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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Bhutan is a small country in the Himalayan mountains where subsistence agriculture is practiced due to small land holdings and undulating mountainous terrains. Due to diverse altitudinal and agro-ecological environments, many food crops are cultivated. Wheat is currently a secondary cereal, grown over an area of 1,964 ha with a total production of 3,465 Mg. While there are enormous opportunities to increase wheat production in Bhutan, it is challenged by numerous biotic and socio-economic factors such as labour shortage and low economic return. Among the biotic constraints, stripe rust and leaf rust are the most important diseases. Stem rust has not yet been reported. Poor crop nutrition, both through low soil fertility and inadequate external supply, also results in low productivity. In addition, better remunerative crops and affordable-imported products discourage wheat production. However, the availability and accessibility to higher yielding disease-resistant varieties, fertilization (both organic and inorganic), appropriate seed rate, optimum planting time, mechanization, rotation with legumes and expansion of wheat area are some measures that will play a crucial role in managing sustainable wheat production in Bhutan. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the current scenario of wheat production, discuss the constraints and provide strategic guidance to improve wheat production in Bhutan.
Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the effect of several environmental factors on seed germination of feather fingergrass, one of the most significant emerging weeds in warm regions of the world. Seed germination occurred over a broad range of temperatures (17/7, 25/10, and 30/20 C), but germination being highest at alternating temperatures of 30/20 C under both 12 h light/12 h dark and 24 h dark conditions. Although seed germination was favored by light, some seeds were capable of germinating in the dark. Increasing salt stress decreased seed germination until complete inhibition was reached at 250-mM sodium chloride. Germination decreased from 64 to 0.7% as osmotic potential decreased from 0 to −0.4 MPa, and was completely inhibited at −0.6 MPa. Higher seed germination (> 73%) was observed in the range of pH 6.4 to 8 than the other tested pH levels. Heat shock had a significant effect on seed germination. Germination of seeds placed at 130 C for 5 min was completely inhibited for both dry and presoaked seeds. The results of this study will help to develop protocols for managing feather fingergrass, and to thus avoid its establishment as a troublesome weed in economically important cropping regions.
Green galenia is a South African woody prostrate perennial that was first
recorded in Australia in the early 1900s and has since become a serious
threat to indigenous temperate grasslands and surrounding agricultural
areas. Laboratory and field based experiments were conducted to examine the
effect of environmental factors on the germination and viability of green
galenia seed. It was shown that green galenia was able to germinate over a
broad range of temperatures, but short bursts (5 min) of high temperatures
(80 C to 120 C replicating possible exposures to a fire) reduced seed
germination. Seed germination was positively favored by light, declined
rapidly in darkness, and decreased by > 80% at a depth of only 0.5 cm in
soil. Water stress greatly reduced seed germination (45% germination at
osmotic potentials below −0.2 MPa). Germination was completely inhibited at
water potentials of −0.4 to −1.0 MPa. This species is moderately tolerant to
salinity, with over 50% of seeds germinating at low levels of salinity (60
mM NaCl), and moderate germination (49%) occurring at 120 mM NaCl, it can
germinate well in both alkaline (pH 10–83%) and acidic (pH 4–80%)
conditions. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding
of the germination and emergence of green galenia, and this will assist in
developing tools and strategies for the long term management of this noxious
weed in Victoria and other parts of Australia.
We describe a study of the E–W-trending South Wagad Fault (SWF) complex at the eastern part of the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) in Western India. This basin was filled during Late Cretaceous time, and is presently undergoing tectonic inversion. During the late stage of the inversion cycle, all the principal rift faults were reactivated as transpressional strike-slip faults. The SWF complex shows wrench geometry of an anastomosing en échelon fault, where contractional and extensional segments and offsets alternate along the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ). Geometric analysis of different segments of the SWF shows that several conjugate faults, which are a combination of R synthetic and R’ antithetic, propagate at a short distance along the PDZ and interact, generating significant fault slip partitioning. Surface morphology of the fault zone revealed three deformation zones: a 500 m to 1 km wide single fault zone; a 5–6 km wide double fault zone; and a c. 500 m wide diffuse fault zone. The single fault zone is represented by a higher stress accumulation which is located close to the epicentre of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. The double fault zone represents moderate stress at releasing bends bounded by two fault branches. The diffuse fault zone represents a low-stress zone where several fault branches join together. Our findings are well corroborated with the available geological and seismological data.
The north-western Himalaya is one of the rich repositories of wheat genetic resources because of the preponderance of locally developed traditional crop varieties owing to high agro-climatic heterogeneity and local socio-cultural diversity. In the present study, 100 wheat landraces of this diversity rich region were evaluated for variability in physical parameters of seed to understand the basis of resistance against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. The evaluation was based on the parameter of growth index (GI) of S. oryzae in different landraces. GI was correlated with different quantitative physical seed parameters, viz. hardness, length, width, length × width, test weight and qualitative parameter seed colour were studied to work out if these were related to resistance/susceptibility. Based on the parameter of GI, the six landraces viz. IC266831, IC266872, IC393109, IC392578, IC444217 and IC589276 were identified as resistant. Correlation coefficients between GI of S. oryzae and physical parameters of wheat landraces indicated that GI had significant positive relation with length × width (r = +0.573) and test weight (r = +0.549) indicated that small seeds confer resistance to S. oryzae. Also significant negative relation (r = −0.457) with GI of S. oryzae and seed hardness, indicated that hard seeds were relatively more resistant to S. oryzae.
This study examined the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment of reconstructed buffalo embryos, produced by hand-made cloning using somatic cells isolated from over a decade old frozen–thawed semen, on their in vitro and in vivo developmental competence, quality and epigenetic status. Following treatment of reconstructed embryos with TSA (0, 50 or 75 nM) for 10 h prior to culture, the cleavage (100.0 ± 0, 94.5 ± 2.3 and 96.1 ± 1.2%, respectively) and blastocyst rate (50.6 ± 2.3, 48.4 ± 2.7 and 48.1 ± 2.6%, respectively), total cell number (275 ± 17.4, 289 ± 30.1 and 317 ± 24.2, respectively) and apoptotic index (5.6 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.9 and 4.5 ± 1.4, respectively) were not significantly different among the three groups. However, TSA treatment increased (P < 0.05) the global level of H4K5ac and decreased (P < 0.05) that of H3K27me3 in blastocysts whereas the global level of H3K18ac was not affected significantly. Transfer of embryos treated with 75 nM TSA (n = 10) to recipients resulted in two pregnancies (20%), one out of which was aborted in the second and the other in the third trimester whereas transfer of control embryos (n = 20) or those treated with 50 nM TSA (n = 12) did not result in any pregnancy. In conclusion, these results suggest that TSA treatment of cloned buffalo embryos produced using somatic cells isolated from frozen–thawed semen improved their epigenetic status but not the in vitro developmental potential and offspring rate.
In the present study, oocytes retrieved from cross bred Karan Fries cows by ovum pick-up technique were graded into Group 1 and Group 2, based on the morphological appearance of the individual cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). To analyze whether the developmental potential of the COCs bears a relation to morphological appearance, relative expression of a panel of genes associated with; (a) cumulus–oocyte interaction (Cx43, Cx37, GDF9 and BMP15), (b) fertilization (ZP2 and ZP3), (c) embryonic development (HSF1, ZAR1 and bFGF) and (d) apoptosis and survival (BAX, BID and BCL-XL, MCL-1, respectively) was studied at two stages: germinal vesicle (GV) stage and after in vitro maturation. The competence was further corroborated by evaluating the embryonic progression of the presumed zygotes obtained from fertilization of the graded COCs. The gene expression profile and development rate in pooled A and B grade (Group 1) COCs and pooled C and D grade (Group 2) COCs were determined and compared according to the original grades. The results of the study demonstrated that the morphologically characterized Group 2 COCs showed significantly (P<0.05) lower expression for most of the genes related to cumulus–oocyte interplay, fertilization and embryonic development, both at GV stage as well as after maturation. Group 1 COCs also showed greater expression of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-XL and MCL1) both at GV stage and after maturation, while pro-apoptotic genes (BAX and BID) showed significantly (P<0.05) elevated expression in poor quality COCs at both the stages. The cleavage rate in Group 1 COCs was significantly higher than that of Group 2 (74.46±7.06 v. 31.57±5.32%). The development of the presumed zygotes in Group 2 oocytes proceeded up to 8- to 16-cell stages only, while in Group 1 it progressed up to morulae (35.38±7.11%) and blastocyst stages (9.70±3.15%), indicating their better developmental potential.
In this study, we compared the weed emergence, water input, water saving, water productivity, panicle sterility, yield outputs and economic returns of transplanting with alternate wetting and drying (TRAWD) and dry direct seeding (DSR) with transplanting under continuous flooding (TRCF) using three fine-grain rice cultivars: Super Basmati; Basmati 2000; and Shaheen Basmati. Higher weed infestation was recorded in DSR than in TRCF and TRAWD. Raising rice as TRAWD and DSR had considerable water savings but a lower grain yield than TRCF. High panicle sterility was primarily responsible for low grain yield in TRAWD and DSR systems. Nonetheless, water productivity was better in DSR and TRAWD than TRCF. Shaheen Basmati in the DSR system and Basmati 2000 in TRCF fetched the highest economic returns during 2008 and 2009, respectively. In conclusion, fine-grain rice cultivars can be grown in water-saving production systems (e.g. TRAWD and DSR); however, these water-saving production systems might incur a yield penalty.
Effect of Gd substitution at Y-site on the structural and magnetic properties of Y1-xGdxMnO3 (x=0, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared by conventional solid state reaction method has been studied. The structural study using X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal structure with P63cm space group for all the samples. The average particle size for all the samples lies in the range of 30-40 nm as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The change in a and c lattice parameters confirm the substitution of Gd at Y-site. Magnetization versus temperature measurements show enhanced magnetic moment and an increase in Neel temperature with Gd-doping. Spin glass behavior is observed at low temperature in all the samples. Exchange bias effect has been observed at 5 K after field cooling the samples which is ascribed to the formation of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties of Gd-doped samples has also been observed.
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is an important fruit crop of the Thar Desert of India. About 330 accessions and cultivars collected from various parts of India are currently being maintained at a farm in the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture. Utilization of such a large collection of germplasm for breeding and crop improvement is difficult. Therefore, in the present study, using a heuristic approach based on phenotypic characters, we identified 52 accessions that represented a core collection, with a coverage of 100% and a coincidence rate of 98.1%. No significant difference was observed with respect to either the Shannon–Weaver or the Nei diversity index for qualitative traits, mean values and ranges for quantitative traits or clustering patterns between the core and whole collections. The core collection represents the entire range of diversity with minimum redundancy and should be useful for the conservation and utilization of Z. mauritiana germplasm.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a regulatory enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway from Brugia malayi, was cloned, expressed and biochemically characterized. The Km values for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) were 0·25 and 0·014 mm respectively. The rBmG6PD exhibited an optimum pH of 8·5 and temperature, 40 °C. Adenosine 5′ [γ-thio] triphosphate (ATP-γ-S), adenosine 5′ [β,γ-imido] triphosphate (ATP-β,γ-NH), adenosine 5′ [β-thio] diphosphate (ADP-β-S), Na+, K+, Li+ and Cu++ ions were found to be strong inhibitors of rBmG6PD. The rBmG6PD, a tetramer with subunit molecular weight of 75 kDa contains 0·02 mol of SH group per mol of monomer. Blocking the SH group with SH-inhibitors, led to activation of rBmG6PD activity by N-ethylmaleimide. CD analysis indicated that rBmG6PD is composed of 37% α-helices and 26% β-sheets. The unfolding equilibrium of rBmG6PD with GdmCl/urea showed the triphasic unfolding pattern along with the highly stable intermediate obtained by GdmCl.
It was recently shown that blind source separation (BSS), as originally developed in the signal processing community, can be used in operational modal analysis to separate the responses of a structure into its individual modal contributions. This, in turn, allows the application of simple single-of-degree-freedom techniques to identify the modal parameters of interest. Several publications have recently attempted to give a posteriori physical interpretations to BSS – as initially developed in telecommunication signal processing – when applied to the field of structural dynamics. This paper proposes to follow the route the other way round. It shows that several separation criteria purposely dedicated to operational modal analysis can be deduced from general physical considerations. Three such examples are introduced, based on very different properties that uniquely characterise a structural mode. The first criterion, coined the “principle of shortest envelope”, conjectures that the envelope of a modal response has, among all possible envelopes, the shortest length. That such a principle leads to the governing differential equation of a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator is proved from calculus of variation. The second criterion, coined the “principle of minimum spectral variance”, conjectures that the frequency spectrum of a structural mode is maximally concentrated around its central frequency. Finally, the third criterion, coined the “principle of least spectral complexity”, states that a structural mode has the lowest possible entropy in the frequency domain. All three criteria can be expressed in terms of a mixing matrix whose columns contain the unknown mode shapes. The recovery of the latter is then trivially achieved by minimising the criteria. Extensive simulations show that the proposed criteria lead to figures of merit very similar to those of the state-of-the-art, while at the same time providing physical insight that other algorithms issued form the signal processing community may dramatically lack.
Itchgrass is a weed of many crops throughout the tropics and one of the most important grass weeds of rainfed rice. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to determine the effects of light, alternating day/night temperatures, high temperature pretreatment, water stress, seed burial depth, and rice residue on seed germination and seedling emergence of itchgrass in the Philippines. Two populations were evaluated and the results were consistent for both populations. Germination in the light/dark regime was greater at alternating day/night temperatures of 25/15 C than at 35/25, 30/20, or 20/10 C. Light was not a requirement for germination, but a light/dark regime increased germination by 96%, across temperature and population. A 5-min high temperature pretreatment for 50% inhibition of maximum itchgrass germination ranged from 145 to 151 C with no germination when seeds were exposed to ≥ 180 C. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination was −0.6 MPa for itchgrass, although some seeds germinated at −0.8 MPa. Seedling emergence was greatest for seeds placed on the soil surface, and emergence declined with increasing soil burial depth; no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 10 cm. The addition of rice residue to soil surface in pots at rates equivalent to 4 to 6 Mg ha−1 reduced itchgrass seedling emergence. Since seedling emergence was greatest at shallow depths and germination was stimulated by light, itchgrass may become a problem in systems where soil is cultivated at shallow depths. Knowledge gained in this study could contribute to developing components of integrated weed management strategies for itchgrass.
Manual documentation has an inherent problem of improper communication, manipulation, and validity. An electronic medical record (EMR) is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital. EMRs tend to be a part of a local, stand-alone, health information system that allows for storage and retrieval.
The objective of this study was to assess the perception of emergency care providers toward the implementation of an EMR System in the emergency department of a Level-1 Trauma Center.
A qualitative survey was conducted among consenting doctors and nurses in the emergency department of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences February to October 2010. Data were collected from a sample of 22—eight doctors and 14 nurses. The collection tool was a structured, closed-ended questionnaire of 12 questions based on usability, applicability, and security, of EMR. A Likert scale (LS) was used (1 = worst, 4 = best). Surveys were done on Day 20, Day 45, and after nine months of implementation of. Responses of emergency care providers were compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 16.
Three surveys consisted of 22 participants in each survey. The survey domain of usability improved on Survey 3 (LS = 2.57), Survey 2 (LS = 2.46), Survey 1 (LS = 2.24). Application of EMR improved from Survey 1 to Survey 3. The data regarding perception of security concerns such as manipulation of data, transparency, and accountability were comparable among Survey 1, Survey 2, and Survey 3. Initial satisfaction was strongly associated with perception of usefulness of data mining for research purposes.
Satisfaction with an EMR system at its implementation generally persisted through the first year of use. Implementation plans must include positive reinforcement regarding EMR among emergency care providers.
Violent incidents (VI) in emergency departments (EDs) are under-reported concerns for emergency care providers (ECP). There are limited data from EDs in India.
This is a study of pattern and factors associated with VIs in the ED of a Level-1 Trauma Center.
A qualitative survey questionnaire was distributed to 42 ECPs who worked in the ED of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Responses of ECPs were compiled and analyzed.
A total of 78.6% of nurses, 19.1% doctors, and 2.4% registration clerks participated in the study. A total of 54.8% were female. A total of 85.7% had five years of work experience in the ED. A total of 59.5% witnessed and experienced verbal abuse; 19.04% witnessed and experienced physical abuse. The remaining experienced and witnessed verbal abuse as well as physical abuse. A total of 57.1% had experienced VI multiple times in last six months. Of these, 88.2% faced the incident between 8 pm and 8 am. The ECP reported the incident to hospital authority's 54.8% of the time, 19.1% reported it to the police, and 14.29% did not report, while 7.1% reported to police and hospital administration. Eighty-five percent experienced insecurity & emotional disturbance. Patient-related factors included intoxication and anxiety. Healthcare system-related factors included delay in investigations, non-availability of beds, overcrowding of ED, and lack of staff. A total of 47.7% of participants felt that there was improper communication between healthcare workers and 40.1% felt that non-availability of senior doctor were the system deficiency factors. A total of 16.6% of ECPs had formal training regarding communication skills, and 11.9% had grief counseling. All respondents felt that steps should be taken to decrease and mitigate the VIs in the ED.
Verbal and physical abuse of emergency care workers is common.
Appropriate triage shortens the delay in definitive care. this study examined whether the implementation of START triage criteria in emergency departments (ED) reduces over- and under-triage of patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of START triage criteria on over and under-triage subjects.
The study was performed between 01 January to 15 September 2008. All patients presenting to the ED were recruited. A triage nurse tagged the patients with a red, yellow, and or green wristband, as per START triage protocol. Over-triage was defined as patients who were re-triaged from red (R) to yellow (Y) or Y to green (G) within 30 minutes of arrival. Under-triage was defined as patients re-triaged from Y to R or G to Y within 30 minutes of arrival.
Of 25,928 patients, triage was performed for 25,468 (98.2%) subjects. A total of 8,303 were triaged during the morning shift, 6,994 during the evening shift, and 9,978 during the night shift. A total of 1,431 (5.6%) subjects were tagged as R, 10,634 (41.7%) with Y, and 13,424 (52.7%) were tagged as G. Four hundred seventy-four (1.9%) patients were over-triaged. Two hundred twenty (0.9%) were under-triaged.
The START triage criteria reduce over- and under-triage of patients.
Acute care addresses immediate resuscitation and early disposition to definitive care. Delay in final disposition from the emergency department (ED) affects outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. An audit was performed to assess the impact of protocols on red area disposition time.
An audit of red (resuscitation) area disposition time was performed among patients with compromised airway, breathing, and circulation. The red area disposition time was defined as the time from ED arrival to red area disposition. Pre-protocol data from nursing report books were reviewed for ED to operating room (OR), ED to intensive care unit (ICU), and overall disposition time between September 2007 and January 2008. Similar outcomes were documented after implementation of protocols during February to December 2008.
In the pre-protocol period, 992 red area patients were enrolled out of 10,000 ED visits. Out of which 527 (53.1%) were shifted to the OR and 222 (22.3%) to ICU. The average ED disposition time was 3.5 hours (range 2–5). Similarly, 1797 red area patients were enrolled in the post-protocol period out of 25,928. Of these, 453 (25.2%) patients were shifted to the OR, and 423 (23.7%) were shifted to the ICU. The average ED disposition time was 1.5 hours (range 10 minutes–3 hours).
Implementation of protocols improves the red area disposition time of the ED. Auditing is an important tool to address patient safety issues.