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This new edition provides a much-needed reference book to accommodate emerging and expanding knowledge in fertility preservation, the rapidly growing field of reproductive medicine associated with advances in oncology. Written by a team of world-leading experts in the field and comprehensive in its scope, the book covers the full range of techniques and scientific concepts in detail. It opens with an introduction to fertility preservation in both cancer and non-cancer patients, followed by fertility preservation strategies in males and females, including medical/surgical procedures, ART, cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue, and in-vitro follicle culture. Concluding chapters address new technologies, as well as ethical, legal and religious issues. The book has been thoroughly updated, includes additional contributors, and now provides greater focus on practical and clinically relevant issues. Richly illustrated throughout, this is a key resource for clinicians specializing in reproductive medicine, gynecology, oncology, hematology, endocrinology and infertility.
The aeroelastic phenomenon of limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) is analysed using a projection-based reduced-order model (PROM) and Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the time domain. The proposed approach employs incompressible Navier–Stokes CFD to construct the full-order model flow field. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the snapshot matrix is conducted to extract the POD modes and corresponding temporal coefficients. The POD modes are directly projected to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to reconstruct the flow field efficiently. The methodology is applied to a plunging cylinder and an aerofoil undergoing LCOs. This scheme decreases the computational time while preserving the capability to predict the flow field accurately. The ROM is capable of reducing the computational time by at least 70% while maintaining the discrepancy within 0.1%. The causes of LCOs are also investigated. The scheme can be used to analyse non-linear aeroelastic phenomena in the time domain with reduced computational time.
Governance through goals, a relatively new global governance mechanism, has recently gained prominence, particularly since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals. Through this mechanism, internationally agreed policy goals orchestrate the activities of governmental and non-governmental actors. This chapter argues that governance through goals has important effects on governance architectures and their degree and type of fragmentation. To analyze these effects, we review literature around four characteristics of governance through goals: their non-legally binding nature, weak global institutional arrangements, inclusive goal-setting processes and national leeway. We argue that alternative forms of bindingness, such as reporting and accountability mechanisms, can steer actors toward a shared vision. This may result in synergistic fragmentation if broad support is obtained through inclusive processes. However, tensions and cherry-picking may arise when goals are prioritized and implemented. Further research on the effects of governance through goals is crucial given that it is likely to maintain – and gain – importance in earth system governance.
Although trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) is the frontline treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one-third of patients are treatment non-responders. To identify neural markers of treatment response to TF-CBT when participants are reappraising aversive material.
This study assessed PTSD patients (n = 37) prior to TF-CBT during functional magnetic brain resonance imaging (fMRI) when they reappraised or watched traumatic images. Patients then underwent nine sessions of TF-CBT, and were then assessed for symptom severity on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. FMRI responses for cognitive reappraisal and emotional reactivity contrasts of traumatic images were correlated with the reduction of PTSD severity from pretreatment to post-treatment.
Symptom improvement was associated with decreased activation of the left amygdala during reappraisal, but increased activation of bilateral amygdala and hippocampus during emotional reactivity prior to treatment. Lower connectivity of the left amygdala to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and right insula, and that between the left hippocampus and right amygdala were also associated with symptom improvement.
These findings provide evidence that optimal treatment response to TF-CBT involves the capacity to engage emotional networks during emotional processing, and also to reduce the engagement of these networks when down-regulating emotions.
Introduction: Many cardiac arrest survivors die later due to hemorrhage or thromboembolism, thought to be caused by acquired coagulopathy in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) from shock and reperfusion injury. Understanding PCAS is a priority identified by the AHA for the prevention of complications in cardiac arrest survivors. Shock dysregulates both coagulation and fibrinolysis. The key effector enzyme thrombin (Th), is responsible for both up- and down-regulating coagulation and fibrinolysis. Measuring early Th activity may allow for predicting PCAS coagulopathy, and early medical intervention in the ED. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the time-course profile of early coagulation using an established pig model of cardiac arrest. Methods: Yorkshire pigs were anaesthetised and intubated, had VF-arrest induced by pacing, and were resuscitated per ACLS. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed on whole blood at four times: baseline, intra-arrest, post-arrest, and death, using the fibrin-based test with tissue factor to initiate clotting in the presence of a platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D (FIBTEM). Clot time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), alpha-angle during clot formation (Alpha), clot amplitude at 10 min (A10), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and maximum lysis as total percentage (ML%) were quantified. The primary outcome is the overall coagulation initiation measured by CFT, while secondary outcomes include ROTEM parameters reflecting Th activity. Parameters are compared over time in SPSS using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Results: Pilot data from one experiment show that cardiac arrest causes immediate early changes to coagulation that subsequently normalized with ROSC (Figure 1). CFT was impaired immediately upon cardiac arrest (2.3-fold increase), normalized with ROSC, and impaired again at death when compared with baseline. Consistent with clotting impairment, A10, Alpha, and MCF were all reduced with cardiac arrest, normalized with ROSC, and impaired again at death. Conclusion: Higher initial indices of coagulopathy in patients with cardiac arrest appear to correlate with death and thromboembolism. In this pilot, CFT is acutely modified by cardiac arrest. Since CFT is affected by overall Th activity, early Th dysregulation may be a critical driver of coagulopathy. Th may therefore be a lead target that is modifiable in the emergency post-arrest setting to decrease morbidity and mortality from PCAS in cardiac arrest survivors.
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), like many rural states, faces clinical and research obstacles to which digital innovation is seen as a promising solution. To implement digital technology, a mobile health interest group was established to lay the foundation for an enterprise-wide digital health innovation platform. To create a foundation, an interprofessional team was established, and a series of formal networking events was conducted. Three online digital health training models were developed, and a full-day regional conference was held featuring nationally recognized speakers and panel discussions with clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates involved in digital health programs at UAMS. Finally, an institution-wide survey exploring the interest in and knowledge of digital health technologies was distributed. The networking events averaged 35–45 attendees. About 100 individuals attended the regional conference with positive feedback from participants. To evaluate mHealth knowledge at the institution, a survey was completed by 257 UAMS clinicians, researchers, and staff. It revealed that there are opportunities to increase training, communication, and collaboration for digital health implementation. The inclusion of the mobile health working group in the newly formed Institute for Digital Health and Innovation provides a nexus for healthcare providers and researches to facilitate translational research.
Mentalising has long been suggested to play an important role in irony interpretation. We hypothesised that another important cognitive underpinning of irony interpretation is likely to be children's capacity for mental set switching – the ability to switch flexibly between different approaches to the same task. We experimentally manipulated mentalising and set switching to investigate their effects on the ability of 7-year-olds to determine if an utterance is intended ironically or literally. The component of mentalising examined was whether the speaker and listener shared requisite knowledge.
We developed a paradigm in which children had to select how a listener might reply, depending on whether the listener shared knowledge needed to interpret the utterance as ironic. Our manipulation of requisite set switching found null results. However, we are the first to show experimentally that children as young as seven years use mentalising to determine whether an utterance is intended ironically or literally.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
There is little data to indicate whether or not patients with chronic mental illness can provide self-report QOL data or if informant reports can substitute the patients’ ratings. We evaluated patient-proxy agreement in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and compared levels of agreement according to the relationship between patient-proxies.
WHOQOL-BREF and SF-36, two of the most popular quality of life instrument were administered to 82 schizophrenia-proxy and 50 bipolar disorder patient-proxy pairs.
Proxies of schizophrenia patients rated patients’ QOL lower than the patients themselves. Agreement between patients and proxies on the four main domains of QOL was moderate to good. Moreover, the agreement between patients’ and proxies’ ratings was higher when the proxy was a mother or spouse compared to father.
These findings suggest that proxy rating of QOL can be used as a reasonable estimate of the patients’ rating of QOL in schizophrenia and bipolar patients, at least in Korea. Knowing which domains of QoL are affected in specific psychiatric disorders can help clinicians focus on particular QoL domains during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals. Therefore, the assessment of QoL may be an important part of the diagnostic process because it can give insight into the areas of functioning in which a patient is suffering the most.
There are two major forms of long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, which require activation of either N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In synapses in the perirhinal cortex we have directly compared the Ca2+ signalling mechanisms involved in NMDAR-LTD and mGluR-LTD. Whilst both forms of LTD involve Ca2+ release from intracellular stores the Ca2+ sensors involved are different; NMDAR-LTD involves calmodulin, whilst mGluR-LTD involves the neuronal Ca2+ sensor (NCS) protein NCS-1. In addition, there is a specific requirement for IP3 and PKC as well as protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK-1) in mGluR-LTD. NCS-1 binds directly to PICK1, via its BAR domain, in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, the NCS-1-PICK1 association is stimulated by activation of mGluRs, but not NMDARs, and introduction of a PICK1 BAR domain fusion protein specifically blocks mGluR-LTD. Thus, NCS-1 is a component of a novel mechanism involved in mGluR-LTD.
Somatization is a common symptom of depression. Somatization is also related to sleep problem including insomnia.Depression is the one of the most common cuase of insomnia. Therefore, it would be needed to investigate the interaction between depression, insomnia and somatization.
To investigate the independent effects of major depressive disorder (MDD) and insomnia on somatization.
To compare somatization of primary insomnia, MDD with insomnia, MDD without insomnia, and normal controls.
A total of 181 participants without serious medical problem were recruited. Subjects were divided into 4 groups based on the SCID-IV and ICD-10 insomnia criteria:
1) normal controls,
2) primary insomnia,
3) MDD without insomnia, and
4) MDD with insomnia.
The somatization subscores of the SCL-90-R were completed by participants.
There were significant between-group differences in somatization (F=25.30, p< 0.001). MDD with insomnia showed higher somatization compared to normal controls (p< 0.001), primary insomnia (p=0.01), or MDD without insomnia (p< 0.001). Primary insomnia had higher somatization than normal controls (p< 0.01), while there was no significant difference between MDD without insomnia and normal controls. Presence of insomnia predicted higher somatization (beta=0.44, p< 0.001), while there was only non-significant association between MDD and somatization (beta=0.14, p=0.08).
In the current study, insomnia was associated with somatization independently from major depression. Subjects with primary insomnia showed higher somatization. Within MDD patients, presence of insomnia was related to higher somatization. Our finding suggests that insomnia may partly mediate the relationship between depression and somatization.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
This study aimed to explore thedifference in emotional recognition of musical auditory stimulation and artfulvisual stimulation between helathy people and patients with schizophrenia.
20 songs and 20 paintings thatcontained sad or cheerful emotions were presented to 123 patients withschizophrenia and 224 healthy people as control group. The subjects were askedto tell about their emotions that they had felt from each musical auditorystimulation and artful visual stimulation. To measure such emotions, the Emotional Empathy Scale was used. The level of psychopathology in patientsgroup were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale.
The correct answer rate to musical auditoryand artful visual stimulation of the patient group was significantly lower than that of thecontrol group. Thepatient group showed lower emotional empathic ability compared to the controlgroup. In the patient group, the correct answer rate to musical and artfulstimulation showed a negative correlation with score with Formal ThoughtDisorder Rating Scale.
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties inprecise emotional recognition to auditory and visual stimulations, and this isassociated with lowered empathic ability and thinking disorder of patients withschizophrenia. If an psychosocial rehabilitation program or psychotherapy isimplemented to patients with schizophrenia, it is deemed to be necessary to make a mediation to improve the emotional recognition and expression ability of patients with schizophrenia.
This study was aimed to discover the correlation between those getting tattoos and their psychopathology relating to their delinquent behavior and emotional problems.
Date for this study was collected from 19-year-old men who were receiving a physical examination for conscription at the Korea Military Manpower Administration. 400 data sheets were collected among them. All of sjubjects were evaluated on the following measures: sociodemographic variants, Juvernile delinquency scale, State-trait anger expression inventory, Beck depression inventory, State-triat anxiety inventory, and Positive affect and negative affect schedule.
In comparison with those without tattooes, those with a tattoo scored higher in the scales that were related to delinquency, anger, depression, and negateive emotion. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between the number of tattoos and the scores for the Juvenile delinquent tendency and behavior scale as well as on the State-triat anxiety scale.
Those with tattoos had experienced anger, anxiety, and depression more strongly in comparison with those without tattoos. These reults recommended that tattooed males should be evaluated more on their regrading psychopathology compared to those without tattoos.
: Human impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Previous animal studies have suggested that striatal dopamine receptors play a critical role in impulsivity. in this study, we investigated the relationship between self-reported cognitive impulsiveness and dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subdivisions in healthy subjects using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride.
Twenty-one participants completed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution PET scans with [11C]raclopride. The trait of impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Partial correlation analysis was performed between BIS-11 scores and D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions, controlling for the confounding effects of temperament characteristics that are conceptually or empirically related to dopamine, which were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory.
The analysis revealed that the non-planning (p = 0.004) and attentional (p = 0.007) impulsiveness subscale scores on the BIS-11 had significant positive correlations with D2/3 receptor availability in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate. There was a tendency toward positive correlation between non-planning impulsiveness score and D2/3 receptor availability in the post-commissural caudate.
These results suggest that cognitive subtrait of impulsivity is associated with D2/3 receptor availability in the associative striatum that plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving attention to detail, judgment of alternative outcomes, and inhibitory control.