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Employing a comparative experimental design drawing on over 18,000 interviews across eleven countries on four continents, this article revisits the discussion about the economic and cultural drivers of attitudes towards immigrants in advanced democracies. Experiments manipulate the occupational status, skin tone and national origin of immigrants in short vignettes. The results are most consistent with a Sociotropic Economic Threat thesis: In all countries, higher-skilled immigrants are preferred to their lower-skilled counterparts at all levels of native socio-economic status (SES). There is little support for the Labor Market Competition hypothesis, since respondents are not more opposed to immigrants in their own SES stratum. While skin tone itself has little effect in any country, immigrants from Muslim-majority countries do elicit significantly lower levels of support, and racial animus remains a powerful force.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
The epoch of reionization, i.e. the phase transition of the inter-galactic medium from neutral to fully ionized, is essential for our understanding of the evolution of the Universe and the formation of the first stars and galaxies. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) has obtained spectra of ten thousands of objects in and behind 10 massive galaxy clusters, including the six Hubble Frontier Fields. The grism spectroscopy from GLASS results in hundreds of spectra of z ≳ 7 galaxy candidates. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification from the foreground clusters, the GLASS spectra reaches unprecedented depths in the near-infrared with observed flux limits of ~ 5 × 10−18erg/s/cm2 before correcting for the lens magnification. This has resulted in several Lyα detections at z ~ 7 and tight limits on the emission line fluxes for non-detections. From an ensemble of different photometric selections, we have assembled more than 150 z ≳ 7 galaxy candidates from six of the ten GLASS clusters. Among these more than 20 objects show emission lines consistent with being Lyα at z ≳ 7. The spatial extent of Lyα estimated from a stack of the most promising Lyα emitters at 〈z〉 = 7.2 is consistent with the spatial extent of the UV continuum emission. From the stack we obtain upper limits on the emission line ratios between prominent rest-frame UV emission lines, finding that fCIV/fLyα ≲ 0.32 and fCIII]/fLyα ≲ 0.23 in good agreement with values published in the literature.
GLEAM, the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, is a survey of the entire radio sky south of declination + 25° at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz, made with the MWA using a drift scan method that makes efficient use of the MWA’s very large field-of-view. We present the observation details, imaging strategies, and theoretical sensitivity for GLEAM. The survey ran for two years, the first year using 40-kHz frequency resolution and 0.5-s time resolution; the second year using 10-kHz frequency resolution and 2 s time resolution. The resulting image resolution and sensitivity depends on observing frequency, sky pointing, and image weighting scheme. At 154 MHz, the image resolution is approximately 2.5 × 2.2/cos (δ + 26.7°) arcmin with sensitivity to structures up to ~ 10° in angular size. We provide tables to calculate the expected thermal noise for GLEAM mosaics depending on pointing and frequency and discuss limitations to achieving theoretical noise in Stokes I images. We discuss challenges, and their solutions, that arise for GLEAM including ionospheric effects on source positions and linearly polarised emission, and the instrumental polarisation effects inherent to the MWA’s primary beam.
This work experimentally examines the detachment of liquid droplets from both oleophilic and oleophobic fibres, using an atomic force microscope. The droplet detachment force was found to increase with increasing fibre diameter and forces were higher for philic fibres than phobic fibres. We also considered the detachment of droplets situated on the intersection of two fibres and arrays of fibres (such as found in fibrous mats or filters) and found that the required detachment forces were higher than for similarly sized droplets on a single fibre, though not as high as expected based on theory. A model was developed to predict the detachment force, from single fibres, which agreed well with experimental results. It was found that the entire dataset (single and multiple fibres) could be best described by power law relationships.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio–astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day−1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
The science cases for incorporating high time resolution capabilities into modern radio telescopes are as numerous as they are compelling. Science targets range from exotic sources such as pulsars, to our Sun, to recently detected possible extragalactic bursts of radio emission, the so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs). Originally conceived purely as an imaging telescope, the initial design of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) did not include the ability to access high time and frequency resolution voltage data. However, the flexibility of the MWA’s software correlator allowed an off-the-shelf solution for adding this capability. This paper describes the system that records the 100 μs and 10 kHz resolution voltage data from the MWA. Example science applications, where this capability is critical, are presented, as well as accompanying commissioning results from this mode to demonstrate verification.
The prevalence of both type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and cognitive impairment is high and increasing in older adults. We examined the extent to which DM diagnosis was associated with poorer cognitive performance and dementia diagnosis in a population-based cohort of US older adults.
We studied 7,606 participants in the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a nationally representative cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. DM and dementia diagnosis were based on self-report from participants or proxy respondents, and participants completed a word-list memory test, the Clock Drawing Test, and gave a subjective assessment of their own memory.
In unadjusted analyses, self-reported DM diagnosis was associated with poorer immediate and delayed word recall, worse performance on the Clock Drawing Test, and poorer self-rated memory. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression and anxiety symptoms, and medical conditions, DM was associated with poorer immediate and delayed word recall and poorer self-rated memory, but not with the Clock Drawing Test performance or self-reported dementia diagnosis. After excluding participants with a history of stroke, DM diagnosis was associated with poorer immediate and delayed word recall and the Clock Drawing Test performance, and poorer self-rated memory, but not with self-reported dementia diagnosis.
In this recent representative sample of older Medicare enrollees, self-reported DM was associated with poorer cognitive test performance. Findings provide further support for DM as a potential risk factor for poor cognitive outcomes. Studies are needed that investigate whether DM treatment prevents cognitive decline.
Here we present the installation and successful commissioning of an L'-band Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) coronagraph on VLT/NACO. The AGPM is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings tuned to the L' band. The vector vortex coronagraph enables high contrast imaging at very small inner working angle (here 0″.09, the diffraction limit of the VLT at L'), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. During technical and science verification runs, we discovered a late-type companion at two beamwidths from an F0V star (Mawet et al. 2013), and imaged the inner regions of β Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU. The circumstellar disk was also resolved from ≃ 1″ to 5″ (see J. Milli et al., these proceedings). These results showcase the potential of the NACO L-band AGPM over a wide range of spatial scales.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised.
Is the cohomology of the classifying space of a p-compact group, with Noetherian twisted coefficients, a Noetherian module? In this paper we provide, over the ring of p-adic integers, such a generalization to p-compact groups of the Evens–Venkov Theorem. We consider the cohomology of a space with coefficients in a module, and we compare Noetherianity over the field with p elements with Noetherianity over the p-adic integers, in the case when the fundamental group is a finite p-group.
Early design studies for the future Exo-Planet Imaging Camera and Specrotgraph (EPICS) on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) show the ability to probe the region of super-Earths in the habitable zone of stars within 5pc (including Gilese 581d). However, these planets will be lost to us if the correct choice of integral field spectrograph (IFS) technology is not selected for such an instrument the ability to fit and remove the speckle noise that remains is crucial to reaching these contrasts.
We conclusively demonstrate, though the use of an experimental setup producing an artificial speckle, that slicer based IFSs and post-processing using spectral deconvolution can achieve speckle rejection factors exceeding 103. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find any evidence that this choice of IFS technology limits the achievable contrast. Coupled with extreme adaptive optics and high performance coronographs, a slicer based integral field spectrograph could achieve contrasts exceeding 109, enabling these super-Earths to be detected in the habitable zone of nearby stars, making it an attractive option for the next generation of instruments being designed for the direct detection of extra solar planets.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
To assess Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related colectomy rates by CDI surveillance definitions and over time at multiple healthcare facilities.
Five university-affiliated acute care hospitals in the United States.
Design and Methods.
Cases of CDI and patients who underwent colectomy from July 2000 through June 2006 were identified from 5 US tertiary care centers. Monthly CDI-related colectomy rates were calculated as the number of CDI-related colectomies per 1,000 CDI cases, and cases were categorized according to recommended surveillance definitions. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate risk factors for CDI-related colectomy.
In total, 8,569 cases of CDI were identified, and 75 patients underwent CDI-related colectomy. The overall colectomy rate was 8.7 per 1,000 CDI cases. The CDI-related colectomy rate ranged from 0 to 23 per 1,000 CDI episodes across hospitals. The colectomy rate for healthcare-facility-onset CDI was 4.3 per 1,000 CDI cases, and that for community-onset CDI was 16.5 per 1,000 CDI cases (P < .05). There were significantly more CDI-related colectomies at hospitals B and C (P < .05).
The overall CDI-related colectomy rate was low, and there was no significant change in the CDI-related colectomy rate over time. Onset of disease outside the study hospital was an independent risk factor for colectomy.
A contender for future generations of CMOS technology is the strained silicon (S-Si) MOSFET. The mobility enhancement in S-Si can be exploited to maintain the performance enhancements demanded by Moore's law with reduced critical dimensions. S-Si is obtained by growth of a thin Si layer over a thick virtual substrate (VS) of relaxed silicon-germanium (SiGe). The mobility of a surface channel MOSFET is dependent on the quality of the silicon-oxide (Si/SiO2) interface. Ge may out diffuse from the virtual substrate to the oxide interface causing an increase in trapping density. As the Ge content in the virtual substrate increases surface roughness also increases. These phenomena both lead to a reduction in mobility.
The study of a matrix of devices having variable Ge composition and S-Si thickness is crucial in deconvolving the contributions of Ge diffusion and wafer cross-hatching roughness on electrical parameters. Increasing VS Ge composition increases the Ge concentration at the SSi/SiO2 interface and cross-hatching amplitude whereas reducing S-Si channel thickness only increases Ge concentration at the S-Si/SiO2 interface and does not increase cross-hatch amplitude. Interface state density, drive current, gate leakage current, transconductance and carrier mobility data are presented for this two-dimensional space of VS composition and S-Si thickness. The relative importance of Ge diffusion and cross-hatching roughness can be seen in this data. The results of this study indicate a lower limit of 7 nm for the S-Si thickness and an upper limit of approximately 20 % Ge in the virtual substrate for the current processing technology. Understanding the performance-limiting mechanisms in S-Si is crucial in the optimisation of VS Ge composition and S-Si thickness for current and future generations of S-Si CMOS.
Results of intrinsic As diffusion in Si as well as in strained and relaxed Si0.9Ge0.1 layers are presented. Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy in-situ As doped epitaxial Si and compressively strained and relaxed Si-Ge layers were grown on Si substrates. The samples were annealed using Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C. Arsenic diffusion is seen to be enhanced in SiGe than in Si. The enhancement factor is calculated to be 2.3 and 1.3 for relaxed and strained Si0.9Ge0.1, respectively. Also, using RTA in oxygen atmosphere, interstitial and vacancies were selectively injected in to the sample structures. Diffusion enhancement is also recorded in Si and Si-Ge structures with interstitial as well as vacancy injections over inert anneal. The results suggest that both interstitial and vacancy defects contribute to As diffusion in Si and Si0.9Ge0.1.
Germanium is because of its intrinsically higher mobility than Si, currently under consideration as an alternative approach to improve transistor performance. Germanium oxide, however, is thermodynamically unstable, preventing formation of the gate dielectric by simple oxidation. At present, high-k dielectrics might be considered as an enabling technology as much progress has been made in the deposition of thin high-quality layers.
In this paper, we study the growth and physical properties of HfO2 deposited on Ge by MOCVD, using TDEAH and O2 as precursors, and compare the results to similar layers deposited on silicon substrates. Our results show that the physical properties of MOCVDdeposited HfO2 layers on Ge are very similar to what we have observed in the past for Si. Unfortunately, some of the negative aspects observed for Si, such as diffusion of substrate material in the high-k layer, a low density for thinner layers, or a rough top surface, are also observed for the case of Ge. However, careful surface pretreatments such as NH3 annealing the Ge substrate prior to deposition, can greatly improve the physical properties. An important observation is the very thin interfacial layer between HfO2 and Ge substrate, allowing a more aggressive scaling for Ge.
NMOS devices have been successfully fabricated on SSOI wafers. The SSOI wafer fabrication is by direct wafer bonding and wafer transfer by splitting of the strained Si on thin SiGe virtual substrate to an oxidized wafer. The thin SiGe virtual substrate is fabricated by strained SiGe deposition, H2+ implantation, and SiGe lattice relaxation anneal. This relaxation process creates a confined defect zone at the SiGe to Si substrate interface that ensures low defect strained Si growth. 10 μm by 10 μm NMOS SSOI devices show an improvement of 100% in drive current and 115% in transconductance. A near ideal subthreshold swing was observed on NMOS devices with channel length as short as 0.1 μm.