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Tombs and cairns present a dating challenge when the human remains are unstratified, incomplete and dispersed. By considering the distribution of time intervals between deaths as a possible a priori condition of multiple burials of select groups, a Bayesian model is suggested that may constrain the uncertainty date range of the group. The method may also address the wide uncertainties seen in radiocarbon calibration on a calibration curve plateau. The mathematical justification for the choice of Log Normal intervals, between death events, is first presented, followed by worked examples that compare the treatment of groups of 22 dates using Phase then Sequence with interval gaps. Finally, scenarios of potential Select Groups are examined, to demonstrate the efficacy of this alternative heuristic model to current model treatments.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
Despite improvements in the medical and surgical management of infants with CHD, growth failure before surgery in many infants continues to be a significant concern. A nutritional pathway was developed, the aim of which was to provide a structured approach to nutritional care for infants with CHD awaiting surgery.
Materials and methods
The modified Delphi process was development of a nutritional pathway; initial stakeholder meeting to finalise draft guidelines and develop questions; round 1 anonymous online survey; round 2 online survey; regional cardiac conference and pathway revision; and final expert meeting and pathway finalisation.
Paediatric Dietitians from all 11 of the paediatric cardiology surgical centres in the United Kingdom contributed to the guideline development. In all, 33% of participants had 9 or more years of experience working with infants with CHD. By the end of rounds 1 and 2, 76 and 96% of participants, respectively, were in agreement with the statements. Three statements where consensus was not achieved by the end of round 2 were discussed and agreed at the final expert group meeting.
Nutrition guidelines were developed for infants with CHD awaiting surgery, using a modified Delphi process, incorporating the best available evidence and expert opinion with regard to nutritional support in this group.
In this retrospective study, we describe and analyse Salmonella data from four livestock species in Great Britain between 1983 and 2014, focusing on Salmonella Typhimurium. A total of 96 044 Salmonella isolates were obtained during the study period. S. Typhimurium was the predominant serovar isolated from cattle and pigs and represented 40.7% (18 455/45 336) and 58.3% (4495/7709) of isolates from these species respectively, while it only accounted for 6.7% (2114/31 492) of chicken isolates and 8.1% (926/11 507) of turkey isolates. Over the study period, DT104 was the most common phage type in all four species; however, DT104 peaked in occurrence between 1995 and 1999, but is currently rare.
Monophasic strains of S. Typhimurium represented less than 3% of all Salmonella isolates in cattle and chickens in 2014, but accounted for 10.4% of all turkey isolates and 39.0% of all pig isolates in the same year.
Salmonella isolates were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Antimicrobial resistance of S. Typhimurium isolates is largely influenced by the dominance of specific phage types at a certain time, which are commonly associated with particular resistance patterns. Changes in resistance patterns over time were analysed and compared between species.
Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical age-matched controls were assessed with a speech-gating task to measure spoken word recognition, psychophysical tasks to measure auditory Frequency Modulation (FM) detection and Frequency Discrimination (FD), and standardized psychometric tests of phonological processing and oral language. As a group, children with SLI took significantly longer than language-typical controls to recognize words with high neighborhood density, perhaps reflecting subpar phonological representations. FM, but not FD, was significantly worse in SLI. However, while both poorer speech-gating performance and poorer auditory thresholds (FM) were evident in SLI, spoken word recognition did not mediate any relation between auditory perception and either phonological processing or oral language.
Several questions remain unanswered regarding the magnitude and time course of cognitive improvement in response to antipsychotic treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in cognitive performance in antipsychotic-naive or minimally medicated patients with first-episode schizophrenia during the first 12 months of treatment, in a case–control design. Patients were treated with flupenthixol decanoate depot injection, according to a standard algorithm. The primary outcome measure was change in MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) composite score over 12 months.
The sample comprised 92 patients and 100 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity and educational status. Cognitive function was assessed by means of the MCCB.
A mixed-effects model identified a significant group × time effect (p ≤ 0.0001) for the MCCB composite score, with patients showing a greater degree of change than the controls. For the other MCCB domains there were significant group × time effects at adjusted significance level for attention and vigilance (p ≤ 0.0001), visual learning (p ≤ 0.0001), verbal learning (p = 0.005) and working memory (p ≤ 0.0001), but not for reasoning and problem solving (p = 0.04), speed of processing (p = 0.03) and social cognition (p = 0.06). There were moderate correlations between change in MCCB composite score and change in symptomatology as assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor analysis-derived domains.
Substantial improvements in cognitive function were observed over and above a practice effect, and were significantly correlated with improvements in psychopathology and functionality.
We apply the technique of High Resolution X-ray Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) to the study of wavy layers in InGaAs multilayer thin films on InP substrates. By accurately measuring the positions of the layer Bragg peaks in reciprocal space we obtain measurements of the compositions and residual coherency strains in the layers. We discuss the contributions to the diffuse scatter around the Bragg peaks from factors such as lattice tilts and interface roughness. By modelling the shapes of the diffraction profiles we obtain measurements of mosaic block size both perpendicular and parallel to the multilayer/substrate interface. We conclude that the wavy interface morphology arises predominantly from layer thickness variations rather than lattice tilts.
Grazing-Emission X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (GEXRF) is a new analytical
X-ray fluorescence technique, which like TXRF takes advantage of the
total-reflection phenomenon. The main advantage of GEXRF over TXRF is its
sensitivity towards light elements. This paper presents straight GEXRF and
VPD-DC-GEXRF analysis results for Na, Mg, Al, K and Ca surface contamination
on silicon wafers.
Erythema infectiosum (EI) or fifth disease is a mild, acute exanthematous disease, occurring mainly among children, for which a causative virus has long been sought. In May 1983 an outbreak of exanthematous illness was reported in a primary school in North London. Children attending the school were investigated by questionnaire and 162 (43·9%) reported an illness with the features of EI. In each of 36 cases investigated virologically the illness was associated with parvovirus infection. Moreoever, pre-existing antibody to parvovirus was correlated with protection from EI in 16 of 17 close family contacts of cases. We propose therefore that EI is the common manifestation of infection with the human parvovirus.
The present study evaluated the effect of dietary methionine on breast-meat accretion and protein expression in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens in vivo. All broilers received a common pre-test diet up to 21d of age, and were subsequently fed either a methionine-deficient (MD) or -adequate (MA) diet (3·1 V. 4·5g/kg diet) from age 21 to 42d. Dietary cystine levels were 3·7 V. 3·6g/kg diet for the MD and MA diet, respectively. Detrimental effects on carcass yield (P=0·004), abdominal fat percentage (P=0·001), and breast-meat weight (P=0·001), yield (P=0·001), and uniformity (P=0·002) were observed and validated in birds fed MD diets. Via tandem MS, a total of 190 individual proteins were identified from pectoralis major (PM) muscle tissue. From the former composite, peptides from three proteins were observed to be present exclusively in breast muscle from those chickens fed the MD diet (pyruvate kinase, myosin alkali light chain-1, ribosomal-protein-L-29). No proteins were observed to be uniquely expressed in chickens fed MA diets. Research is warranted to further explore the possibility of the proteins pyruate kinase, myosin alkali light chain-1, or ribosomal protein L-29, as potential biological indicators of differences in protein expression of PM of chickens in response to a dietary methionine deficiency.