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In search of a suitable resource conservation technology under pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the effects of conservation agriculture (CA) on crop productivity and water-use efficiency (WUE) were evaluated during a 3-year study. The treatments were: conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT) with planting on permanent narrow beds (PNB), PNB with residue (PNB + R), ZT with planting on permanent broad beds (PBB) and PBB + R. The PBB + R plots had higher pigeonpea grain yield than the CT plots in all 3 years. However, wheat grain yields under all plots were similar in all years except for PBB + R plots in the second year, which had higher wheat yield than CT plots. The contrast analysis showed that pigeonpea grain yield of CA plots was significantly higher than CT plots in the first year. However, both pigeonpea and wheat grain yields during the last 2 years under CA and CT plots were similar. The PBB + R plots had higher system WUE than the CT plots in the second and third years. Plots under CA had significantly higher WUE and significantly lower water use than CT plots in these years. The PBB + R plots had higher WUE than PNB + R and PNB plots. Also, the PBB plots had higher WUE than PNB in the second and third years, despite similar water use. The interactions of bed width and residue management for all parameters in the second and third years were not significant. Those positive impacts under PBB + R plots over CT plots were perceived to be due to no tillage and significantly higher amount of estimated residue retention. Thus, both PBB and PBB + R technologies would be very useful under a pigeonpea–wheat cropping system in this region.
Radio frequency (RF) and microwave amplifier research has been largely focused on solid-state technology in recent years. This paper presents design and performance characterization of a 50-kW modular solid-state amplifier, operating at 505.8 MHz. It includes architecture selection and design procedures based on circuit and EM simulations for its building blocks like solid-state amplifier modules, combiners, dividers, and directional couplers. Key performance objectives such as efficiency, return loss, and amplitude/phase imbalance are discussed for this amplifier for real-time operation. This amplifier is serving as the state-of-the-art RF source in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source. Characterization on component level as well as system level of this amplifier serves useful data for RF designers working in communication and particle accelerator fields.
Multi quantum wells of InGaAs/InP grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been irradiated using swift heavy ions. Irradiation has been performed using 150MeV Ag and 200MeV Au ions. Both as-grown and irradiated samples were subjected to rapid thermal annealing at 500 and 7000C for 60s. As-grown, irradiated and annealed samples were subjected to high resolution x-ray diffraction studies. Both symmetric and asymmetric scans were analyzed. The as-grown and Ag ion irradiated samples show sharp and highly ordered satellite peaks whereas, the Au ion irradiated samples show broad and low intense peaks. The higher order satellite peaks of the annealed samples vanished with increase of annealing temperature from 500 to 7000C, indicating mixing induced interfacial disorder. Annealing of irradiated samples show higher mixing and disorder and no higher order satellite peaks were observed. Negligible strain was observed after high temperature annealing of as grown samples. Strain values calculated from the X-ray studies indicate that the irradiated samples have higher strain which has been reduced upon annealing. This indicates that the annealing induced mixing occurs maintaining the lattice parameter close to that of the substrate. The effect of electronic energy loss for interface mixing has been discussed in detail. The role of incident ion fluence in combination with the electronic energy loss will also be discussed in detail. The results have been compared with the literature and discussed in detail.
High fluences of low energy Ge+ ions were implanted into Si matrix. We have also deposited Ge and SiO2 composite films by using the Atom beam sputtering (ABS). The as implanted/as-deposited films were irradiated by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) with various energies and fluences. These pristine and irradiated samples were subsequently characterized by XRD and Raman to understand the crystallization behavior. Raman studies of the films indicate the formation of Ge crystallites as a result of SHI irradiation. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction results also confirm the presence of Ge crystallites in the irradiated samples. Moreover, the crystalline nature of Ge improves with an increase in fluence. Rutherford back scattering was used to quantify the concentration of Ge in SiO2 matrix and the film thickness. These detailed results have been discussed and compared with the ones available in literature. The basic mechanism for crystallization induced by SHI in these films will be presented.
Epitaxial AlGaN/GaN layers grown by MBE on SiC substrates were irradiated with 150 MeV Ag ions at a fluence of 5×1012 ions/cm2. AlGaN/GaN MQWs were grown on Sapphire substrate by MOCVD and irradiated with 200 MeV Au8+ ions at a fluence of 5×1011 ions/cm2 . These samples were used to study the effects of SHI on optical properties of AlGaN/GaN based nano structures. RBS/Channelling strain measurements were carried out at off normal axis of irradiated and unirradiated samples. In as grown samples, AlGaN layer is partially relaxed with a small compressive strain. After irradiation this compressive strain increases by 0.22% in AlGaN layer. Incident ion energy dependence of dechannelling parameter shows E1/2 dependence, which corresponds to the dislocations. Defect densities were calculated from the E1/2 graph. As a result of irradiation defect density increased on both GaN and AlGaN layer. Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN MQWs before and after irradiation have been analyzed using PL. This study shows that SHI increase the confinement effects in the MQWs and intensity of the active layer of the MQWs luminescence is increased by one order. This may be due to the induced strain in GaN and AlGaN layers. Some unwanted yellow luminescence has also been introduced by the SHI possibly due the point defects or defect luminescence from the induced dislocations in GaN bulk epitaxial layers. In this study, we present some new results concerning high energy irradiation on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures and MQWs characterized by RBS/Channelling and PL.
This paper examines the trends in utilization of five indicators of reproductive and child health services, namely, childhood immunization, medical assistance at delivery, antenatal care, contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception, by wealth index of the household in India and two disparate states, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. The data from three rounds of the National Family and Health Survey conducted during 1992–2005 are analysed. The wealth index is computed using principal component derived weights from a set of consumer durables, land size, housing quality and water and sanitation facilities of the household, and classified into quintiles for all three rounds. Bivariate analyses, rich–poor ratio and concentration index are used to understand the trends in utilization of, and inequality in, reproductive and child health services. The results indicate huge disparities in utilization of these services, largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Utilization of basic childhood immunization among the poorest and the poor stagnated in India, as well as in both states, during 1998–2005 compared with 1992–1998. The use of maternal care services such as medical assistance at delivery and antenatal care remained at a low level among the poor over this period. However, contraceptive use increased relatively faster among the poor, even with higher unmet need. Of all these services, the inequality in medical assistance at delivery is consistently large, while that of contraceptive use is small. The state-level differences in service coverage by wealth quintiles over time are large.
The continuous wavelet transform is studied on certain Gel'fand–Shilov spaces of type S. It is shown that, for wavelets belonging to the one type of S-space defined on R, the wavelet transform is a continuous linear map of the other type of the S-space into a space of the same type (latter type) defined on R × R+. The wavelet transforms of certain ultradifferentiable functions are also investigated.
The pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is commonly used for head and neck reconstruction especially in impoverished nations. PMMC is a sturdy pedicled flap with relatively fewer complications, the learning curve is short and no specialized training in microvascular surgery is needed in order to use this flap. In a defect that requires a large skin and mucosal lining the authors routinely use either a bi-paddle PMMC or a combination of PMMC (for the mucosal lining) and a delto-pectoral flap (for the skin defect). It is indisputable that free tissue transfer is a better way of reconstruction for the majority of most such defects. Unfortunately, not all patients can be offered this form of reconstruction due to the cost, time, expertise and infrastructural constraints in high volume centres such as ours. Bi-paddling of PMMC is hazardous in obese males and most female patients. In such patients the skin defect is reconstructed usually by the delto-pectoral (DP) flap but this, for obvious reasons, is less welcomed by the patients. The authors suggest a technique wherein mucosal lining is created by the myofascial lining (inner surface) of the flap and the skin defect is reconstructed by the skin paddle of the single paddle PMMC. It should be considered wherever a DP flap is unacceptable, or bi-paddling or free tissue transfer is not possible.
In this paper, we introduce a new class of set-valued mappings in a non-convex setting called D-KKM mappings and prove a general D-KKM theorem. This extends and improves the KKM theorem for several families of set-valued mappings, such as (X, Y), C(X, Y), C (X, Y), C (X, Y) and C (X, Y). In the sequel, we apply our theorem to get some existence results for maximal elements, generalised variational inequalities, and price equilibria.
Sintering studies on Y–Ba–Cu oxide (YBCO)–Agx (x = 0, 0.6, and 1.0 mol) powder were carried out in argon atmosphere to understand the role of silver addition on the densification behavior of these materials. The increase of sintered densities of the compacts with silver addition in argon atmosphere contradicted our earlier observation on sintering of YBCO–Agx powder compacts in air, where the densities decreased for x > 0.6. Thermogravimetric (TG) studies under argon atmosphere indicate a continuous decrease of mass on heating suggesting an enhanced rate of oxygen removal from the YBCO matrix that facilitated the sintering in argon atmosphere. Sintering studies of YBCO–Agx powder compacts in argon in conjunction with earlier observations in air has substantiated our claim that high-temperature oxygen desorption by the silver from the YBCO matrix to the sintering atmosphere controls the rate of densification for these superconducting composites. However, the apparent activation energies for sintering suggest that the sintering process is controlled by yttrium ion diffusion along bulk and grain boundaries.
A detailed study on the sintering behavior of zirconium diboride powder produced by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process was carried out in the temperature range of 1500–1800 °C. The fine powder prepared by the SHS process exhibited excellent sinterability and could be sintered at 1800 °C for 1 h to approximately 94% of the theoretical density. The apparent activation energy of densification in the range of 1500–1800 °C was estimated to be 248 ± 4 kJ mol−1. A zirconium dioxide layer formed on the surface of the sintered body and was attributed to boron oxide formation during sintering and concurrent surface oxidation by the oxygen generated from the reduction of boron oxide in the carbonaceous atmosphere. Sintering aids like Fe and Cr appeared to help in densification of ZrB2 powder.
The sintering characteristics of Y–Ba–Cu–oxide (YBCO)–Agx (x = 0 to 1.2) using thermomechanical analyzer were systematically investigated to understand the sintering mechanism of the metal superconductor composites. The addition of Ag was observed to lower the sintering temperatures, and the apparent densities of the sintered compacts increased with x from 0 to 0.6. A further increase of x above 0.6 decreased the apparent densities of the sintered compacts. The presence of Ag globules in the YBCO–Ag compacts was observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The apparent activation energies for sintering of the powder compacts were estimated and observed to vary between 900 to 2000 kJ/mol. The formation of AgOx by absorbing oxygen from YBCO and sintering atmosphere possibly controls the sintering and superconducting behavior. Incorporation of Ag into the matrix modifies the weak-link characteristics from superconductor–insulator– normal–superconductor (S–I–N–S) to superconductor–normal–superconductor (S–N–S) type.
A detailed study of the sintering behavior of titanium carbide (TiC) powder synthesized by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) route was carried out with varying percentages of nickel. With an increase in the nickel content, porosity was found to increase along with Ni2.67Ti1.33 secondary phase at grain boundary. A 90–92% dense sintered body of TiC was produced from SHS-produced powder at 1800 °C with 10 wt% nickel.
The prevalence of campylobacter gastroenteritis has been estimated
by bacterial isolation using
selective culture. However, there is evidence that certain species and
strains are not recovered
on selective agars. We have therefore compared direct PCR assays of faecal
campylobacter culture, and explored the potential of PCR for simultaneous
identification to the species level. Two hundred unselected faecal samples
from cases of acute
gastroenteritis were cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate
subjected to DNA extraction and PCR assay. Culture on CCDA indicated that
16 of the 200
samples contained ‘Campylobacter spp.’.
By contrast, PCR assays detected campylobacters in
19 of the 200 samples, including 15 of the culture-positive samples, and
further identified them
as: C. jejuni (16), C. coli (2) and C. hyointestinalis
(1). These results show that PCR offers a
different perspective on the incidence and identity of campylobacters in
Zemanian  obtained abelian theorems for the Hankel and K-transforms of functions and then extended his results to the corresponding transforms of distributions in the sense of Schwartz . Jones  has discussed at length asymptotic behaviours of transforms generalized in his sense. Following the technique of Zemanian many authors have obtained abelian theorems for more general transforms of functions and distributions in the sense of Schwartz. Mention may be made of the works of Joshi and Saxena , Lavoine and Misra  and Pathak . However, these authors were confined to the transforms of real variables only.
This theoretical and experimental investigation inquires into the various steady and unsteady motions that are possible when a highly viscous liquid partly fills a closed circular cylinder rotated about its horizontal axis at constant angular velocity. Fillings leaving an air bubble in the range roughly 10-20% by volume provide the most lively variety of observable phenomena.
The full hydrodynamic problem is too complicated to be amenable to quantitative theoretical treatment, except by numerical analysis which is not yet available; but the abstract qualitative theory developed in § 2 appears to capture all the essentials of experimentally found behaviour. An analogous finite-dimensional system, such as would be presented by a close finite-element approximation, is used to illuminate principles governing the order of multiple solutions and their stability. Then the connection between the full problem and the analogue is demonstrated. Finally a simple argument is outlined confirming the observed stability of the motion at small rates of rotation.
The experiments are described in § 3 and their results presented in § 4. For various values of the cylinder's aspect ratio, estimated singularities of the time-independent solution set are recorded as several-branched graphs of ωv/gR versus volume fraction filled by liquid (ω is the angular velocity of the container, R its radius and v the kinematic viscosity of the liquid). The experimental observations are discussed in § 5.
Counter current Immunoelectrophoresis was used to detect porcine cysticcrcosis and water soluble extracts of scolex and of scolex with cyst wall were used as antigens. Serum samples from 40 pigs infected with Cysticercus cellulosae, five infected with C. tenuicollis and five with hydatid cysts, and 15 healthy pigs were tested. A sharp and thick concave precipitin band was observed at the point of interaction of antigen and antibody within 90min in 39 sera from infected pigs (97–5%). The precipitin reaction was better in barbitone buffer of pH 8–6 with the well distance at 6 mm. No false or cross reaction were found and the test was rapid and sensitive.
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