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Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of some commonly consumed foods in the United Arab Emirates were determined with an aim of adding these values to the existing international table of GI and GL values. In all, eighteen test foods categorised into breads (n 5), entrée dishes (n 3), main dishes (n 5) and sweet dishes (n 5) were tested. For each test food, at least fifteen healthy participants consumed 25 or 50 g available carbohydrate portions of a reference food (glucose), which was tested three times, and a test food after an overnight fast, was tested once, on separate occasions. Capillary blood samples were obtained by finger-prick and blood glucose was measured using clinical chemistry analyser. A fasting blood sample was obtained at baseline and before consumption of test foods. Additional blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. The GI value of each test food was calculated as the percentage of the incremental area under the blood glucose curve (IAUC) for the test food of each participant divided by the average IAUC for the reference food of the same participant. The GI values of tested foods ranged from low (55 or less) to high (70 or more). The GI values of various breads and rice-containing dishes were comparable with previously published values. This study provides GI and GL values of previously untested traditional Emirati foods which could provide a useful guide on dietary recommendations for the Emirati population.
The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a group of 572 large and small islands & islets in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal. This preliminary study reports on husbandry practices and phenotypic characterization of indigenous Nicobari pig, in its home tract (Nicobar group of islands). A total of 377 families were surveyed in randomly selected villages on Car Nicobar, Nancowrie, Teressa, Katchal and Chowra islands. Results of the study revealed that Nicobari pigs were mostly semi feral in nature and reared under a free range system. Pigs were fed mainly with coconut and other locally available resources. The Nicobari pigs appeared short with long body. They showed high prolificacy with an average litter size of 8–10 numbers. These pigs were considered as a family asset among the Nicobari tribe. No commercial farms and slaughter was practiced by the tribes. It is concluded that the Nicobari pigs are considered as an indigenous pig breed/germplasm (Sus scrofa Nicobaricus) belonging to this island territory. Owing to its adaptation and performance under resource-driven island ecosystem, Nicobari pig warrants conservation and improvement. In addition, genetic characterization this pig using SNP would help to confirm their genetic distinctiveness and recognition as a new breed for conservation and sustainable utilization.
The compact steep spectrum (CSS) and gigahertz peaked spectrum (GPS) sources are widely believed to be young radio sources, with ages ≤106 yr. If the activity in the nucleus is fuelled by the supply of gas, one might find evidence of this gas by studying the structural and polarisation characteristics of CSS sources and their evolution through this gas. In this paper we discuss some of the possible ‘smoking-gun’ evidence of this gas which may have triggered and fuelled the radio source.
This paper presents a systematic formulation for the simulation of rigid body dynamics, including the short period dynamics, inherent to stage separation and jettisoning parts of a satellite launcher. This also gives a review of various types of separations involved in a launch vehicle. The problem is sufficiently large and complex; the methodology involves iterations at successively lower levels of abstraction. The best choice to tackle such problems is to use state-of-the-art programming technique known as object oriented programming. The necessary classes have been identified to represent various entities in the launch vehicle separation process (e.g., gravity, aerodynamics, propulsion and separation mechanisms etc.). Simple linkages are modelled with suitable objects. This approach helps the designer to simulate a launch vehicle separation dynamics and also to analyse separation system performance. To examine the influence of the design variables on the separating bodies, statistical analyses have been performed on the upper stage separation process and pull out of ongoing stage nozzle from the spent stage of a multistage rocket carrier using retro rockets.
Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), a low dielectric constant material was deposited by spin coating on Si substrates. The films were cured between 175°C and 575°C. The cured films were subjected to ion-accelerated hydrogen plasma at different DC bias voltage to reduce the dielectric constant (k) of the films. The effect of ion-accelerated hydrogen plasma on cured films was discussed and compared with (i) non-plasma, and (ii) hydrogen plasma without the accelerating DC bias. Capacitance-Voltage measurements (C-V) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) studies were done on these films. The C-V measurement shows that k values increase as the curing temperature increases for all the cases. A PECVD system was used for plasma hydrogenation and ion-accelerated plasma hydrogenation. Depending on the curing temperature the dielectric constant values were found to be, (i) between ∼ 3 and 8.8 for nonplasma films, (ii) between ∼3 and 5.1 for plasma hydrogenated films, (iii) between ∼ 2.3 and 2.9 for plasma hydrogenation with ion-acceleration at 100V and between ∼2 and 2.9 for the 150V case. The ion-accelerated plasma treatment results in lower k values as compared to the nonplasma films. FTIR studies showed a reduction in intensity of Si-H peaks with increasing temperature which increases the k value. The hydrogen plasma treatment reduces the k value and the ion-accelerated hydrogen plasma further reduces the k value suggesting further hydrogen incorporation in the films.
A low-permittivity (low-k) polymeric material has been synthesized using methyltriethoxysilane as base material. The films were reproduceably deposited, by spin-coating on Si wafers with a uniform thickness in the range of 0.3-0.5μm depending on speed. The parameters for spin coating (spin speed and spin time etc.,) have been optimized. The effects of various curing conditions on the structural and dielectric properties have been studied. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) shows prominent peaks of Si-CH3 stretch and Si-O stretch modes. Test structures on silicon were fabricated to measure the dielectric constant (k) of the material. The values of k were found to be in the range of 2.6-1.2 for annealing temperatures 150°C-450°C. The dielectric constant decreases as the curing temperature increases.
We suggest that most compact radio sources are young objects advancing outwards through a dense environment which is asymmetric on opposite sides of the nucleus. This gas might be intimately related to the supply of fuel for the young radio source.
The incidence of the American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) was studied in cotton-growing tracts of Tamil Nadu State, India. The incidence was higher on summer than on winter cotton and the cropping pattern was found to have an impact on the incidence of the leafminer on cotton. Biological studies on L. trifolii conducted on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and cowpea, Vigna sinensis (L.) Walp., revealed that its life cycle varied with different hosts. The duration of the pupal stage of L. trifolii was the longest in the leafminer's life cycle. Lycopersicon esculentum was the preferred host—females of L. trifolii survived the longest and had the highest fecundity on this host. Sex discrimination was possible at the pupal stage, on the basis of size; female adults were found to emerge from larger-sized pupae and males from smaller ones.
We used our high-resolution radio images made with VLA of a large number of compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources selected from well-defined samples of radio sources and the radio data of these samples to explore the evolution of CSSs with time. We suggest that the majority of CSSs are likely to be young sources advancing outwards through an asymmetric inhomogeneous environment to form the larger ones. We examine the symmetry parameters of both CSSs and larger sources and compare these with both analytical and numerical estimates of propagation of jets through an asymmetric environment. We also examine the consistency of CSSs with the unified scheme for radio galaxies and quasars.
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