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Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Keel bone damage included fractures and/or deviations, and was recorded, alongside with other animal based measures, by palpation and visual inspection of at least 50 randomly collected hens per flock between 52 and 73 weeks of age. Management and housing data were obtained by interviews, inspection and by feed analysis. Keel bone damage flock prevalences ranged from 3% to 88%. Compiled on the basis of literature and practical experience, 26 potential associative factors of KBD went into an univariable selection by Spearman correlation analysis or Mann–Whitney U test (with P<0.1 level). The resulting nine factors were presented to stepwise forward linear regression modelling. Aviary v. floor systems, absence of natural daylight in the hen house, a higher proportion of underweight birds, as well as a higher laying performance were found to be significantly associated with a higher percentage of hens with KBD. The final model explained 32% of the variation in KBD between farms. The moderate explanatory value of the model underlines the multifactorial nature of KBD. Based on the results increased attention should be paid to an adequate housing design and lighting that allows the birds easy orientation and safe manoeuvring in the system. Furthermore, feeding management should aim at sufficient bird live weights that fulfil breeder weight standards. In order to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between laying performance, feed management and KBD further investigations are needed.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with abnormal cognitive and emotional functions and these dysfunctions may be dependent on the disruption of dynamic interactions within neuronal circuits associated with emotion regulation. Although several studies have shown the aberrant cognitive–affective processing in OCD patients, little is known about how to characterize effective connectivity of the disrupted neural interactions. In the present study, we applied effective connectivity analysis using dynamic causal modeling to explore the disturbed neural interactions in OCD patients.
A total of 20 patients and 21 matched healthy controls performed a delayed-response working memory task under emotional or non-emotional distraction while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
During the delay interval under negative emotional distraction, both groups showed similar patterns of activations in the amygdala. However, under negative emotional distraction, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited significant differences between groups. Bayesian model averaging indicated that the connection from the DLPFC to the OFC was negatively modulated by negative emotional distraction in patients, when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected).
Exaggerated recruitment of the DLPFC may induce the reduction of top-down prefrontal control input over the OFC, leading to abnormal cortico-cortical interaction. This disrupted cortico-cortical interaction under negative emotional distraction may be responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive and emotional processing in OCD patients and may be a component of the pathophysiology associated with OCD.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
To identify clinical factors that can explain the differences in treatment outcome, and examine the value of human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic biomarker in stage IVa tonsillar carcinomas.
Fifty-nine patients with tonsillar carcinoma classified as stage IVa were retrospectively analysed for survival outcomes according to various clinical factors. Human papillomavirus infection was evaluated using a human papillomavirus DNA chip test and immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53.
Lower disease-free survival rates were associated with increasing local invasiveness and nodal status. Although human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression was more common in locally advanced tonsillar carcinomas with advanced nodal status, the overall survival rate was better for patients with human papillomavirus positive, p16-positive tumours.
The disease-free survival rate may differ according to local tumour invasiveness and nodal status, even for stage IVa tonsillar cancers. Human papillomavirus infection may be a useful biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes for stage VIa tumours.
We have developed a low cost and convenient approach to fabricate ITO-comparable transparent electrodes by using solution process of silver nanowires mixed with poly peroxotitanic acid (PPT) gel. The PPT gel is applied to connect the dispersed silver nanowires to preserve its high conductivity while remaining transparency and reducing surface roughness of the transparent electrode. The silver nanowires were synthesized via a modified polyol method, and the PPT gels were prepared by sol-gel method in appropriate concentrations. After applying the PPT gels, the sheet resistance of the transparent electrodes was improved from 192 Ω/□ to 44.7 Ω/□ with a transmittance of 81 %. And the roughness (RMS) was decreased from 106.3 nm to 48.1 nm. The PPT gel also improved the reliability of the proposed electrodes, which the conductivity was remained after general atmospheric storage of 6 months. We also demonstrate an Alq3 based OLED with the proposed transparent electrodes.
This study compared the molecular characteristics of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates recovered from 20 non-tertiary-care hospitals (36 isolates) and three tertiary-care hospitals (26 isolates) in diverse geographical areas of Korea from October 2010 to April 2011. All isolates carried the vanA gene only, but 42% and 73% of non-tertiary and tertiary-care isolates expressed the VanB phenotype (teicoplanin minimum inhibitory concentration ⩽16 μg/ml). All isolates harboured insertion sequences, IS1542 and IS1216V, within Tn1546. The isolates from tertiary-care hospitals tended to have reduced Tn1546 lengths by deletion of sequences adjacent to IS elements. Multilocus sequence typing revealed eight sequence types within clonal complex 17 (CC17), but DNA fingerprinting by rep-PCR did not show clonal relatedness between the intra- and inter-hospital isolates. These results suggest that vanA, which has prevailed in tertiary-care hospitals of Korea since the 1990s, had been transferred horizontally to non-tertiary-care hospitals while the genetic rearrangement driven by evolutionary adaptation to adverse environments may have occurred in tertiary-care hospitals.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of post-operative voice therapy after phonomicrosurgery for vocal polyp removal.
The study retrospectively enrolled 55 consecutive patients who had undergone voice therapy after phonomicrosurgery for vocal polyp removal occurring between June 2010 and June 2011. A historical group of 63 similar patients not receiving voice therapy was used as an external control. We compared voice analysis parameters and Voice Handicap Index scores for the two groups.
Most objective and subjective voice outcome parameters were significantly improved after surgical treatment. Although the study and control groups showed no significant difference regarding objective parameters (using acoustic and aerodynamic analysis) or the subjective parameters assessed using the grade-roughness-breathiness-asthenia-strain scale, the study group had significantly better final Voice Handicap Index scores.
Following surgery for vocal polyps, post-operative voice therapy can improve patients' vocal discomfort, emotional responses and everyday self-perception.
To report the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of indolent paranasal mucormycosis in immunocompetent individuals.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective review of four immunocompetent patients with indolent mucormycosis of the paranasal sinus managed by endoscopic sinus surgery only was performed. One year of regular follow up comprised angled endoscopy and repeated paranasal sinus computed tomography three months after surgery.
Clinical symptoms were non-specific. Pre-operative paranasal sinus computed tomography showed opacification of the unilateral maxillary sinus with focal calcification but without bony destruction or extension to the orbit or cranium. All patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery without administration of antifungal agents. There was no recurrence on regular clinical and radiological follow up.
For indolent paranasal mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients, endoscopic sinus surgery can be the treatment of choice, and the administration of antifungal drugs may not be necessary.
The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The
SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by
means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a
17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and 4.3 arcsec resolution (full width half
maximum of the point spread function) The beam-steering mirror enables the SMT to access a
35 × 35degree region and point and settle within 1 sec. All mirrors were fabricated to
about 0.02 wavelengths RMS in wave front error (WFE) and 84.7% average reflectivity over
200 nm ~ 650 nm. The RC telescope was aligned to 0.05 wavelengths RMS in WFE (test
wavelength 632.8 nm). In this paper, the technical details of the RC telescope and slewing
mirror system assembly, integration, and testing are given shortly, and performance tests
of the full SMT optical system are reported.
We report two extremely rare cases of symptomatic nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst treated by powered instrument assisted marsupialisation.
Case report and literature review concerning nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst and surgical treatment methods.
The first case was a two-year-old boy with a 1 × 2 cm, cystic, oropharyngeal mass, who also had severe snoring and sleep apnoea. The second case was a 56-year-old man with right nasal obstruction and a sensation of fullness in the right ear. In both cases, we performed endoscopic marsupialisation using a powered instrument. There was no recurrence in either case over two years of follow up.
Powered instrument marsupialisation is a simple, effective and less invasive technique for the treatment of nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst.
Ion Irradiation on polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) has been carried out to improve adhesion to metal and to adhesive cement. Argon ion was irradiated on the polymer, and amount of Ar+ was changed from 1014 ions/cm2 to l×1017 ions/cm2 at 1 keV, and 4 ml/min of oxygen gas was flowed near the polymer surface during the ion irradiation. Wetting angle was changed from 100 degree to 70 – 150 degree depending on the ion beam condition. The changes of wetting angle and effects of Ar+ irradiation in oxygen environment were explained in a view of surface morphology due to the ion beam irradiation onto PTFE and formation of hydrophilic group due to a reaction between irradiated polymer chain and the blown oxygen. Strongly enhanced adhesions were explained by interlock mechanism, formation of electron acceptor groups on the modified PTFE, and interfacial chemical reaction between the irradiated surface and the deposited materials.
Wettable surface of polymers (advanced wetting angle ∼10° and surface energy ∼ 60 ∼ 70 erg/cm2) have been accomplished by the ion assisted reaction, in which energetic ions are irradiated on polymer with blowing oxygen gas. The energies of ions are varied from 0.5 to 1.5 keV, doses 1014 to 1017 ions/cm2, and blowing rate of oxygen 0 ∼ 8 ml/min. The wetting angles are increased when the wettable polymers were exposed in air, but are remained in pure water. Improvement of surface energy is mainly due to the polar force. Surface analysis shows hydrophilic functional groups such as C=O, (C=O)-O, C-O, etc., are formed without surface damage after the ion assisted reaction treatment. Comparisons between the conventional surface treatments and the ion assisted reaction are described in term of physical bombardment, surface damage, functional group, and chain mobility in polymer.
Copper films on Si(100) were prepared by partially ionized beam at 0 kV and 3 kV acceleration voltages in order to investigate effects of ion energy on electrical property with thickness. X-ray diffraction(XRD) pattern analysis was used to investigate crystallinity of the copper films, microstructure by Scanning electron microscope(SEM) and surface roughness by atomic force microscopy(AFM). The crystallinity of the copper films grown at the 3 kV was more (111) textured than that at the 0 kW. The copper films grown at the both condiitions had nearly same grain size below a thickness of 1000 Å. The 1800 Å Cu film grown at the 3 kV was 3 times rough than that at the 0 kV. The resistivity of copper films increased due to surface and grain boundary scattering, and the change of resistivity was discussed in terms of surface roughness, grain size and film density assisted by average depositing energy.
Cu thin films with a thickness around 850 Å were prepared on Ti45N55/Ti/Si(100) substrates at room temperature by partially ionized beam deposition (PIBD) with an ion energy of 3 keV at pressure of 8×10−7-1 x 10−6 Torr. The Cu/Ti45N55/Ti/Si samples were annealed at 8×10−6-1 × 10−5 Torr with annealing temperature of 500 to 700 °C for 30 min.. Thermal stability of the PIB-Cu films was investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as deposited Cu films had a (111) texture and there was no change of phase in annealed Cu films regardless of annealing temperature. Grain size of the annealed Cu films increased with annealing temperature. SEM studies show no hillock and no voiding on the Cu film surface up to annealing temperature of 700 °C. For PIB-Cu/Ti45N55/Ti/Si samples, all the layers were intact and there was no indication of interdiffusion by conventional depth profiling techniques (RBS, AES) up to 700 °C in vacuum for 30 minutes.