To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Social perception is a key aspect of social cognition which has so far not been investigated in eating disorders (ED). This study aimed to investigate social perception in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).
Outpatients with AN (restricting subtype [AN-R]: n = 51; binge-purge subtype [AN-BP]: n = 26) or BN (n = 57) and 50 healthy control (HC) participants completed the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT-15). This is an ecologically valid task, which consists of 15 video clips, depicting complex social situations relating to intimacy, status, kinship, competition and deception. The participants have to assess relationships between protagonists’ based on non-verbal cues.
Overall, there was no difference between groups on the IPT total score and subscale scores. Group differences on the Intimacy subscale approached significance so post hoc comparisons were carried out. HCs performed significantly better than AN-R participants in determining the degree of intimacy between others.
Social perception is largely preserved in ED patients. Individuals with AN-R show impairments in identifying intimacy in social situations, this may be due to the lack of relationship experience. Further research into different aspects of social cognition is required to establish the link between interpersonal difficulties and ED psychopathology.
Solvency II came into force on 1 January 2016 and included a transitional measure on technical provisions (“TMTP”) designed to help smooth in the capital impact of Solvency II over a 16-year period. The working party’s view is that the main intention of the TMTP is to mitigate the impact of the introduction of the risk margin, which significantly increases the technical provisions of firms, relative to their Solvency I Pillar 2 liabilities.
The majority of firms who hold a TMTP have now had at least one recalculation approved by the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA); or are in the process of applying for a recalculation. Despite this large number of approved recalculations, there remains significant uncertainty in the industry around the approach and triggers for recalculation.
This paper considers aspects of TMTP recalculation for regulated UK life firms, for example practicalities of the calculation, asset and liability considerations, and communications/announcements.
In this paper, we outline the need for pragmatism when considering the approach to recalculation of a measure originally intended to serve as the bridge between two regimes. We call for an allowance for doing what is sensible in a principles-based regime balancing what might be more theoretically correct with what is practical and possible to support effective management of the business.
The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations are not a viable management tool for farmers to influence lamb growth to weaning.
The current study investigated the effects of dam weight and nutrition during gestation on the reproductive performance of female primiparous offspring at 2 years of age. Four hundred and fifty heavy (H) (mean±s.e.m.: 60·8 kg±0·18) and 450 light (L) (42·5 kg±0·17) dams were randomly allocated to ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) nutritional regimens from day 21 until day 140 of pregnancy, under pastoral grazing conditions. One week prior to lambing, all dams and their lambs were provided with ad libitum feeding through to weaning. After weaning, female progeny were managed and fed to requirements as one group. At 2 years of age, the oestrous cycles of the female offspring (n=207) were synchronized and the offspring were naturally mated. Ewes were scanned for pregnancy by ultrasound at day 70 of pregnancy. Within 24 h of birth, lambs were weighed and body dimensions were measured. Lambs were also weighed at day 24 (L24) and weaning. No effects of dam nutrition or dam weight were found (P>0·10) on the reproductive performance of the ewe offspring. Lambs of M-grand-dams were heavier at birth (P=0·024) and weaning (P=0·031) than lambs of A-grand-dams. Twin lambs of H-grand-dams were heavier at birth (P=0·014) than twin lambs of L-grand-dams; however, grand-dam weight had no effect (P>0·10) on lamb weaning weight. In summary, dam weight had no effect on reproductive performance of the female offspring, with only a minor effect on the weight of grand-offspring. Thus, being born to a larger dam has no advantages over being born to a smaller dam, in terms of number of lambs born and weight of lambs at birth and weaning. Grand-dam maintenance nutrition had no effect on reproductive performance although it increased lamb birth and weaning weight and lamb growth rates of the grand-offspring. Therefore, this indicates that ewes born to dams fed at maintenance during pregnancy have an advantage over A-ewes in physiological stressful situations including pregnancy or lactation.
The present study investigated the effects of maternal plasma iodine concentration on twin- and triplet-born lamb plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, rectal temperature and maximal heat production. On pregnancy day 68 (P68), 16 twin- and 14 triplet-bearing ewes were randomly chosen from ewes that were injected intramuscularly with 1·5 ml of iodized peanut oil and ewes that were not. Selected ewes were grazed on ad libitum pasture from P68 until parturition. After parturition, lamb blood samples were collected within 5 min of birth and at 3, 12 and 24–36 h after birth. Lamb rectal temperatures were measured within 5 min of birth and at 1, 3 and 12 h after birth. Lamb body weight, crown–rump length and thoracic-girth circumference were recorded at 3 h of age, and the capability of the lamb to produce heat at 24–36 h of age was measured using indirect open-circuit calorimetry. Maternal iodine supplementation successfully increased plasma iodine concentrations of twin- and triplet-bearing ewes throughout pregnancy, but had no effect on the rectal temperature, thyroid hormone concentration and maximal heat production of twin- or triplet-born lambs. Compared with twin-born lambs, triplet-born lambs had lower birth weights, rectal temperatures and plasma T4 and T3 concentrations within 5 min of birth. Overall, under the conditions of the present study, maternal iodine supplementation offered no benefit in improving lamb heat production.
It was hypothesized that exposure of the fetus to adverse conditions in utero due to either maternal constraint or nutrition may result in developmental adaptations altering metabolism and postnatal growth of the offspring. Heavy (H) and light (L) Romney dams (G0) were allocated to ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) nutritional regimens, from day 21–day 140 of pregnancy. Female twin-born offspring (G1) born to the dams in the four treatment groups will be referred to as HA-ewes, LA-ewes, HM-ewes and LM-ewes. At 16 months of age, offspring were catheterized and given intravenous insulin tolerance test (ITT), glucose tolerance test (GTT) and epinephrine tolerance test challenges to assess their glucose and fat metabolism in relation to their birth weight and postnatal growth. In HA-ewes, the regression coefficients of growth rates prior to puberty on insulin and glucose curves in response to GTT (InsAUCGTT) and ITT (GluAUCITT), respectively, were different from 0 (P < 0.05) and were different from the regression coefficients of HM-ewes. This may indicate that HA-ewes may have showed puberty-related insulin resistance at 16 months of age with increasing growth rates prior to puberty compared to HM- or LM-ewes. In HM-ewes, the regression coefficients of growth rates after puberty on InsAUCGTT and GluAUCITT were different from 0 (P < 0.05) and were different from those of HA-ewes. These results may indicate that offspring born to heavy dams fed maintenance during pregnancy and with greater postnatal growth rates after puberty could develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of offering ewes two different feeding levels, during mid and late pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth. Romney ewes, bearing twin (n = 80) or triplet foetuses (n = 56), were allocated to a pasture sward height of 2 or 4 cm between 70 and 107 days of pregnancy. In late pregnancy (day 107 to 147), half of the ewes were reallocated the alternate sward height, which produced four treatments: 2-2, 2-4, 4-2 and 4-4. Ewes were weighed on days 65, 92, 107 and 130 of pregnancy and lamb live weights were recorded 12 to 24 h after birth. Twelve to 24 h after birth the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewes were determined, whilst their lambs were tagged. After the lambs were released, the behaviour of each ewe and her lambs was observed for 5 min. Ewe treatment and litter size had no effect on ewe MBS. However, as MBS increased (ewes stayed closer to lambs during tagging), ewes bleated less in a high-pitch and were quicker to make contact with their lamb. During the observation period, ewes in the 4-4 treatment had a greater percentage of their bleats in a low pitch (P < 0.05) than ewes in the 2-2 and 4-2 treatment (61.3% v. 41.3% and 38.8% low bleats, respectively) and more lambs born to 4-4 ewes (95%) bleated than lambs born to 2-2 ewes (84%; P < 0.05). However, lambs born to ewes in the 2-2 treatment bleated earlier than lambs in all other treatments (P < 0.05). Lambs born to 4-4 ewes were less likely (P < 0.05) to move towards their dam in order to make contact than lambs born to 2-2 or 4-2 ewes (3.1% v. 16.9% and 16.7%, respectively). These findings suggest that under the conditions of the present study, ewe nutrition had little effect on maternal behaviour. However, lambs born to ewes offered 2 cm pasture sward heights during mid and/or late pregnancy (2-2, 2-4 and 4-2 treatments) displayed behaviour that demonstrated greater ‘need’ whereas lambs born to ewes offered 4 cm during mid and late pregnancy sought less attention from their dam.
The current study investigated the effect of offering concentrate supplement to ewes in late pregnancy on twin- and triplet-born lamb heat production at 24–36 h old and performance from birth until lactation day 94 (L94). Twin- (n=40) and triplet-bearing (n=28) ewes were grazed on a 60 mm sward height from day 70 of pregnancy (P70) until L94. From P100, half of the ewes from each litter size were offered 400 g/ewe/day of concentrate sheep pellets. Ewe liveweight and body condition were recorded on P50, 100, 130, 135 and 140. Ewe blood samples were also collected on P130, 135 and 140, and ewe herbage intake was estimated from P133–136 using the n-alkane method. Lamb measurements included liveweight and body size at birth, production of heat using indirect open-circuit calorimetry at 24–36 h old and liveweight at L94. Blood samples were also collected from lambs at 24–36 h old and directly before and after calorimetry measurements. While estimates of ewe herbage intake suggested that substitution of herbage for concentrate did not occur, offering concentrate supplement failed to improve ewe liveweight gain, or birth weight of lambs. Offering concentrate supplement, however, did have a positive effect (P<0·05) on the maximal amount of heat a triplet-born lamb can produce on a per kg of body weight basis (concentrate 21±1·3 W/kg, non-concentrate 17±0·6 W/kg). It also had a positive effect (P<0·05) on lamb square-root-transformed plasma gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, an indicator of colostrum uptake (concentrate 46±3·1 U/l, non-concentrate 38±2·9 U/l). Irrespective of lamb birth rank, offering concentrate supplement had a positive effect (P<0·01) on liveweight gain per day from birth until L94 (concentrate 261±5·7 g/day, non-concentrate 239±5·8 g/day), although there was no effect on the total weight of lamb reared/ewe. Supplementation with concentrate resulted in triplet-born lambs that produced more heat which may have positive effects on the ability of the newborn lamb to deal with cold stress and potentially its survival. Offering concentrate supplement also produced greater lamb growth in twin- and triplet-born lambs.
To establish the prevalence of new vestibular and otological symptoms in a group of patients who had sustained a low grade (Quebec grades one or two) whiplash injury.
A retrospective review of the case records of 109 patients undergoing assessment by a single practitioner for the purposes of compiling a medicolegal report on their whiplash injury.
Four patients complained of short-lived, non-specific dizziness symptoms in the acute phase following their original injury. There were no reports of vertigo, tinnitus or hearing loss after a mean period of 149 days following the whiplash injury.
No patients reported otological or persistent vestibular symptoms in the acute phase following their whiplash injury. This suggests that caution should be exercised when attributing these symptoms to such an injury. Before whiplash injuries are admitted as an aetiological factor in the development of such symptoms, other causes should be excluded.
The Gattini-DomeC project, part of the IRAIT site testing campaign and ongoing since January 2006, consists of two cameras for the measurement of optical sky brightness, large area cloud cover, and auroral detection above the DomeC site, home of the French-Italian Concordia station. The cameras are transit in nature and are virtually identical except for the nature of the lenses. The cameras have operated throughout the past two Antarctic winter seasons and here we present the results obtained from the 2006 winter-time dataset of the wide field “All-sky camera".
Ear lobule deformities can occur as a result of trauma. Surgical reconstruction can be challenging. There does not appear to be a consensus on the best form of repair. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who suffered traumatic loss of the ear lobule during childhood. A novel technique is described using a posterior based bi-lobar flap to completely reconstruct the ear lobule in two stages.
This form of repair has the advantage of a well-hidden scar, with the donor site providing skin of similar thickness and pigmentation.
The Gattini cameras are two site testing instruments for the measurement of optical sky brightness, large area cloud cover and auroral detection of the night sky above the high altitude Dome C site in Antarctica. The cameras have been operating since installation in January 2006 and are currently at the end of the first Antarctic winter season. The cameras are transit in nature and are virtually identical, both adopting Apogee Alta CCD detectors. By taking frequent images of the night sky we obtain long term cloud cover statistics, measure the sky background intensity as a function of solar and lunar altitude and phase and directly measure the spatial extent of bright aurora if present and when they occur. The full data set will return in December 2006 however a limited amount of data has been transferred via the Iridium network enabling preliminary data reduction and system evaluation. An update of the project is presented together with preliminary results from data taken since commencement of the winter season.
Background: Balance function is known to change with age during infancy and childhood. However, the relative contributions of the three primary inputs to position sense are not fully understood.
Methods: In this paper we report the computerised dynamic posturography findings in a group of 60 healthy children from the age of five to 17.
Results: The results confirm that there is a progressive improvement in balance function with age. The EquiTest system that was used gave indications of the relative contributions of the three principal contributors to overall balance function and showed that somatosensory function was intact throughout the age range tested and that there are significant increases in vestibular function with age and visual contribution with height. The technique used was found to be reliable and repeatable in this paediatric sample.
Conclusions: It is hoped that a better understanding of the normal age related development of balance will be helpful in dealing with children presenting with disequilibrium and vertigo.
Dome C, Antarctica is one of the most promising astronomical sites in the world (Fossat & Candidi 2003, and references therein). Dome C boasts low wind speeds, very cold temperatures and little precipitation. The atmospheric turbulence is very weak compared to temperate sites, leading to sub-arcsecond seeing conditions (Lawrence et al. 2004; Agabi et al. 2006).
High-frequency oscillatory potentials (HFOPs) have been recorded from
ganglion cells in cat, rabbit, frog, and mudpuppy retina and in
electroretinograms (ERGs) from humans and other primates. However, the
origin of HFOPs is unknown. Based on patterns of tracer coupling, we
hypothesized that HFOPs could be generated, in part, by negative
feedback from axon-bearing amacrine cells excited via
electrical synapses with neighboring ganglion cells. Computer
simulations were used to determine whether such axon-mediated feedback
was consistent with the experimentally observed properties of HFOPs.
(1) Periodic signals are typically absent from ganglion cell PSTHs, in
part because the phases of retinal HFOPs vary randomly over time and
are only weakly stimulus locked. In the retinal model, this phase
variability resulted from the nonlinear properties of axon-mediated
feedback in combination with synaptic noise. (2) HFOPs increase as a
function of stimulus size up to several times the receptive-field
center diameter. In the model, axon-mediated feedback pooled signals
over a large retinal area, producing HFOPs that were similarly size
dependent. (3) HFOPs are stimulus specific. In the model, gap junctions
between neighboring neurons caused contiguous regions to become phase
locked, but did not synchronize separate regions. Model-generated HFOPs
were consistent with the receptive-field center dynamics and spatial
organization of cat alpha cells. HFOPs did not depend qualitatively on
the exact value of any model parameter or on the numerical precision of
the integration method. We conclude that HFOPs could be mediated, in
part, by circuitry consistent with known retinal anatomy.
High throughput, thin film synthesis methods have been used to make libraries of diverse metallic and metal-chalcogenide compositions. These libraries have been subject to a variety of screening protocols, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) after repeated annealing steps, and the measurement of temperature dependent electrical properties. The application of these methods for the development of materials for non-magnetic storage media is presented.
We have exploited the interaction between erbium ions and silicon nanoclusters to produce a photodetector for use in the spectral region around 1.5 μm. The device consists of an MOS structure in which the oxide layer has been implanted with both erbium and silicon and annealed to produce silicon nanocrystals around 3 nm in diameter. Upon illumination with a 1480 nm laser diode, the well-known interaction between the nanocrystals and the rare-earth ions results in a transfer of excitation from the erbium ion to nearby silicon nanocrystals. The resultant modification of the conductivity of the oxide layer enables a current to flow when a voltage is applied.
The concentration of global crop and food animal production in regions where plant selenium content is low has led to a decline in the amount of selenium in the human food supply. The central reason is that where soil pH is acidic, selenium cannot be absorbed by plants, thereby preventing transfer of selenoamino acids up the food chain through cereal grains and food animal products. Direct addition of inorganic selenium salts prevents acute deficiency symptoms, however selenium salts added to food animal diets do not provide meaningful amounts of selenium in edible animal tissues. Because human selenium status is a public health concern, researchers have examined nutritional means of increasing the selenium content of meat, milk and eggs using selenium produced by yeast, which like higher plants are able to form selenoamino acids. While part of the focus is on producing ‘designer’ foods, a more general question pertains to both existing selenium levels in food animal products and to those when commercial food animals are given selenium in naturally-occurring organic vs inorganic form. The following summarizes selenium levels in edible tissues in commercial and controlled research settings where inorganic and organic (Sel-PlexTM selenium yeast, Alltech Inc.) were compared.
Feed grains available in Britain contain low concentrations of natural selenium. As the grains in most cases do not cover the requirements of the animals, selenium supplementation of diets is a standard practice in feed manufacturing. Selenium supply to the breeder hens impacts the selenium content of the egg, the developing embryo and therefore the antioxidant status of the chick at hatch (Surai, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selenium from Sel-Plex® (Alltech Inc.) on the transfer of selenium into the egg of broiler breeder hens under commercial conditions.