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Until quite recently the cultural prehistory of Japan has been, like many other areas of Asia, very inadequately known to most American and European students. There is now enough material available to enable me to present to you an outline of the prehistoric cultural development of Japan with a high degree of reliability in its essential validity. Much remains to be done, however, both in the sphere of “dirt archaeology” and in the field of analysis, synthesis, and foreign relationships.
The term “Jomon” has become entrenched as the designation for the entire period of Japanese culture preceding the entrance of the Yayoi people with their bronze-age culture from Korea and the adjacent areas into Kyushu. This migration must have commenced at least as early as the second century B.C. since it is known that Yayoi centers were flourishing in Kyushu and southwest Honshu in the first century B.C. Absolute dates for the earliest cultural manifestations in Japan are lacking but my guess would be about 3000 B.C.
A brief critique is presented of some different classes of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions based on their continuity properties and whether the magnetic field is integrable or not. A generalized energy functional is introduced that is comprised of alternating ideal regions, with nested flux surfaces with an irrational rotational transform, and Taylor-relaxed regions, possibly with magnetic islands and chaos. The equilibrium states have globally continuous magnetic fields, and may be constructed for arbitrary three-dimensional plasma boundaries and appropriately prescribed pressure and rotational-transform profiles.
The 3-km thick Neogene Siwalik Group (Himalayan foredeep in northern Pakistan) and the 2-km thick Paleogene Fort Union/Willwood Formations (Bighorn Basin, Wyoming) both preserve long records of fluvial deposition adjacent to rising mountain belts. Depositional environments and associated habitats change with spatially varying physiography and deposition by river systems that may differ greatly in size, sediment loads, depositional rates, drainage of adjacent floodplains, and taphonomy of organic remains. At times, some environments may not be preserved; for example, avulsion of channels to low areas removes more deposits of channel-distal environments as avulsions increase relative to net sediment aggradation rates. Recognition of such large-scale biases is important because they represent time scales over which long term paleoecological change is reconstructed, and requires knowledge of how drainage systems changed in time and space within these evolving basins.
The Siwalik Group was deposited by large rivers that filled a basin extending at least 1000 km along its axis and 150–250 km away from the mountain front. Despite the scale of these rivers relative to Siwalik exposures, transitions between different fluvial systems have been recognized. For example, a 1-km thick sequence bridging the boundary between Chinji and Nagri formations records displacement of a smaller river system (width < 2 km; depth 5-10 m; discharge 1000-1500 m3/s) by a larger system (width <5 km; depth 15-30 m; discharge at least 5,000-10,000 m3/s), with an associated upsection increase (30 to 70%) in the proportion of channel sandstones, increased mean sediment accumulation rates (150 to 300 m/my), decrease in poorly drained floodplain deposits and well developed paleosols, marked decrease in abundance of faunal remains, and a major change in faunal composition. Stratigraphically higher (Dhok Pathan Fm.), there is a lateral transition between deposits of dissimilar, coeval river systems with corresponding differences in local paleoenvironments and vertebrate taphonomy. Although upsection changes in environments and vertebrate faunas may generally reflect extrabasinal controls such as tectonism and climate change, our studies emphasize the importance of recognizing deposits from different contemporaneous river systems before inferring such large-scale controls on paleoenvironmental change through time.
The Bighorn Basin is an intermountain foreland basin extending 200 km along its axis and about 80 km across. A large portion of this basin is exposed, and thus it is possible to reconstruct the distribution of river systems and the spatial paleoenvironments in more detail than in the Siwaliks. The Bighorn Basin was traversed along its axis by an early Eocene, north-south flowing river that was joined by smaller rivers flowing transverse to the axis. The proportion of channel sandstones decreases upsection (50 to 25%) from the Fort Union to the Willwood Fm. The proportion of channel sandstones and the abundance of well developed paleosols decrease with increasing net sediment aggradation rates. Although channel deposits are concentrated along the basin axis in a more complex way in some stratigraphic intervals, it is unclear to what extent these changes reflect deposition by different rivers versus extrinsically controlled changes within individual river systems.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Introduction: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that high-quality, evidence-based guidelines be developed for emergency medical services (EMS). The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) has outlined a strategy that will see this task fulfilled, consisting of multiple working groups focused on all aspects of guideline development and implementation. A first step, and our objective, was a cataloguing and appraisal of the current guidelines targeting EMS providers. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in MEDLINE (1175), EMBASE (519), PubMed (14), Trip (416), and guidelines.gov (64) through May 1, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened titles for relevance to prehospital care, and then abstracts for essential guideline features, including a systematic review, a grading system, and an association between level of evidence and strength of recommendation. All disagreements were moderated by a third party. Citations meeting inclusion criteria were appraised with the AGREE II tool, which looks at six different domains of guideline quality, containing a total of 23 items rated from 1 to 7. Each guideline was appraised by three separate reviewers, and composite scores were calculated by averaging the scaled domain totals. Results: After primary (kappa 97%) and secondary (kappa 93%) screening, 49 guidelines were retained for full review. Only three guidelines obtained a score of >90%, the topics of which included aeromedical transport, analgesia in trauma, and resuscitation of avalanche victims. Only two guidelines scored between 80% and 90%, the topics of which included stroke and pediatric seizure management. One guideline, splinting in an austere environment, scored between 70% and 80%. Nine guidelines scored between 60% and 70%, the topics of which included ischemic stroke, cardiovascular life support, hemorrhage control, intubation, triage, hypothermia, and fibrinolytic use. Of the remaining guidelines, 14 scored between 50% and 60%, and 20 obtained a score of <50%. Conclusion: There are few high-quality, evidence-based guidelines in EMS. Of those that are published, the majority fail to meet established quality measures. Although a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in the prehospital field continues to limit guideline development, suboptimal methodology is also commonplace within the existing literature.
We investigate the structural evolution of the IDV source BL Lac 0716+714 from 10 epochs of global VLBI and VLBA observations. Our study reveals two possible component identification schemes, in which the jet components move either slow or fast. Although the fast motion would fit better to the observed IDV, the quality of our data does not allow a final decision between the slow and the fast picture.
Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are partially overlapping. However, the nature of the relationship between negative symptoms and cognition remains equivocal. Recent reviews have demonstrated the presence of two negative symptom subdomains, diminished emotional expression (DEE) and avolition. In view of this, we sought to clarify the relationship between negative symptoms and cognitive domains.
A total of 687 participants with schizophrenia were assessed on measures of psychopathology and cognition. Three cognitive factors, namely executive function, fluency/memory and speed/vigilance were computed from the cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to examine if a one-factor or two-factor negative model was applicable to our sample. Subsequently, the relationships between negative symptoms and cognition were examined using structural equation modeling.
Results demonstrated that the two-factor model fitted the data well. While negative symptoms were mildly to moderately associated with cognition, we found that DEE had unique associations with cognition compared to social avolition, contributing to the validity of the constructs and suggesting the possibility of common underlying substrates in negative symptoms and cognition.
Our study highlighted the need to classify DEE and social avolition separately as both are necessary in refining the complex relationship between negative symptoms and cognition as well as potentially guiding treatment and management of schizophrenia.
We present three epochs of VSOP observations of the BL Lac object 2007+777 at 5 GHz. Compared with the ground-based VLBA data, the space baselines with HALCA clearly reveal a more detailed and finer source structure. Mainly based on the quite uniform and circular UV-coverages of the VLBA, and using a new cross-selfcalibration method, we have found evidence for weak structural changes on a timescale of two weeks in the core region of this intraday variable source. The physical causes for these variations are discussed.
We report new results from high frequency (22-86 GHz) VLBI monitoring observations of selected blazars. These Gamma-bright sources show pronounced correlated flux density variations over the full electromagnetic spectrum (radio to Gamma-ray bands). From our high-angular resolution images (0.1-0.2 mas), we find increasing evidence for a tight correlation between this activity and the production of new jet components. Here we present results for the 3 sources PKS 0528+134, 3C 273, & 0836+710.
The high energy gamma-ray flares observed in PKS 0528+134 are interpreted in terms of the external inverse Compton scattering (EICS) mechanism. The evolutional relationship between the gamma-ray flares and the associated mm-radio outbursts is investigated. The TeV/X-ray flare detected in May of 1994 from Mrk 421 is interpreted in terms of the SSC mechanism and it is shown that it may be due to the acceleration of relativistic electrons with an initially flat energy spectrum (N(E)∝E−s with s~1.5), rather than just a flattening of the high energy tail in the electron energy distribution of the source in the quiescent state.
We have discovered that 2MASS 08355977-3042306 is an accreting K7, double-lined, spectroscopic binary younger than ~20 Myr. The age of a dispersed young star can best be determined if it is a member of a known young moving group. However, the three dimensional space velocities (UVW) we calculate using radial velocity measurements, proper motions, and plausible photometric distances make membership in any known young moving group unlikely.
The first work of any great historian has always commanded attention, and Tacitus was ancient Rome's very greatest historian. His biography of his father-in-law, governor of Britain in the years AD 77–84, is a literary masterpiece: it combines penetrating political history with gripping military narrative and throughout poses the question (still very much alive today) of how one should live one's life under a tyranny. This is the first commentary in English on the Agricola for almost half a century: in keeping with the aims of the series, particular attention is paid to the understanding of Tacitus' Latin, but a whole range of generic, historical, textual and narrative topics is covered, and it will be suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students as well as scholars. Tacitus' Agricola remains a key text for anyone with an interest in Roman Britain as well as ancient biography.
The Agricola, as it is conventionally known, is described by its author at the start as a biography (1.4 ‘narraturo mihi uitam defuncti hominis’), a form of writing which even today is seen as problematic and hard to define. ‘Is biography a genre?’, begins a recent book on the subject, and, if it is a genre, what are its characteristics? T. says that his purpose in writing is to honour his father-in-law (3.3 ‘liber honori Agricolae soceri mei destinatus’). Some readers have certainly seen a problem here, since in the modern world ‘we expect factual information’ rather than encomium in a biography; but this is to misunderstand the ancient equivalent, since in the classical world ‘biographers were free to be encomiastic’. Cicero makes this point in one of his letters to Atticus, when, discussing various autobiographical accounts of his consulship, he assures his friend in a playful paradox that they are ‘not encomiastic but historical’ (Att. 1.19.10 ‘non ἐγκωμιαστικὰ sunt haec sed ἱστορικά’). Indeed T. himself alludes to the connection between biography and encomium when he chooses ‘criticising’ as the term with which to describe the opposite of ‘biography’ (1.4 narraturo…uitam ~ incusaturus) and ‘admiration and praise’ as an implied description of the Agricola itself (46.2 ‘admiratione…et laudibus’).