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Environmental and biological factors contribute to sleep development during infancy. Parenting plays a particularly important role in modulating infant sleep, potentially via the serotonin system, which is itself involved in regulating infant sleep. We hypothesized that maternal neglect and serotonin system dysregulation would be associated with daytime sleep in infant rhesus monkeys. Subjects were nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (n = 287). During the first month of life, daytime sleep-wake states were rated bihourly (0800–2100). Infants were considered neglected (n = 16) if before nursery-rearing, their mother repeatedly failed to retrieve them. Serotonin transporter genotype and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were used as markers of central serotonin system functioning. t tests showed that neglected infants were observed sleeping less frequently, weighed less, and had higher 5-HIAA than non-neglected nursery-reared infants. Regression revealed that serotonin transporter genotype moderated the relationship between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep: in subjects possessing the Ls genotype, there was a positive correlation between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep, whereas in subjects possessing the LL genotype there was no association. These results highlight the pivotal roles that parents and the serotonin system play in sleep development. Daytime sleep alterations observed in neglected infants may partially derive from serotonin system dysregulation.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
The solar magnesium II core-to-wing ratio has been a well-studied proxy for chromospheric activity since 1978. Daily measurements at high spectral (0.1 nm) resolution began with the launch of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) in 2003. The next generation of measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 16 (GOES-16) will add high time cadence (every 30 seconds) to the observational Mg II irradiance record. We present a comparison of the two measurements during the period of overlap.
Ultraviolet (UV) Solar spectral Irradiance (SSI) has been measured from orbit on a regular basis since the beginning of the space age. These observations span four Solar Cycles, and they are crucial for our understanding of the Sun-Earth connection and space weather. SSI at these wavelengths are the main drivers for the upper atmosphere including the production and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. The instruments that measure UV SSI not only require good preflight calibration, but also need a robust method to maintain that calibration on orbit. We will give an overview of the catalog of current and former UV SSI measurements along with the calibration philosophy of each instrument and an estimation of the uncertainties in the published irradiances.
Increasing the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of ruminant products may be important in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in man. Previous experiments suggest that a-linolenic acid (C18:3n -3) in the form of whole linseed is extensively biohydrogenated both in vitro (Cooper et al., 2001) and in vivo (Wachira et al., 2000) and that some form of protection is required. By contrast the long chain PUFA’s in fish oils appear less susceptible to biohydrogenation (Wachira et al., 2000). The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent to which n-3 PUFA from different sources were biohydrogenated in the rumen and to determine the degree to which they were incorporated into plasma lipids.
Ruminant products are considered as a major source of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the human diet and a reduction in the intake of SFA along with a concomitant increase in the intake of n-3 series PUFA is recommended by nutritionists (Department of Health, 1994). The major fatty acid classes in beef are the saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and beef is a nutritionally important source of the beneficial n-3 series PUFA. Experiments investigating the effects of age on lipid composition in beef muscle have, in the main, used short time periods and also been subject to confounding effects of differences in growth rate (Rule et al., 1997). This study is part of a larger investigation into the effects of breed and diet, as well as age, on muscle lipids (Warren et al., 2003). This paper will focus on the effect of age.
Recommendations to improve the UK diet suggest an increase in the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:S ratio) and a higher consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Ruminant meats have a poor P:S ratio, approximately 0.1 compared to the recommendation of 0.4-1.0 for the whole diet. However, the ratio of C18:2 n-6/C18:3 n-3 (the n-6:n-3) is well within the recommended value of <4.0 at approximately 2 and ruminant muscle also supplies longer-chain n-3 PUFA. By feeding lipid in a formaldehyde cross-linked protein matrix, rumen biohydrogenation can be avoided and the tissue PUFA level increased but with potential effects on oxidative shelf-life, colour and flavour of the meat. This trial investigated the fatty acid composition and quality of meat produced by feeding a protected lipid supplement (PLS).
The Einstein IPC observed the bright (5 mCrab) X-ray emitting BL Lac Object PKS 2155-304 on 1979 November 4th and 5th through 7th and on 1980 May 16th through 18th. A total of 17.4 hours were spent monitoring the source. Changes in intensity of between 10–50% are evident in the data for time scales of days and months. The source was constant to within 10% of the mean intensity on hourly time scales for all intervals of data except one. Repeated factor of 2 variations in intensity, occuring on 10–30 second time scales, were observed during the first 50 minutes of the 1979 Nov. 5th observation. These variations, however, were anticorrelated with variations seen in an adjacent background region. Concurrent MPC observations also failed to confirm the rapid changes, although they should have been readily detected. Thus, we conclude that the observed rapid variations are not intrinsic to the source, but originated in the IPC. These results can have implications for other IPC reports of short time scale variability for active galaxies and for source models based on such observations.
The observational material for this study consists of a series of 19 I plates (IVN+RG715) of the southern half of the LMC taken by the UK Schmidt Telescope over a six year period from 1977–1983. A small region of size 28′x56′ centred on α(1950) = 5 28 50.7, δ(1950) = −69 31 56 was scanned on all plates with a PDS microdensitometer and magnitudes were derived for typically 14000 stars per scan area. All magnitudes were converted to a common system by comparison of magnitudes to a standard plate; this comparison showed the individual rms measurement error to be 0.13 mag. No photoelectric standard sequence exists in the region studied but the instrumental magnitudes have been converted to preliminary IK magnitudes by using the IK magnitudes given by Blanco, McCarthy and Blanco (1980) for some of the red stars in the field.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
We present preliminary results of a long-term spectroscopic monitoring of a magnitude-limited (V < 7.5) sample of OB-supergiants (07.5-B9) aimed at establishing the incidence of co-rotating, large-scale wind structures. In the optical, this can be achieved by detecting rotationally modulated variability in Hα. Dramatic line-profile variations operating on a daily (and in some cases on a hourly) timescale are observed. Firm conclusions regarding the origin of the variability must, however, await a detailed period analysis. There is no clear evidence for a causal link between photospheric and wind activities.
A low-cost differential image motion monitor (DIMM), consisting of an 11-inch Celestron, an SBIG ST-4 autoguiding CCD camera and a PC, is described. Two such systems were used during June–July and November–December 1993 to make near-simultaneous seeing measurements at Freeling Heights in the Northern Flinders Ranges and at Siding Spring Observatory. The results of these campaigns show that the seeing-distribution is generally similar at both sites, with the most common seeing value being ~l·2″. Siding Spring does, however, have slightly more bad seeing (>2″) than Freeling Heights. Weather records from Arkaroola Resort (15 km south of Freeling Heights) indicate that there is ~15% less cloud cover at Freeling Heights than at Siding Spring. Episodes of rapid seeing deterioration at Siding Spring in winter are shown to coincide with warm air masses crossing the mountain.
The Report in the part dealing with the minor planets and satellites has been compiled at the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy in collaboration of S. G. Makover (minor planets) and V. A. Shor (satellites). Contributions to this report have been received from S. Arend, H. Debehogne, J. Dommanget, P. Herget, S. Herrick, G. M. Jannini, B. G. Marsden, V. V. Michkovitch, B. Milet, Z. M. Pereyra, B. Popovič, E. Rabe, E. Roemer, J. Schubart, W. Strobel, C. Torres, H. Wood. The part on comets has been prepared by E. Roemer.
The main feature of minor planet research during this triennium has been the further application of modern electronic computing machines to the practice of computing. The time has gone when the computations of orbits and ephemerides were performed with the aid of logarithmic tables or with desk calculators. Therefore it is no wonder that all computational work in the field of the motion of minor planets is nowadays concentrated in a limited number of institutions provided with powerful up-to-date computing techniques, like the following.
(1)Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, Leningrad has used till recently a computer BESM-2 and now has at its disposal a new more powerful computer BESM-4.
(2)The Observatory of Cincinnati has used till recently a powerful computer NORC. Unfortunately this machine has been nowadays dismantled, but the observatory can perform some kinds of computations with an IBM-360 computer.
(3)Latvian State University, Riga, has made a large amount of computations with the computer BESM-2.
(4)University of California, Los Angeles, makes a large amount of computations with its own computer.
There is a conspicuous gap in plans for X-ray timing after the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE). Timing science has played a critical role in the development of X-ray astronomy. The need now is to move into a new domain of shorter timescales and weaker modulation, one that can be reached only with very large aperture instruments. XLA is an X-ray facility with an aperture substantially greater than 1 m2, nominally 100 m2. Most of this area is devoted to a large array of collimated proportional counters. There is also a ~ 1 m2 coded aperture. It extends observational parameter space by several orders of magnitude in timing resolution, sensitivity to variability, and angular resolution. This will lead to a qualitatively new kind of X-ray astrophysics that can be applied to the study of a broad range of astrophysical objects. XLA is thus both an advanced timing mission and a general purpose facility whose principal uses are in areas that are not well covered in other aspects of the planned High Energy Astrophysics program.
The variability of CD-24 7599 (V=11.48 mag) was discovered by JCC during observing run XCOV7 of the Whole Earth Telescope (WET, Nather et al. 1990) network in February, 1992. The star was observed as an additional target and 117 hours of high-quality temporal spectroscopic observations were obtained.
Our analysis of these data revealed the presence of 7 independent pulsation modes between 27.0 and 38.1 cycles per day (313 – 441 μHz) with semiamplitudes of 2.1 – 10.2 milli-modulation amplitudes (mma). We showed that peaks at linear combination frequencies detected in the power spectra were not due to eigenmodes excited to visible amplitude by resonant mode coupling.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling condition with well-established heritability and environmental risk factors. Gene–environment interaction studies in MDD have typically investigated candidate genes, though the disorder is known to be highly polygenic. This study aims to test for interaction between polygenic risk and stressful life events (SLEs) or childhood trauma (CT) in the aetiology of MDD.
The RADIANT UK sample consists of 1605 MDD cases and 1064 controls with SLE data, and a subset of 240 cases and 272 controls with CT data. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were constructed using results from a mega-analysis on MDD by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. PRS and environmental factors were tested for association with case/control status and for interaction between them.
PRS significantly predicted depression, explaining 1.1% of variance in phenotype (p = 1.9 × 10−6). SLEs and CT were also associated with MDD status (p = 2.19 × 10−4 and p = 5.12 × 10−20, respectively). No interactions were found between PRS and SLEs. Significant PRSxCT interactions were found (p = 0.002), but showed an inverse association with MDD status, as cases who experienced more severe CT tended to have a lower PRS than other cases or controls. This relationship between PRS and CT was not observed in independent replication samples.
CT is a strong risk factor for MDD but may have greater effect in individuals with lower genetic liability for the disorder. Including environmental risk along with genetics is important in studying the aetiology of MDD and PRS provide a useful approach to investigating gene–environment interactions in complex traits.
Los Alamos National Laboratory has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities (OPLIB data using the ATOMIC code) for elements with atomic number Z = 1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of standard solar models including these new opacities, and compare with models evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL opacities (Iglesias & Rogers 1996). We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund et al. 2009. The Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities (Colgan et al. 2013a, 2013b, 2015) have steeper opacity derivatives than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities of the solar interior radiative zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. The calculated sound-speed profiles are similar for models evolved using either the updated Iben evolution code (see Guzik & Mussack 2010), or the MESA evolution code (Paxton et al. 2015). The LANL ATOMIC opacities partially mitigate the ‘solar abundance problem’.
The treatment gap for serious mental disorders across low-income countries is estimated to be 89%. The model for Mental Health and Development (MHD) offers community-based care for people with mental disorders in 11 low- and middle-income countries.
In Kenya, using a pre-post design, 117 consecutively enrolled participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders were followed-up at 10 and 20 months. Comparison outcomes were drawn from the literature. Costs were analysed from societal and health system perspectives.
From the societal perspective, MHD cost Int$ 594 per person in the first year and Int$ 876 over 2 years. The cost per healthy day gained was Int$ 7.96 in the first year and Int$ 1.03 over 2 years – less than the agricultural minimum wage. The cost per disability-adjusted life year averted over 2 years was Int$ 13.1 and Int$ 727 from the societal and health system perspectives, respectively, on par with antiretrovirals for HIV.
MHD achieved increasing returns over time. The model appears cost-effective and equitable, especially over 2 years. Its affordability relies on multi-sectoral participation nationally and internationally.