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IRAS 15194-5115 was discovered by IRAS and identified as a carbon star by Meadows et al. (1987). It is the third brightest carbon star at 12 μm, the brighter ones are IRC+10216 and CIT6. Its infrared properties are similar to those of IRC+10216. Le Bertre and Epchtein (1990) have monitored the star in the near-infrared and derived a period of 578 days. The distance to IRAS 15194-5115 is estimated to about 1 kpc from infrared observations, and also by comparing its bolometric luminosity with that of IRC+10216.
At galactic longitudes between 132 and 139 degrees and distances of 2 to 2.5 kpc, the galactic disk contains an unusual concentration of gas clouds, young clusters and OB associations (W3, W4 and W5). The small nebula S 201 is situated to the east of W5, which contains the young open cluster IC 1848. Probably associated with S 201 is one of the originally proposed Bok globules; the region also contains three infrared sources.
The flocculent spiral galaxy NGC 5055 has been mapped along the major axis in the 12CO (J = 1-0) line using the Onsala 20-m telescope (HPBW = 33″). Figure 1, which gives the spatial velocity diagram of CO emission on the major axis with observed Hα velocities (Kruit and Bosma, 1978) superimposed, seems to imply higher velocities of the regions responsible for the optical emission. Taking into account the cruder spatial resolution of the CO observations, this effect is expected in a region where the rotation curve rises rapidly provided that the CO emission increases toward the centre. Figure 2 shows the rotation velocities for the eastern and western parts of the galaxy separately, as observed in Hα and CO. For CO we only give the portion of the rotation curve which is accurately determined, i.e. where it is relatively flat. The CO velocities in this region agree closely with those observed in HI (Bosma, 1978). These data suggest a difference of 10-20 km s−1 between the Hα and CO velocities at a distance of ∼ 60″ from the centre. The radial distribution of the CO emission, also indicated in Fig. 2, is defined by an iterative fitting procedure to the observed line profiles (see Scoville et al. 1983). This procedure requests an a priori knowledge of the velocity field, here assumed to be defined by the Hα data inside a radius of 60″. However, the shapes of the observed spectra and “best fit” model profiles differ significantly in some cases, again indicating that the Hα velocities do not apply to the molecular gas. The derived radial distribution of the CO emission is dependent on the assumed velocity field; however, the gross characteristics are retained for more feasible rotation curves (i.e. rotation curves giving better fits to the observed profiles).
A spectacular morphology, including two diffuse tidal tails, and high infrared luminosity suggest that the starburst NGC 3256 is a merger of two gas-rich disk galaxies. NGC 3256 exhibits strong and extended 12CO emission. A conventional interpretation of the observed 12CO and 13CO line ratios yields contradictory results.
We present a detailed analysis of very high excitation lines (4f–5g) of Fe I which are present in the spectral region 2545–2585 cm–1 in high resolution spectra both in the laboratory and in the ATMOS solar spectra obtained from space. A value of the solar abundance of iron which agrees with the meteoritic value is derived.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
Using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope, we have mapped the CO (1-0) emission in two small areas of the LMC near 30 Dor. Some 20 molecular clouds have been identified and analysed. Cloud masses are calculated assuming virial equilibrium and the relationship between mass and CO luminosity is discussed.
In recognition of its special interdisciplinary character, IAU Commission 14 is linked directly to the Executive Committee. The Commission’s role is to inform the astronomical community of new developments in the diverse fields of research which involve atoms and molecules. Conversely it endeavors to sensitize the research community active in those fields to the specific needs of astronomy, especially concerning basic data and modeling tools. More generally, Commission 14 tries to foster long term relations and collaborations between the two communities and, when necessary, to alert funding authorities to the specific needs of ground and space based astronomy for specific atomic and molecular data. This report is one of the main contributions of Commission 14 to the information of the astronomical community. Several meetings concerned, at least in part, with the need and availability of atomic and molecular data for astrophysics were also sponsored or co-sponsored. In the last triennium, Commission 14 cosponsored IAU Symposium 194 “Astrochemistry: From Molecular Cloud to Planetary Systems” held in Sogwipo (Korea) from Aug. 23 to 27, 1999 and organized by Commission 34. A Joint Discussion: JD1 on “Atomic and Molecular Data for Astrophysics, New Developments, Case Studies and Future Needs” has been planned for the XXIVth IAU General Assembly in Manchester (Aug. 7-19, 2000) and cosponsored by Commissions 15, 16, 29, 34, 36, 40 and 44. Several other Joint Discussions to be held at the Manchester General Assembly are co-sponsored by this commission.
Echelle spectra obtained with the HST/GHRS are used to understand the blending in lower resolution IUE sprectra in the region of the raie ultime line of Au II. Laboratory analysis of the Au II transition has provided an accurate wavelength and transition probability from which the first Au abundances are determined for stars other than the Sun.
We are using the HST/GHRS in a long-term program to obtain UV spectra of unprecedented resolution and precision for bright, ultra-sharp-lined Bp (HgMn) stars and comparable normal stars. To date we have doubled the number of heavy elements for which abundances may be estimated in χ Lupi, and have obtained the first observations of Hg III lines with which to test diffusion scenarios for its extreme Hg isotope anomaly.
Observations of cool stars with the IUE satellite have shown that although main sequence stars have uv spectra similar to that of the sun, the spectra of the giants and supergiants are dominated by lines of neutral atoms and singly charged ions. The atmospheres of the low gravity stars are greatly extended and there is a large opacity in the stronger lines. This leads to multiple scattering and the appearance of many transitions through line ‘leakage’.
A review is given of how high resolution IUE spectra have allowed line identifications to be established and some current problems are discussed.
The spectroscopic diagnostic techniques for the low gravity, low density atmospheres are also briefly outlined.
Those Native American tribes which did not disappear or disintegrate as a result of their contact with Western invaders are currently undergoing the demographic transition. Like most of the world’s pre-industrial peoples they have experienced a dramatic fall in their traditionally high death rates followed by an accelerated period of population growth. The degree to which traditional fertility patterns have responded to these changes has proved to be somewhat easier to determine in the case of select Native American groups than it often is in other parts of the world because most tribes are small, geographically concentrated, and encapsulated in an advanced bureaucratic state. But the relative ease with which contemporary demographic change can be observed and analyzed, is not paralleled by a similar situation with respect to the earlier stages of the demographic transition. Little is known about the demographic situation prevailing among most tribal groups in the early stages of demographic transition when mortality rates began a sustained decline (generally the 1930s). Next to nothing is known about overall tribal mortality and fertility patterns in the decades immediately preceding the formal onset of the transition. Hence it is not presently possible to explore the extent to which traditional demographic differences between tribal groups have been and may still be influencing present differences in demographic response patterns.
For the past seven years a large, international team of astrophysicists and atomic physicists has been engaged in the systematic exploration and analysis of the extraordinary spectrum of one chemically-peculiar star, chi Lupi (B9.5pHgMn + A2 Vm). The observational data consist of 345 Ã of the star’s ultraviolet spectrum acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at a resolving power of approximately 90,000 and an average S/N ratio of about 75 in the continuum. These data were supplemented with new optical-wavelength echelle spectra obtained at the AAT and at KPNO[l]. We have named this study “The x Lupi Pathfinder Project”, because it is in many respects similar to the initial exploration of a strange new land – never before has the ultraviolet spectrum of an ultra-sharp-lined star been observed at this level of detail and accuracy.
Changes in world-wide population trends have provided new demands for new technologies in areas such as care and rehabilitation. Recent developments in the the field of robotics for neurorehabilitation have shown a range of evidence regarding usefulness of these technologies as a tool to augment traditional physiotherapy. Part of the appeal for these technologies is the possibility to place a rehabilitative tool in one's home, providing a chance for more frequent and accessible technologies for empowering individuals to be in charge of their therapy.
Objective: this manuscript introduces the Supervised Care and Rehabilitation Involving Personal Tele-robotics (SCRIPT) project. The main goal is to demonstrate design and development steps involved in a complex intervention, while examining feasibility of using an instrumented orthotic device for home-based rehabilitation after stroke.
Methods: the project uses a user-centred design methodology to develop a hand/wrist rehabilitation device for home-based therapy after stroke. The patient benefits from a dedicated user interface that allows them to receive feedback on exercise as well as communicating with the health-care professional. The health-care professional is able to use a dedicated interface to send/receive communications and remote-manage patient's exercise routine using provided performance benchmarks. Patients were involved in a feasibility study (n=23) and were instructed to use the device and its interactive games for 180 min per week, around 30 min per day, for a period of 6 weeks, with a 2-months follow up. At the time of this study, only 12 of these patients have finished their 6 weeks trial plus 2 months follow up evaluation.
Results: with the “use feasibility” as objective, our results indicate 2 patients dropping out due to technical difficulty or lack of personal interests to continue. Our frequency of use results indicate that on average, patients used the SCRIPT1 device around 14 min of self-administered therapy a day. The group average for the system usability scale was around 69% supporting system usability.
Conclusions: based on the preliminary results, it is evident that stroke patients were able to use the system in their homes. An average of 14 min a day engagement mediated via three interactive games is promising, given the chronic stage of stroke. During the 2nd year of the project, 6 additional games with more functional relevance in their interaction have been designed to allow for a more variant context for interaction with the system, thus hoping to positively influence the exercise duration. The system usability was tested and provided supporting evidence for this parameter. Additional improvements to the system are planned based on formative feedback throughout the project and during the evaluations. These include a new orthosis that allows a more active control of the amount of assistance and resistance provided, thus aiming to provide a more challenging interaction.
We use the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-3 including a recently improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) module, a detailed metallicity evolution model and sophisticated subresolution feedback models for supernovae and supermassive black holes in order to study the metallicity evolution in disk galaxy mergers. In addition, we examine the simulated morphology, star formation histories, metallicity gradients and kinematic properties of merging galaxies and merger remnants. We will compare our simulation results with observations of the early-type Centaurus A galaxy and the currently colliding Antennae galaxies.
The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that the
gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an
anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation
source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is set
to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiation
emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing
techniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the very
center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find that
a radiation source, emitting < 1054 (∼103 J21) photons per second is
required to cause the collapse of a clump of M ∼ 105 M⊙. The resulting
accretion rate onto the collapsing object is ∼ 0.25 M⊙ yr−1.
Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case,
in terms of H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly effect
the dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, the
final mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ∼ 105 M⊙. This is consistent
with predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to a
supermassive black hole.
We study the evolution of the gaseous components in massive simulated galaxies and show that their early formation is fuelled by cold, low entropy gas streams. At lower redshifts of z ≲ 3 the simulated galaxies are massive enough to support stable virial shocks resulting in a transition from cold to hot gas accretion. The gas accretion history of early-type galaxies is directly linked to the formation of their stellar component in the two phased formation scenario, in which the central parts of the galaxy assemble rapidly through in situ star formation and the later assembly is dominated primarily by minor stellar mergers.
In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at least partly responsible for the increase of listeriosis. Epidemiological investigation revealed that 57% (31/54) of cases with underlying immunosuppressive condition or medication reported eating gravad or cold-smoked fish. Two public notices were issued by THL and Evira informing which groups were most at risk from the effects of listeriosis and should therefore be cautious in consuming certain products. Systematic sampling of foods and adequate epidemiological investigation methods are required to identify the sources of Listeria infections. Continuous control measures at fishery production plants producing risk products are essential.