The insect cuticle is covered by a thin layer of hydrocarbons not only preventing desiccation but also playing an important role in the sexual communication of several species. In the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, a parasitoid of grain infesting beetles, female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) elicit male courtship behaviour. We analyzed the CHC profiles of male and female L. distinguendus wasps reared on different beetle hosts by coupled gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant differences between strains reared on different hosts, while spatially isolated strains reared on the same host produced similar profiles. CHC profiles of parasitoids reared on Stegobium paniceum were statistically distinguishable from those of wasps reared on all other hosts. A host shift from Sitophilus granarius to S. paniceum resulted in distinguishable CHC profiles of L. distinguendus females after only one generation. Considering the role of CHCs as contact sex pheromones, our data suggest that host shifts in parasitic wasps might lead to reproductive isolation of host races due to the modification of the cuticular semiochemistry.