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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
We compared the rates of hospital-onset secondary bacterial infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with rates in patients with influenza and controls, and we investigated reports of increased incidence of Enterococcus infections in patients with COVID-19.
Retrospective cohort study.
An academic quaternary-care hospital in San Francisco, California.
Patients admitted between October 1, 2019, and October 1, 2020, with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR (N = 314) or influenza PCR (N = 82) within 2 weeks of admission were compared with inpatients without positive SARS-CoV-2 or influenza tests during the study period (N = 14,332).
National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were used to identify infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP), bloodstream infections (BSIs), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for likely confounders.
COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of IVAC and PVAP compared to controls, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–13.9) and 10.4 (95 % CI, 2.1–52.1), respectively. COVID-19 patients had higher incidence of BSI due to Enterococcus but not BSI generally, and whole-genome sequencing of Enterococcus isolates demonstrated that nosocomial transmission did not explain the increased rate. Subanalyses of patients admitted to the intensive care unit and patients who required mechanical ventilation revealed similar findings.
COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of IVAC, PVAP, and Enterococcus BSI compared with hospitalized controls, which is not fully explained by factors such as immunosuppressive treatments and duration of mechanical ventilation. The mechanism underlying increased rates of Enterococcus BSI in COVID-19 patients requires further investigation.
Child metal health is associated with prospective delinquent outcomes. However, this association might be confounded by genetic and other shared factors
We aimed to examine the association between the behavioral symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood (age 4-12) and the prospective delinquent outcomes as measured by lifetime illicit drug use, criminal activities, and victimization prior to age 18, using the nationally representative U.S. survey that allowed us to compare siblings in the same mother.
Aged-adjusted subscales or ADHD, conduct disorder, depression, and ODD were obtained from the mother-reported survey responses. Within-family analyses were performed to control for family-specific unobserved factors as well as child-specific observed factors.
Antisocial scores in childhood were strongly associated with lifetime arrest, probation, and incarceration as well as lifetime illicit drug use in adolescence. ADHD scores are associated with lifetime victimization in physical attack and rape, but not with criminal activities or illicit drug use.
Conduct disorder consistently increases lifetime illicit drug use and criminal activities independently of genetic factors and gender. ADHD is not associated with lifetime illicit drug use or criminal activities, but is associated with lifetime victimization. No significant gender differences are found although anxiety/depression symptoms are often positively associated with delinquent outcomes only among females.
While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads across the globe, many countries have closed schools to ensure physical distancing to slow transmission and ease the burden on health systems. Concerns regarding Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) school closures often increase stress levels in parents.
This study examined whether higher levels of parental concerns were associated with children’s problematic behaviors and other factors during COVID-19-related primary school closures.
Participants were 217 parents who responded to a web-based questionnaire covering parental concerns, subjective stress, and depression; children’s sleep patterns, behavioral problems, and changes in activity level after COVID-19; previously received mental health services; and media usage during the online-only class period from community center in Suwon city.
The number of parental concerns was associated with children’s behavioral problem index (BPI) score (Pearson correlation 0.211, p < 0.01), sleep problems (0.183, p < 0.01), increased smartphone usage (0.166, p < 0.05), increased TV usage (0.187, p < 0.01), parents’ subjective stress levels (0.168, p < 0.05), and parental depression (0.200, p < 0.01). In families with children who previously received mental health services, the children reportedly suffered from more sleep and behavioral problems but not increased media usage, and parents noted more stress and depression. Parental concerns are related to family factors such as change of caregiver, no available caregiver, decreased household income, and recent adverse life events.
Ongoing monitoring of mental health at risky group and multiple support systems should be considered for parents having difficulty in caring their children.
In the United States, students who attend early-entrance to college programs (EECP) undergo a unique, accelerated educational path. Many of these programs require students to forego their final years of high school to take dual-enrollment classes while residing on a college campus. While previous literature has documented mental health outcomes among traditional college and high school student populations, there is scarce literature on the mental health among this hybrid population in the United States.
Investigate anxiety and depression among students enrolled in EECPs in the United States.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-8 item (PHQ-8) were asked in 3 sets for how students felt before, during, and after their attendance in their EECP.
66 alumni students who graduated from an EECP were surveyed after giving informed consent. GAD-7 average scores before the students attended was 4.83 (median = 4, “mild anxiety”), during attendance was to 11.5 (median = 12, “moderately-severe anxiety”), and currently was 6.95 (median = 6, “moderate anxiety”). PHQ-8 scores for depression before attending were 5.1 (median = 4, “mild to potentially moderate depression”, during the program 10.9 (median 11.5, “moderately severe depression”), and current PHQ-8 was 16 (median = 16, “severe depression”).
Anxiety and depression seem to have a presence in this student population, compared to traditional college student populations, but different compared to international cohorts. Academic rigor was a notable driving force of these outcomes, differing from the literature on traditional college student populations.
To pursue business innovation with PSS, many different PSS concepts are designed and evaluated. Various business models of a PSS design concept are devised and evaluated as well. Evaluation of the economic sustainability of PSS business models is critical. This paper presents a systematic method to evaluate the economic sustainability of PSS business models using a system dynamics modelling template. System dynamics modelling task is challenging for practitioners due to the variety of variables comprising business model strategies and their complex interrelationships. To enable the modelling task, a system dynamics modelling template composed of six modules of customer acquisition, channel acquisition, profit creation, resource acquisition, PSS provision, and partnership pattern has been devised. The PSS business model evaluation method has been illustrated using a smart study experience management service system design case to demonstrate the proposed system dynamics modelling template can reflect the case-specific business model which consists of the particular business model strategies.
This study aimed to analyse if there were any associations between patulous Eustachian tube occurrence and climatic factors and seasonality.
The correlation between the monthly average number of patients diagnosed with patulous Eustachian tube and climatic factors in Seoul, Korea, from January 2010 to December 2016, was statistically analysed using national data sets.
The relative risk for patulous Eustachian tube occurrence according to season was significantly higher in summer and autumn, and lower in winter than in spring (relative risk (95 per cent confidence interval): 1.334 (1.267–1.404), 1.219 (1.157–1.285) and 0.889 (0.840–0.941) for summer, autumn and winter, respectively). Temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity had a moderate positive (r = 0.648), negative (r = –0.601) and positive (r = 0.492) correlation with the number of patulous Eustachian tube cases, respectively.
The number of patulous Eustachian tube cases was highest in summer and increased in proportion to changes in temperature and humidity, which could be due to physiological changes caused by climatic factors or diet trends.
San Francisco (California USA) is a relatively compact city with a population of 884,000 and nine stroke centers within a 47 square mile area. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) transport distances and times are short and there are currently no Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs).
This study evaluated EMS activation to computed tomography (CT [EMS-CT]) and EMS activation to thrombolysis (EMS-TPA) times for acute stroke in the first two years after implementation of an emergency department (ED) focused, direct EMS-to-CT protocol entitled “Mission Protocol” (MP) at a safety net hospital in San Francisco and compared performance to published reports from MSUs. The EMS times were abstracted from ambulance records. Geometric means were calculated for MP data and pooled means were similarly calculated from published MSU data.
From July 2017 through June 2019, a total of 423 patients with suspected stroke were evaluated under the MP, and 166 of these patients were either ultimately diagnosed with ischemic stroke or were treated as a stroke but later diagnosed as a stroke mimic. The EMS and treatment time data were available for 134 of these patients with 61 patients (45.5%) receiving thrombolysis, with mean EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times of 41 minutes (95% CI, 39-43) and 63 minutes (95% CI, 57-70), respectively. The pooled estimates for MSUs suggested a mean EMS-CT time of 35 minutes (95% CI, 27-45) and a mean EMS-TPA time of 48 minutes (95% CI, 39-60). The MSUs achieved faster EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times (P <.0001 for each).
In a moderate-sized, urban setting with high population density, MP was able to achieve EMS activation to treatment times for stroke thrombolysis that were approximately 15 minutes slower than the published performance of MSUs.
This paper proposes a procedure to improve the accuracy of the light aircraft 6 DOF simulation model by implementing model tuning and aerodynamic database correction using flight test data. In this study, the full-scale flight testing of a 2-seater aircraft has been performed in specific longitudinal manoeuver for model enhancement and simulation validation purposes. The baseline simulation model database is constructed using multi-fidelity analysis methods such as wind tunnel (W/T) test, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and empirical calculation. The enhancement process starts with identifying longitudinal equations of motion for sensitivity analysis, where the effect of crucial parameters is analysed and then adjusted using the model tuning technique. Next, the classical Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation method is applied to calculate aerodynamic derivatives from flight test data, these parameters are utilised to correct the initial aerodynamic table. A simulation validation process is introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the enhanced 6 DOF simulation model. The presented results demonstrate that the applied enhancement procedure has improved the simulation accuracy in longitudinal motion. The discrepancy between the simulation and flight test response showed significant improvement, which satisfies the regulation tolerance.
Balloon valvuloplasty and surgical aortic valvotomy have been the treatment mainstays for congenital aortic stenosis in children. Choice of intervention often differs depending upon centre bias with limited relevant, comparative literature.
This study aims to provide an unbiased, contemporary matched comparison of these balloon and surgical approaches.
Retrospective analysis of patients with congenital aortic valve stenosis who underwent balloon valvuloplasty (Queensland Children’s Hospital, Brisbane) or surgical valvotomy (Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne) between 2005 and 2016. Patients were excluded if pre-intervention assessment indicated ineligibility to either group. Propensity score matching was performed based on age, weight, and valve morphology.
Sixty-five balloon patients and seventy-seven surgical patients were included. Overall, the groups were well matched with 18 neonates/25 infants in the balloon group and 17 neonates/28 infants in the surgical group. Median age at balloon was 92 days (range 2 days – 18.8 years) compared to 167 days (range 0 days – 18.1 years) for surgery (rank-sum p = 0.08). Mean follow-up was 5.3 years. There was one late balloon death and two early surgical deaths due to left ventricular failure. There was no significant difference in freedom from reintervention at latest follow-up (69% in the balloon group and 70% in the surgical group, p = 1.0).
Contemporary analysis of balloon aortic valvuloplasty and surgical aortic valvotomy shows no difference in overall reintervention rates in the medium term. Balloon valvuloplasty performs well across all age groups, achieving delay or avoidance of surgical intervention.
This book is primarily about prevention; its emphasis is on interventions that can be done at the time of cancer diagnosis – modifications of treatment and techniques for storing gametes, tissues or embryos for future use. By contrast, this chapter explores options open to cancer survivors after treatment has been completed. If preventive treatment was successful, either through medical interventions such as using less gonadotoxic regimens, fertility-sparing surgery, oophoropexy or gonadoprotective adjuncts like GnRH agonists, normal fertility has been preserved. Other survivors may be able to conceive using the gametes, embryos or tissue that was obtained and cryopreserved before their gonadotoxic treatment(s). However, in some cases, fertility preservation may not have been possible before treatment or, alternatively, the cryopreserved gametes, embryos or tissue may not have resulted in a successful pregnancy. This chapter provides insight into the fertility management of cancer survivors with compromised or absent ovarian function, who do not have cryopreserved gametes, embryos, or ovarian tissue.