars that are nearly pure amplitude modulators; 2) Blazhko RRab stars that have both amplitude and phase modulation; 3) A Blazhko RRab star that has an abrupt period change; 4) Proof of the Blazhko effect in RRc stars. Our data show the character of the amplitude and phase modulations of the light curves over the Blazhko cycles far better than has been previously possible.
We present the first massive frequency analysis of the 1200 first overtone RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud observed in the first 4.3 yr of the MACHO project. Besides the many new double-mode variables, we also discovered stars with closely spaced frequencies. These variables are most probably nonradial pulsators.
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an integral part of the Astronomy Digital Library and the collaboration Urania. It provides access to 1 million references and connects these references with many other information centers and their data, such as on-line journals, object databases, and scanned journal articles. This article describes some of the features and links between the ADS and other on-line services.
Heartbeat stars are a relatively new class of eccentric ellipsoidal variable first discovered by Kepler. An overview of the current field is given with details of some of the interesting objects identified in our current Kepler sample of 135 heartbeats stars. Three objects that have recently been or are undergoing detailed study are described along with suggestions for further avenues of research. We conclude by discussing why heartbeat stars are an interesting new tool to study tidally induced pulsations and orbital dynamics.
Class I 44 GHz methanol masers are not as well-known, as common, or as bright as their more famous Class II cousins at 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. Nevertheless, the 44 GHz masers are commonly found in high-mass star forming regions. At times they appear to trace dynamically important phenomena; at other times they show no obvious link to the star formation process. Here, we summarize the major observational efforts to date, including both dedicated surveys and collateral observations. The principal results are presented, some that were expected, and others that were unexpected.
Four Class I maser sources were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz toward chemically rich outflows in the regions of low-mass star formation NGC 1333I4A, NGC 1333I2A, HH25, and L1157. One more maser was found at 36 GHz toward a similar outflow, NGC 2023. Flux densities of the newly detected masers are no more than 18 Jy, being much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation. The brightness temperatures of the strongest peaks in NGC 1333I4A, HH25, and L1157 at 44 GHz are higher than 2000 K, whereas that of the peak in NGC 1333I2A is only 176 K. However, a rotational diagram analysis showed that the latter source is also a maser. The main properties of the newly detected masers are similar to those of Class I methanol masers in regions of massive star formation. The former masers are likely to be an extension of the latter maser population toward low luminosities of both the masers and the corresponding YSOs.
The role of interface strain and dipole layers in detenrining the electronic properties of two lattice matched HI-V semiconductor superlattices, InAs/AIGaAsSb and GaAs/AlAs, has been investigated with the self-consistent pseudopotential method. Values for the total energies, interface structures, valence band offsets, and charge density distributions are reported. In the InAs/AlGaAsSb system, since both the group III and V sublattices are different, large intrinsic strains are present at the interface. If the interface strain is neglected in the calculation, the valence band offset is found to be 0.05 eV, in poor agreement with the experimental value of 0.21 eV obtained from infrared photoluminescence spectroscopy. The valence band offset for the relaxed structure (obtained by minimizing the total energy with respect to atomic relaxations at the interface) is 0.24 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental value. The interface relaxations modify the interface dipole through charge transfer between interface cation and anion. In addition to the intrinsic interface strain, the effect of extrinsic interface dipole layers, both III-V (InAs, GaSb) and group IV (Si and Ge) interlayers, has been investigated in the GaAs/AlAs lattice-matched system. The III-V interlayers are not effective in changing the band offset due to small charge asymmetry and large screening of the induced dipole. On the other hand, the group IV interlayers are found to have a dramatic effect, changing the GaAs/AlAs band offset by ∼1 eV. The group IV interlayers produce a step potential at the interface, resulting in the large offset change.
Infrared absorption and photoluminescence have been demonstrated for InAs1-xSbx/InSb strained-layer superlattices (SLS's) in the 8-15 μm region for As content less than 20%. This extended infrared activity is due to the type II heterojunction band offset in these SLS's. The preparation of the first MOCVD grown p-n junction diode was achieved by using dimethyltellurium as an n-type dopant. Several factors, such as background doping and dopant profiles affect the performance of this device. InSb diodes have been prepared using tetraethyltin. The resulting current-voltage characteristics are improved over those of diodes grown previously using dimethyltellurium. Doping levels of 8x1015 to 5x1018cm−3 and mobilities of 6.7x104 to 1.1x104 cm2/Vs have been measured for Sn doped InSb. SLS diode structures have been prepared using Sn and Cd as the dopants. Structures prepared with p-type buffer layers are more reproducible.
In order to fabricate high temperature sensors and other devices, it is necessary to develop ohmic contact metallizations that can withstand elevated temperatures. A variety of ohmic contact metallizations were investigated with contact resistivity measured as a function of anneal time in air. The metallizations were based on Ti and W ohmic contacts, which have contact resistivities as low as 10-4 Ω-cm2. Several of the contact metallizations were stable after 10 hrs. at 650°C, while one system, based on a Ti ohmic contact, was able to withstand > 20 hrs. at 650°C with only a 30–40% increase in contact resistivity.