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The ammonia molecule is known to be useful as a probe for studying conditions inside interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres. Correct interpretation of interstellar and planetary spectra need to be supported by adequate laboratory measurements. in the present studies we report the high resolution Fourier transform spectra of ammonia recorded with a pathlength of 192m at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Transitions with intensities that are two orders of magnitude weaker than those that have been reported earlier, have been observed and assigned. These include high J transitions, hot bands and forbidden transitions. These transitions are not saturated under long paths such as those available in planetary atmospheres and are therefore useful in the estimation of temperatures. The forbidden transitions have been processed with other relevant data to provide complete information on the energy levels. Such information is required for the calculation of equilibrium population of energy levels and partition functions, which go into the estimation of spectral intensities and abundances in terrestrial, interstellar and planetary atmospheres.
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are highly prevalent in the working population, and are associated with long-term sickness absence and disability. Workers on sick leave with CMDs would benefit from interventions that enable them to successfully return to work (RTW). However, the effectiveness of RTW interventions for workers with a CMD is not well studied. The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of existing workplace and clinical interventions that were aimed at enhancing RTW. A systematic review of studies of interventions for improving RTW in workers with a CMD was conducted. The main outcomes were proportion of RTW and sick-leave duration until RTW. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SocINDEX, and Human resource and management databases from January 1995 to 2016. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We pooled studies that we deemed sufficiently homogeneous in different comparison groups and assessed the overall quality of the evidence. We reviewed 2347 abstracts from which 136 full-text articles were reviewed and 16 RCTs were included in the analysis. Combined results from these studies suggested that the available interventions did not lead to improved RTW rates over the control group [pooled risk ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.12], but reduced the number of sick-leave days in the intervention group compared to the control group, with a mean difference of −13.38 days (95% CI −24.07 to −2.69).
Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors produce 14C by neutron activation of trace quantities of nitrogen in annular gas and reactor components (14N(n,p)14C), and from 17O in the heavy water moderator by (17O(n,α)14C). The radiocarbon produced in the moderator is removed on ion exchange resins incorporated in the water purification systems; however, a much smaller gaseous portion is vented from reactor stacks at activity levels considerably below 1% of permissible derived emission limits. Early measurements of the carbon speciation indicated that >90% of the 14C emitted was in the form of CO2. We conducted surveys of the atmospheric dispersion of 14CO2 at the Chalk River Laboratories and at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. We analyzed air, vegetation, soils and tree rings to add to the historical record of 14C emissions at these sites, and to gain an understanding of the relative importance of the various carbon pools that act as sources/sinks within the total 14C budget. Better model parameters than those currently available for calculating the dose to the critical group can be obtained in this manner. Global dose estimates may require the development of techniques for estimating emissions occurring outside the growing season.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We have made photometric observations of the galactic superluminal jet source GRS 1915+105 in the energy bands of 2-6 and 6-18 keV during 1997 June 12-29 and August 8-10. During our observations, different types of very intense, quasi-regular X-ray bursts have been observed from this source. We present here the light curves and the power density spectra of our observation of this source in its bright state.
We have made observations of the black hole binary Cyg X-1 with the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE). Observations made with time resolution ranging from 0.4 ms to 1 s showed variations and flaring activity on sub-sec and longer time scales. Results on time variability on different time scales and flaring characteristics in the two states of Cyg X-1 are presented.
We present the results of an analysis of the spectra obtained for a sample of 27 Am stars. We find evidence for the presence of groups amongst these stars and argue that all Am stars exhibit a pseudo–luminosity effect.
We report fast photometric observations on AM CANUM VENATICORUM (AM CVn) the ultra short period, hydrogen deficient variable. We have detected on 24th February, 1985 an intense flare of (Δm)peak≈0.34 in white light lasting over 200s. Following this flare we observe an enhanced double humped structure lasting for 1051s which is the dominant periodicity exhibited by AM CVn. We have also detected the 525s and 1051s periods. In addition, we report flickerings, lasting typically 1-2 minutes, that are characteristic of cataclysmic variables.
The MK morphology of the spectra in the region λλ 3850-4400 Å of 28 Am stars has brought to light the tendency of these stars to form into groups in contrast to earlier findings by various authors (S. Sreedhar Rao & K. D. Abhyankar, 1991). The potential of such a study is seen in the revelation of the inherent flexibility of the stars in this sample, apparently leading to a selective binning of the species with distinctly similar signatures, viz., Ca ll K and Sr ll 4077 features, the blue and violet regions and the Am-shell features. These are found to be the essential discriminants on the basis of which a multi-dimensional classification of Am spectra in the domain of the MK process is attempted.
We present here new results on the periodic modulations in the optical light curves of EX Hydrae observed during 1982–84. The period analysis has been done using synchronous summation and discrete Fourier transform methods. We report new periodicities at 34.7 min and 26.7 min apart from confirming the detection of 46.3 min modulation recently reported. We also include our data to derive the rate of decrease of the 67 min period.
Photoelectric observations of the long period RS CVn type eclipsing binary RZ Eridani were made with the 1.2m reflecting telescope of the Japal – Rangapur Observatory during the observing seasons 1976-79. We could not obtain a full light curve in any one season and therefore the combined light curve is used for analysis. No distortion wave was found in this system. The period of the system (39ḍ282466) is found to be constant during the period 1906 to 1979. From W-D solution we obtained the eccentricity to be zero whereas Popper (private communication) from his spectroscopie studies, suggested a value of e = 0.339 for the eccentricity. Such disagreement between the photometric & spectroscopic eccentricity values is reported in the system SX Cas (Struve 1944 Ap.J, 99, 89., Shao 1967 A.J, 72, 480). This might be due to circumstellar matter covering the whole system. The ultraviolet excess found by us in RZ Eri is similar to that found in systems like SX Cas, RX Cas, βLyr & W Ser
Nanostructured quantum well and quantum dot solar cells are being widely
investigated as a means of extending infrared absorption and enhancing
photovoltaic device performance. In this work, we describe the impact of
nanostructured layer number on the performance of flexible, highvoltage
InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells. Multiple quantum well structures are
observed to have a higher short circuit current but a lower open circuit voltage
than similar single quantum well structures. Analysis of the underlying dark
diode characteristics indicate that these highvoltage structures are limited by
radiative recombination at high bias levels. The results of this study suggest
that future development efforts should focus on maximizing the current
generating capability of a limited number of nanostructured layers and
minimizing recombination within the nanostructured absorber.
Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31–.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women. (JINS, 2015, 21, 745–756)
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
Crop biofortification is increasingly being recognized as a cost-effective and sustainable approach to address the widespread micronutrient malnutrition arising from Fe and Zn deficiencies. Pearl millet as a cereal crop species has higher Fe density than all other major cereals. Earlier studies in pearl millet have shown that breeding lines, hybrid parents, improved populations and composites having high Fe and Zn densities were often based largely or entirely on iniadi pearl millet germplasm. In an attempt to identify additional sources of high Fe density in this group of germplasm, 297 accessions were screened using Perl's Prussian Blue staining, of which 191 accessions (118 from Togo, 62 from Ghana and 11 from Burkina Faso) were re-evaluated during the 2010 rainy and 2012 summer seasons using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy method. On the basis of the mean performance over the two seasons (environments), large variability was observed for both Fe (51–121 mg/kg) and Zn (46–87 mg/kg) densities. There was a highly significant and positive correlation between the two micronutrients (r= 0.77, P< 0.01). Of these re-evaluated accessions, 49% had higher Fe density than the high-Fe control commercial cultivar ICTP 8203 (81 mg/kg), and most of these accessions also had Zn density ≥ 61 mg/kg (59 mg/kg for ICTP 8203). A total of 27 accessions (20 from Togo and seven from Ghana) having a Fe density of 95–121 mg/kg (1 standard error of difference above that for ICTP 8203) and a Zn density of 59–87 mg/kg were selected as a valuable germplasm resource for genetic improvement of these two micronutrients in pearl millet.
We have fabricated by pulse laser deposition very thin (∼5-7 nm) and thick (∼27-408 nm) films of composition Fe66B24Nb4Ni6 on silicon and quartz substrates respectively, and studied their magnetic and magneto-optic properties at room temperature. We find that the thicker films on silicon can be tuned by appropriate thermal annealing to exploit soft magnetic characteristics with low HC, and high MS values. The magnetic hysteretic loops of the as-deposited thicker films on silicon substrates show two interesting characteristics: 1) increase in the coercivity with the film thickness and 2) the onset of a two stage process during the approach to magnetic saturation. The initial in-plane characteristic of the hysteresis loop is followed by a linear anisotropic behavior between remanence and saturation- that changes into square soft-magnetic loops on decreasing the film thickness. By suitable annealing the intrinsic strain disappears at relatively low temperatures (≤200 oC); the thicker films can be tailored to exhibit a simple soft-magnetic square loop with low HC. The ∼5-7 nm films deposited on glass are transparent and have been investigated for their magneto-optic properties using Faraday rotation (FR) measurement technique. Very high values of FR in the range 4-20 deg/µm almost linearly dependent on the wavelength of light in the range 405-611 nm are observed. The observed high values of Faraday rotation over a wide range of wavelength of light are useful for the applications as magneto-optic sensors in the UV to visible range.