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The Acrididæ are characterised by a very uniform karyotype. With a few exceptions, the species so far studied contain 23 chromosomes in the male, which are very similar in size and structure. Attempts to deduce the probable mechanism of speciation within the Acrididæ were restricted only to metrical studies of chromosomes. Recently, however, Coleman (1943) has established in two species the subterminal position of the primary constriction or centromere and the variation in the length of the two arms in different chromosomes of the same karyotype. In the present paper additional evidence is presented which shows a linear differentiation of some chromosomes of the Acrididæ. Furthermore, in view of the fact that chromosome behaviour during meiosis is a more reliable criterion of ascertaining linear differentiation, the meiosis was studied in three genera.
Three species belonging to three different genera were studied. They are Spathosternum prasiniferum Walker, Oxya sp. and Phlœoba sp. The former two belong to the sub-family Catantopinæ and the latter one to Acrididæ. Adult male specimens have been captured from the field adjoining the Biological Departments, Calcutta University, mostly in the months of August and September 1943–44. The testes were dissected out in Ringer's solution (cold-blooded formula) and fixed in Medium Flemming, Belling's, and Kahle's fixatives. The two latter were very suitable for smear preparations. Sections were cut at 25 to 30 micra in thickness and stained in iodine-crystal violet and in Heidenhain's hæmatoxylin. A 2 per cent, solution of safranin also gave good results. Squash preparations were stained by Feulgen's method. Diplotene stages in Phlœoba were studied from temporary aceto-carmine preparations.
The meridional circulation of the Sun is observationally found to vary with the solar cycle, becoming slower during the solar maxima. We explain this by constructing a theoretical model in which the equation of the meridional circulation (the φ component of the vorticity equation) is coupled with the equations of the flux transport dynamo model. We find that the Lorentz force of the dynamo-generated magnetic fields can slow down the meridional circulation during the solar maxima in broad conformity with the observations.
The polar magnetic field of the Sun is a manifestation of certain aspects of the dynamo process and is a good precursor for predicting a sunspot cycle before its onset. Although actual synoptic measurements of this field exist only from the mid-1970s, it has now been possible to determine its evolution from the beginning of the twentieth century with the help of various proxies. The recently developed 3D kinematic dynamo model can study the build-up of the Sun’s polar magnetic field more realistically than the earlier surface flux transport model.
Neurodevelopmental impairment is increasingly recognised as a potentially disabling outcome of CHD and formal evaluation is recommended for high-risk patients. However, data are lacking regarding the proportion of eligible children who actually receive neurodevelopmental evaluation, and barriers to follow-up are unclear. We examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure to attend neurodevelopmental follow-up clinic after infant cardiac surgery.
Survivors of infant (<1 year) cardiac surgery at our institution (4/2011-3/2014) were included. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated in neurodevelopmental clinic attendees and non-attendees in univariate and multivariable analyses.
A total of 552 patients were included; median age at surgery was 2.4 months, 15% were premature, and 80% had moderate–severe CHD. Only 17% returned for neurodevelopmental evaluation, with a median age of 12.4 months. In univariate analysis, non-attendees were older at surgery, had lower surgical complexity, fewer non-cardiac anomalies, shorter hospital stay, and lived farther from the surgical center. Non-attendee families had lower income, and fewer were college graduates or had private insurance. In multivariable analysis, lack of private insurance remained independently associated with non-attendance (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, p=0.01), with a trend towards significance for distance from surgical center (adjusted odds ratio 2.86, p=0.054 for ⩾200 miles).
The majority of infants with CHD at high risk for neurodevelopmental dysfunction evaluated in this study are not receiving important neurodevelopmental evaluation. Efforts to remove financial/insurance barriers, increase access to neurodevelopmental clinics, and better delineate other barriers to receipt of neurodevelopmental evaluation are needed.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
Emerging CVD risk factors (e.g. HDL function and central haemodynamics) may account for residual CVD risk experienced by individuals who meet LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) targets. Recent evidence suggests that these emerging risk factors can be modified by polyphenol-rich interventions such as soya, but additional research is needed. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an isoflavone-containing soya protein isolate (delivering 25 and 50 g/d soya protein) on HDL function (i.e. ex vivo cholesterol efflux), macrovascular function and blood markers of CVD risk. Middle-aged adults (n 20; mean age=51·6 (sem 6·6) years) with moderately elevated brachial BP (mean systolic BP=129 (sem 9) mmHg; mean diastolic BP=82·5 (sem 8·4) mmHg) consumed 0 (control), 25 and 50 g/d soya protein in a randomised cross-over design. Soya and control powders were consumed for 6 weeks each with a 2-week compliance break between treatment periods. Blood samples and vascular function measures were obtained at baseline and following each supplementation period. Supplementation with 50 g/d soya protein significantly reduced brachial diastolic BP (−2·3 mmHg) compared with 25 g/d soya protein (Tukey-adjusted P=0·03) but not the control. Soya supplementation did not improve ex vivo cholesterol efflux, macrovascular function or other blood markers of CVD risk compared with the carbohydrate-matched control. Additional research is needed to clarify whether effects on these CVD risk factors depend on the relative health of participants and/or equol producing capacity.
Large volumes of data and multiple computing platforms are now universal components of paediatric cardiovascular medicine, but are in a constant state of evolution. Often, multiple sets of related data reside in disconnected “silos”, resulting in clinical, administrative, and research activities that may be duplicative, inefficient, and at times inaccurate. Comprehensive and integrated data solutions are needed to facilitate these activities across congenital heart centres. We describe methodology, key considerations, successful use cases, and lessons learnt in developing an integrated data platform across our congenital heart centre.
This study evaluated dosimetric parameters for cervical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment using varying dose prescription methods.
This study includes 125 tandem-based cervical HDR brachytherapy treatment plans of 25 patients who received HDR brachytherapy. Delineation of high-risk clinical target volumes (HR-CTVs) and organ at risk were done on original computed tomographic images. The dose prescription point was defined as per International Commission in Radiation Units and Measurements Report Number 38 (ICRU-38), also redefined using American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) 2011 criteria. The coverage index (V100) for each HR-CTV was calculated using dose volume histogram parameters. A plot between HR-CTV and V100 was plotted using the best-fit linear regression line (least-square fit analysis).
Mean prescribed dose to ICRU-38 Point A was 590·47±28·65 cGy, and to ABS Point A was 593·35±30·42 cGy. There was no statistically significant difference between planned ICRU-38 and calculated ABS Point A doses (p=0·23). The plot between HR-CTV and V100 is well defined by the best-fit linear regression line with a correlation coefficient of 0·9519.
For cervical HDR brachytherapy, dose prescription to an arbitrarily defined point (e.g., Point A) does not provide consistent coverage of HR-CTV. The difference in coverage between two dose prescription approaches increases with increasing CTV. Our ongoing work evaluates the dosimetric consequences of volumetric dose prescription approaches for these patients.
Task-sharing is the involvement of non-specialist providers to deliver mental health services. A challenge for task-sharing programs is to achieve and maintain clinical competence of non-specialists, including primary care workers, paraprofessionals, and lay providers. We developed a tool for non-specialist peer ratings of common factors clinical competency to evaluate and optimize competence during training and supervision in global mental health task-sharing initiatives.
The 18-item ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) tool was pilot-tested with non-specialists participating in mental health Gap Action Programme trainings in Nepal. Qualitative process evaluation was used to document development of the peer rating scoring system. Qualitative data included interviews with trainers and raters as well as transcripts of pre- and post-training observed structured clinical evaluations.
Five challenges for non-specialist peer ratings were identified through the process evaluation: (1) balance of training and supervision objectives with research objectives; (2) burden for peer raters due to number of scale items, number of response options, and use of behavioral counts; (3) capturing hierarchy of clinical skills; (4) objective v. subjective aspects of rating; and (5) social desirability when rating peers.
The process culminated in five recommendations based on the key findings for the development of scales to be used by non-specialists for peer ratings in low-resource settings. Further research is needed to determine the ability of ENACT to capture the relationship of clinical competence with client outcomes and to explore the relevance of these recommendations for non-specialist peer ratings in high-resource settings.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
To estimate and compare the impact on healthcare costs of 3 alternative strategies for reducing bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit (ICU): methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares screening and isolation, targeted decolonization (ie, screening, isolation, and decolonization of MRSA carriers or infections), and universal decolonization (ie, no screening and decolonization of all ICU patients).
Cost analysis using decision modeling.
We developed a decision-analysis model to estimate the health care costs of targeted decolonization and universal decolonization strategies compared with a strategy of MRSA nares screening and isolation. Effectiveness estimates were derived from a recent randomized trial of the 3 strategies, and cost estimates were derived from the literature.
In the base case, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy and was estimated to have both lower intervention costs and lower total ICU costs than either screening and isolation or targeted decolonization. Compared with screening and isolation, universal decolonization was estimated to save $171,000 and prevent 9 additional bloodstream infections for every 1,000 ICU admissions. The dominance of universal decolonization persisted under a wide range of cost and effectiveness assumptions.
A strategy of universal decolonization for patients admitted to the ICU would both reduce bloodstream infections and likely reduce healthcare costs compared with strategies of MRSA nares screening and isolation or screening and isolation coupled with targeted decolonization.
A total of 34 tomato genotypes (24 F1+10 parents) were tested for resistance to tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) disease by various whitefly inoculation techniques under field and insect-proof glasshouse (mass and cage) conditions. Of the ten tomato parental lines, two accessions [EC-520061 (Solanum habrochaites) and EC-521080 (Solanum pimpinellifolium)] were identified as highly resistant while four accessions (EC-520049, EC-528372, WIR-5032 and WIR-3957) of wild species were resistant to ToLCV. Out of the 24 F1 crosses, PBC×EC-520061, H-86×EC-520061, H-24×EC-520061 and DVRT-2×EC-520061 were found to be highly resistant against ToLCV disease. Biochemical (total phenol and total sugar concentration) and physiological (chlorophyll content and leaf area index) parameters were also used in healthy and disease-inoculated leaves of ten parents and six F1 hybrids to test the conformity of ToLCV-resistant and susceptible disease reactions. The results showed that among the 16 genotypes (10 parents+6 F1), EC-520061, EC-520049, PBC×EC-520061 and H-86×EC-520061 were stable for both biochemical and physiological markers while EC-521080 showed higher accumulations of total phenol and sugar concentrations and reduced leaf size between healthy and disease-inoculated leaves. The present study demonstrates the importance of the whitefly inoculation technique and biochemical and physiological markers in virus resistance screening programmes, and identifies a potential source of resistance to the ToLCV in Solanum species.
Crop biofortification is increasingly being recognized as a cost-effective and sustainable approach to address the widespread micronutrient malnutrition arising from Fe and Zn deficiencies. Pearl millet as a cereal crop species has higher Fe density than all other major cereals. Earlier studies in pearl millet have shown that breeding lines, hybrid parents, improved populations and composites having high Fe and Zn densities were often based largely or entirely on iniadi pearl millet germplasm. In an attempt to identify additional sources of high Fe density in this group of germplasm, 297 accessions were screened using Perl's Prussian Blue staining, of which 191 accessions (118 from Togo, 62 from Ghana and 11 from Burkina Faso) were re-evaluated during the 2010 rainy and 2012 summer seasons using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy method. On the basis of the mean performance over the two seasons (environments), large variability was observed for both Fe (51–121 mg/kg) and Zn (46–87 mg/kg) densities. There was a highly significant and positive correlation between the two micronutrients (r= 0.77, P< 0.01). Of these re-evaluated accessions, 49% had higher Fe density than the high-Fe control commercial cultivar ICTP 8203 (81 mg/kg), and most of these accessions also had Zn density ≥ 61 mg/kg (59 mg/kg for ICTP 8203). A total of 27 accessions (20 from Togo and seven from Ghana) having a Fe density of 95–121 mg/kg (1 standard error of difference above that for ICTP 8203) and a Zn density of 59–87 mg/kg were selected as a valuable germplasm resource for genetic improvement of these two micronutrients in pearl millet.
Tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV) is a major viral disease in tomato that causes quantitative and qualitative losses to the crop. One hundred and fifty three tomato genotypes were screened for three consecutive years (2006–09) under glasshouse and field conditions for TLCV resistance. The incidence of disease was higher during the Rabi season as compared to the Kharif season trials. The reactions of different genotypes were studied by artificial inoculation. Based on the coefficient of infection, nine genotypes (viz. EC-520049 (Solanum chmielewskii), EC-520058, EC-520060 and EC-520061 (S. habrochaites), EC-520070, EC-520071, EC-520077, EC-520079 (S. pimpinellifolium) and H-88-78-1(S. lycopersicum; a derivative of S. habrochaites f. glabratum) were found to be highly resistant in both environments. H-88-78-1 was used for inheritance studies during 2008–10. Using F2 Mendelian segregation, populations showed a 3 (resistant):1 (susceptible) ratio for TLCV disease and were proposed to have both additive and dominant non-allelic gene interactions for various traits.
Nanostructured Al3+ doped Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2-xAlxO4 (x = 0.0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8, and 1.0) ferrites were synthesized via wet chemical method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements have been used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of spinel ferrites calcined at 950 °C .With the doping of Al3+, the particle size of Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2-xAlxO4 first increased to 47 nm at x = 0.4 and then decreased down to 37 nm at x = 1. Saturation magnetization decreased linearly with Al3+ due to magnetic dilution. The coercive field showed an inverse dependence on the particle size of ferrites.
In this work, we report the effect of high energy ball milling (HEBM) on Nb doped R2Fe16Nb1 (R= Gd, Er) compounds. The focus of the work is to bring enhancement in magnetic properties of R2Fe17 (2:17) compounds with the ball milling. Specifically, we find that the ball milling increases saturation magnetization, coercivity, and Curie temperature. The increase in the magnetization and Curie temperature upon ball milling is related to the lattice expansion and microstrains while the increase in coercivity is related to the grain refinement.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.