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The dynamics of bubbles inertially collapsing in water near solid objects have been the subject of numerous studies in the context of cavitation erosion. While non-spherical bubble collapse, re-entrant jet dynamics and emitted shock waves have received significant interest, less is known about the temperatures thereby produced and their possible connection to damage. In this article, we use highly resolved numerical simulations of a single bubble inertially collapsing near a rigid surface to measure the temperatures produced in the fluid and estimate those in the solid, as well as to identify the responsible mechanisms. In particular, we find that elevated temperatures along the wall can be produced by one of two mechanisms, depending on the initial stand-off distance of the bubble from the wall and the driving pressure: for bubbles initially far from the wall, the shock generated by the bubble collapse is the source of the high temperature, while bubbles starting initially closer migrate towards the wall and eventually come into contact with it. A scaling is introduced to describe the maximum fluid temperature along the wall as a function of the initial stand-off distance and driving pressure. To predict the temperature of the solid, we develop a semianalytical heat transfer model, which supports recent experimental observations that elevated temperatures achieved during collapse could play a role in cavitation damage to soft heat-sensitive materials.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Excessive alcohol use is associated with brain damage but less is known about brain effects from moderate alcohol use. Previous findings indicate that patients with severe mental illness, particularly schizophrenia, are vulnerable to alcohol-related brain damage. We investigated the association between levels of alcohol consumption and cortical and subcortical brain structures in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls, and investigated for group differences for this association.
1.5 T structural magnetic resonance images were acquired of 609 alcohol-using participants (165 schizophrenia patients, 172 bipolar disorder patients, 272 healthy controls), mean (s.d.) age 34.2 (9.9) years, 52% men. Past year alcohol use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test – Consumption part (AUDIT-C). General linear models were used to investigate associations between AUDIT-C score and cortical thickness, surface area, and total brain and subcortical volumes.
Increasing AUDIT-C score was linearly associated with thinner cortex in medial and dorsolateral frontal and parieto-occipital regions, and with larger left lateral ventricle volume. There was no significant interaction between AUDIT-C score and diagnostic group. The findings remained significant after controlling for substance use disorders, antipsychotic medication and illness severity.
The results show a dose-dependent relationship between alcohol use and thinner cortex and ventricular expansion. The findings are present also at lower levels of alcohol consumption and do not differ between schizophrenia or bipolar disorder patients compared to healthy controls. Our results do not support previous findings of increased vulnerability for alcohol-related brain damage in severe mental illness.
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors and one possible illness mechanism is abnormal myelination. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue intensities are sensitive to myelin content. Therefore, the contrast between grey- and white-matter intensities may reflect myelination along the cortical surface.
MRI images were obtained from patients with schizophrenia (n = 214), bipolar disorder (n = 185), and healthy controls (n = 278) and processed in FreeSurfer. The grey/white-matter contrast was computed at each vertex as the difference between average grey-matter intensity (sampled 0–60% into the cortical ribbon) and average white-matter intensity (sampled 0–1.5 mm into subcortical white matter), normalized by their average. Group differences were tested using linear models covarying for age and sex.
Patients with schizophrenia had increased contrast compared to controls bilaterally in the post- and precentral gyri, the transverse temporal gyri and posterior insulae, and in parieto-occipital regions. In bipolar disorder, increased contrast was primarily localized in the left precentral gyrus. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Findings of increased contrast remained after adjusting for cortical area, thickness, and gyrification. We found no association with antipsychotic medication dose.
Increased contrast was found in highly myelinated low-level sensory and motor regions in schizophrenia, and to a lesser extent in bipolar disorder. We propose that these findings indicate reduced intracortical myelin. In accordance with the corollary discharge hypothesis, this could cause disinhibition of sensory input, resulting in distorted perceptual processing leading to the characteristic positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
We have developed a sheep model to facilitate studies of the fetal programming effects of mismatched perinatal and postnatal nutrition. During the last trimester of gestation, twenty-one twin-bearing ewes were fed a normal diet fulfilling norms for energy and protein (NORM) or 50 % of a normal diet (LOW). From day 3 postpartum to 6 months (around puberty) of age, one twin lamb was fed a conventional (CONV) diet and the other a high-carbohydrate–high-fat (HCHF) diet, resulting in four groups of offspring: NORM-CONV; NORM-HCHF; LOW-CONV; LOW-HCHF. At 6 months of age, half of the lambs (all males and three females) were slaughtered for further examination and the other half (females only) were transferred to a moderate sheep diet until slaughtered at 24 months of age (adulthood). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation reduced the birth weight of LOW offspring (P< 0·05), and its long-term effects were increased adrenal size in male lambs and adult females (P< 0·05), increased neonatal appetite for fat-(P= 0·004) rather than carbohydrate-rich feeds (P< 0·001) and reduced deposition of subcutaneous fat in both sexes (P< 0·05). Furthermore, LOW-HCHF female lambs had markedly higher visceral:subcutaneous fat ratios compared with the other groups (P< 0·001). Postnatal overfeeding (HCHF) resulted in obesity (>30 % fat in soft tissue) and widespread ectopic lipid deposition. In conclusion, our sheep model revealed strong pre- and postnatal impacts on growth, food preferences and fat deposition patterns. The present findings support a role for subcutaneous adipose tissue in the development of visceral adiposity, which in humans is known to precede the development of the metabolic syndrome in human adults.
Some dietary fats are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the mechanisms for this association are presently unknown. In the present study we showed in wild-type mice that chronic ingestion of SFA results in blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and significant delivery into the brain of plasma proteins, including apo B lipoproteins that are endogenously enriched in amyloid-β (Aβ). Conversely, the plasma concentration of S100B was used as a marker of brain-to-blood leakage and was found to be increased two-fold because of SFA feeding. Consistent with a deterioration in BBB integrity in SFA-fed mice was a diminished cerebrovascular expression of occludin, an endothelial tight junction protein. In contrast to SFA-fed mice, chronic ingestion of MUFA or PUFA had no detrimental effect on BBB integrity. Utilising highly sensitive three-dimensional immunomicroscopy, we also showed that the cerebral distribution and co-localisation of Aβ with apo B lipoproteins in SFA-fed mice are similar to those found in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) amyloid transgenic mice, an established murine model of AD. Moreover, there was a strong positive association of plasma-derived apo B lipoproteins with cerebral Aβ deposits. Collectively, the findings of the present study provide a plausible explanation of how dietary fats may influence AD risk. Ingestion of SFA could enhance peripheral delivery to the brain of circulating lipoprotein–Aβ and exacerbate the amyloidogenic cascade.
Snowpack changes during the melt season are often not incorporated in modelling studies of the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Densification of snow accelerates when meltwater is present, due to percolation and subsequent refreezing, and needs to be incorporated in ice-sheet models for ablation calculations. In this study, simple parameterizations to calculate surface melt, snow densification and meltwater retention are included as surface boundary conditions in a large-scale ice-sheet model of Greenland. Coupling the snow densification and meltwater-retention processes achieves a separation of volume and mass changes of the surface layer, in order to determine the surface melt contribution to runoff. Experiments for present-day conditions show that snow depth at the onset of melt, mean annual near-surface air temperature and the mean density of the annual snow layer are key factors controlling the quantity and spatial distribution of meltwater runoff above the equilibrium line on the Greenland ice sheet.
Near-surface air temperature (2 m) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is parameterized using data from automatic weather stations located on land and on the ice sheet. The parameterization is expressed in terms of mean annual temperatures and mean July temperatures, both depending linearly on altitude, latitude and longitude. The temperature parameterization is compared to a previous study and is shown to be in better agreement with observations. The temperature parameterization is tested in a positive degree-day model to simulate the present (1996–2006) mean melt area extent of the GrIS. The model accounts for firn warming, rainfall and refreezing of meltwater, with different degree-day factors for ice and snow under warm and cold climate conditions. The simulated melt area extent is found to have reasonable agreement with satellite-derived observations.
Limited and inconsistent data exist on simple, readily available predictors of long-term mortality of critically ill chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. We therefore examined the influence of arterial blood gas derangement and burden of comorbidities on 90-day and 1-yr mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients treated with invasive mechanical ventilation.
We identified all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (n = 230) treated with invasive mechanical ventilation between 1994 and 2004 at a Danish primary-level hospital. Data on arterial blood gas specimens and comorbidity were obtained from medical records and Hospital Discharge Registries. We used Cox’s regression analysis to estimate mortality ratios according to arterial blood gas values and level of comorbidity.
Ninety-day and 1-yr mortality among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was 30.8% and 40.5%, respectively. All 90-day and 1-yr mortality ratios according to arterial blood gas values were close to one and one was included in all 95% CI. Among patients with a high level of comorbidity 90-day mortality ratio was 1.3 (95% CI: 0.6–2.7) when compared with patients without comorbidity. The corresponding 1-yr mortality ratio was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.9).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients treated with invasive mechanical ventilation have substantial long-term mortality. Neither the levels of arterial blood gas values measured immediately before invasive mechanical ventilation was initiated nor the burden of comorbidity were strong determinants of long-term mortality among these patients.
For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice–water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of ‘warm ice’ under high pressure. After excellent progress at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few parameters of ten different deep drills.
The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) was initiated in 1995 as a joint international programme involving Denmark, Germany, Japan, Belgium, Sweden, Iceland, the U.S.A., France and Switzerland. the main goal was to obtain undisturbed high-resolution information about the Eemian climatic period (115–130 kyr BP). the records from the Greenland Icecore Project (GRIP) and Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) in central Greenland are different and disturbed down in the ice covering this period. Internal radio-echo sounding layers show that NorthGRIP, placed 325 km north-northwest of GRIP at the Summit of the Greenland ice sheet, is located on a gently sloping ice ridge with very flat bedrock and internal layers found so high that an undisturbed Eemian record is possible. Internal layers much farther above bedrock than their apparent counter parts at GRIP suggest that conditions are favourable for recovery of an undisturbed Eemian record. So far, a 1351 mdeep ice core (NorthGRIP1) and a 3001 mdeep ice core (NorthGRIP 2) have been recovered. the ice thickness is expected to be 3080 m, and the ice temperature at 3001 m is –5.6°C, so we expect basal melting at the bedrock. Most of the Eemian ice will be melted away, leaving only the last part and the transition between the Eem and the Last Glacial Period. At 3001 m the age of the ice is 110 kyr BP and the annual layers are of the order 1 cm.With modern methods the annual layers can be resolved, resulting in detailed information on the decline of the warm Eemian period into the Last Glacial Period.
We studied the reproductive biology of the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, on the fishing grounds of the east central North Sea and on an unfished ground off the coast of southwest Norway. As in other parts of the North Sea, gonad growth appeared to start in September and spawning occurred in December-January. Based on data from the spawning period, maturity ogives by length and age were derived. The length and age at 50 % maturity was 14 cm and 3.2 years respectively in both study areas. The age estimate is 1 year higher than that found previously in the southern North Sea and adopted for the ICES-assessments of the North Sea spawning stock. Estimates of fecundity appeared higher in the North Sea than in coastal waters, at least for large fish. The coastal water estimates also seemed low compared with fecundity at length relationships previously published from Shetland, Fair Isle, and Dogger bank. The sex ratio seldom deviated substantially from the 1:1 ratio, but in summer there appeared to be a surplus of females. Due to spatial differences in age-structure, the proportion of adults was generally much lower on the fishing grounds of the North Sea proper than on the unfished coastal ground. In the middle of the spawning period, however, aggregations of adults occurred on the North Sea grounds.
Formal programs that provide research experiences for teachers (RET) have been in existence for more than 20 years. Currently there are more than 70 formalized Scientific Work Experiences Programs for Teachers (SWEPTs) nationwide. The underlying assumption of most RETs is that these intensive summer work immersion experiences, coupled with appropriate follow-up activities during the school year, expand teachers' professional skills and networks, and thereby improve the performance of their students. Many SWEPTs have collected anecdotal evidence indicating their program's positive impact on teachers. Missing from all SWEPT evaluations is quantitative evidence that teacher participation in these programs affects student interest and performance in the subject taught by the SWEPT teacher. As professional evaluators attest, it is difficult to differentiate the roles of teachers and teaching practices in changing student academic interest and performance from other factors (e.g., curriculum, school administration, non-random assignment of students, etc.).
This study controls for many of these factors by comparing interest and achievement of students in classes of SWEPT teachers with students in classes of comparison teachers in the same school and teaching the same subject. The study's longitudinal design is commensurate with the philosophy and practices of the participating SWEPTs.
A new deep ice-core drilling site has been identified in north Greenland at 75.12° N, 42.30° W, 316 km north-northwest (NNW) of the GRIР drill site on the summit of the ice sheet. The ice thickness here is 3085 m; the surface elevation is 2919 m.The North GRIP (NGRIP) site is identified so that ice of Eemian age (115–130 ka BP,calendar years before present) is located as far above bedrock as possible and so the thickness of the Eemian layer is as great as possible. An ice-flow model, similar to the one used to date the GRIP ice core, is used to simulate the flow along the NNW-trending ice ridge. Surface and bedrock elevations, surface accumulation-rate distribution and radio-echo sounding along the ridge have been used as model input.The surface accumulation rate drops from 0.23 m fee equivalent year−1 at GRIP to 0.19 m ice equivalent year−1 50 km from GRIP. Over the following 300km the accumulation is relatively constant, before it starts decreasing again further north. Ice thicknesses up to 3250 m bring the temperature of the basal ice up to the pressure-melting point 100–250 km from GRIP. The NGRIP site islocated 316 km from GRIP in a region where the bedrock is smooth and the accumulation rate is 0.19 m ice equivalent year−1. The modeled basal ice here has always been a few degrees below the pressure-melting point. Internal radio-echo sounding horizons can be traced between the GRIP and NGRIP sites, allowing us to date the ice down to 2300 m depth (52 ka BP). An ice-flow model predicts that the Eemian-age ice will be located in the depth range 2710–2800 m, which is 285 m above the bedrock. This is 120 m further above the bedrock, and the thickness of the Eemian layer of ice is 20 m thicker, than at the GRIP ice-core site.
A 3029-m-long deep ice core extending nearly to bedrock has been drilled at the very top of the Greenland ice sheet (Summit) by the Greenland Ice-core Project (GRIP), an international European joint effort organized by the European Science Foundation. The ice core reaches back to 250,000 yr B.P. according to dating based partly on stratigraphic methods and partly on ice-flow modeling. A continuous and detailed stable isotope (δ18O) profile along the entire core depicts dramatic temperature changes in Greenland through the last two glacial cycles, including abrupt climatic shifts during the Eem/Sangamon Interglaciation, which is elsewhere recorded as a warm and stable period. The stratigraphic continuity of the Eemian layers has therefore been scrutinized. New ice core studies, comprising cloudy band observations, deconvolution, and frequency analyses, lead to the conclusion that the climate instability suggested during the Eem Interglaciation in Greenland is likely to be real, though no conclusive evidence is available. Whereas latitudinal displacements of the North Atlantic Ocean current are considered the immediate cause of the glacial climate instability, longitudinal displacements may be the immediate cause of the Eemian instability. If so, the Eemian climate changes will be much subdued outside the Arctic region and will probably only be recognizable in sedimentary sequences of high sensitivity and temporal resolution.
We are studying the boron nitride system by using a pulsed excimer laser to ablate from hexagonal BN (hBN) targets to form cubic BN (cBN) films. We are depositing BN films on heated (25 - 800°C) Si (100) surfaces and are using a broad-beam ion source operated with Ar and N2 source gasses to produce BN films with a high percentage of sp3-bonded cBN. In order to understand and optimize the growth and nucleation of cBN films, parametric studies of the growth parameters have been performed. The best films to date show >85% sp3-bonded BN as determined from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) reflection spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction confirm the presence of cBN in these samples. The films are polycrystalline and show grain sizes up to 30- 40 nm. We find from both the FTIR and TEM analyses that the cBN content in these films evolves with growth time. Initially, the films are deposited as hBN and the cBN nucleates on this hBN underlayer. Importantly, the position of the cBN IR phonon also changes with growth time. Initially this mode appears near 1130 cm-1 and the position decreases with growth time to a constant value of 1085 cm-1. Since in bulk cBN this IR mode appears at 1065 cm-1, a large compressive stress induced by the ion bombardment is suggested. In addition, we report on the variation in cBN percentage with temperature.