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In this article, we describe the results of the second phase of a randomized controlled trial of Minding the Baby (MTB), an interdisciplinary reflective parenting intervention for infants and their families. Young first-time mothers living in underserved, poor, urban communities received intensive home visiting services from a nurse and social worker team for 27 months, from pregnancy to the child's second birthday. Results indicate that MTB mothers' levels of reflective functioning was more likely to increase over the course of the intervention than were those of control group mothers. Likewise, infants in the MTB group were significantly more likely to be securely attached, and significantly less likely to be disorganized, than infants in the control group. We discuss our findings in terms of their contribution to understanding the impacts and import of intensive intervention with vulnerable families during the earliest stages of parenthood in preventing the intergenerational transmission of disrupted relationships and insecure attachment.
Dementia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that interferes with multiple aspects of life, including cognition, daily functioning, and behavior. Despite the large heterogeneity in symptom development, these three domains are seldom studied simultaneously. This study investigates how trajectories of these domains are interrelated within individuals over time, and how they in turn are related to dementia severity and quality of life (QoL).
We used data from a longitudinal clinical cohort study, including 331 dementia patients. Cognitive status was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, daily functioning was measured with the disability assessment for dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) were scored using the neuropsychiatric inventory. We investigated the relationships in the time course of the various dementia domains using random effects multilevel models and parallel-process growth models.
Changes in cognition and daily functioning were highly correlated over time (r = 0.85, p < 0.01), as were changes in NPS and functioning (r = −0.60, p < 0.01), while changes in cognition and NPS were not (r = −0.20, p = 0.06). All three domains were strongly associated with dementia severity over time (p < 0.01). Decreased functioning and increased NPS were both associated with decreased QoL (β = 2.97, p < 0.01 and β = −2.41, p < 0.01, respectively), while cognition was not (β = 0.01, p = 0.93).
This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of dementia progression between individuals and between different dementia domains within individuals. To improve our understanding of dementia progression, future research should embrace a broader perspective encompassing multiple outcome measures along with the patient's profile, including neurological factors as well as physical, social, and psychiatric health.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
A time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in open clusters has been in progress using 1.8-m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) in Korea. We present preliminary results of time series photometry for the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2301.
New differential time-series observations of the white dwarf BL Camelopardalis were obtained using the B and V filters. It was confirmed that BL Cam is a double star but the effect of the secondary star on the periods is almost negligible. The (O-C) diagram and periods were analyzed.
We report on the results of CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 2539. Eight new variable stars have been found in the observed field of this cluster. However, no γ Doradus-type variability was found among the member stars.
Through time-series CCD photometry of the globular cluster M 53, we have discovered eight new SX Phoenicis type stars. All the new SX Phoenicis stars are located in the blue straggler star region in the color-magnitude diagram of M 53. In addition, we have obtained light curves for 45 known RR Lyrae stars.
Tumor angiogenesis is a key regulator of tumor growth and metastasis. Assays allowing the analysis of tumor angiogenesis are an essential tool to elucidate the role played by the tumor microenvironment in regulating tumor angiogenesis. The assays should also be capable of systematically investigating the effects of physiologically relevant, mechanical and chemical stimuli and their synergistic interactions. The high optical resolution of microfluidic assays facilitates three-dimensional studies of cellular morphogenesis. Their versatility can be applied to study the multi-parameter control of angiogenic factors.
A high molecular weight, photocurable inorganic-organic hybrid based on ladder-like poly(phenyl6-co-methacrylate4)silsesquioxanes (LPPMA64) was investigated as a flexible display substrate. Photocured free standing films with 40μm thickness showed high transparency (>95%), excellent thermal stability (Td >450°C), and low coefficient of thermal expansion (38ppm/K) without the use of reinforced glass fibers. Furthermore, these ladder-like structured materials did not require any thermal treatment processes due to the negligible amounts of uncondensed groups, thus simplifying manufacturing processing. These novel hybrid films present an alternative to organic plastics as flexible electronic device substrates due to their excellent optical and thermal properties.
Hierarchically porous silica monoliths were introduced into liquid phase chromatography at the beginning of the last decade. The high surface area, high void volume and bicontinuous nature of the porosity of the materials are significant advantages over existing chromatographic supports and have resulted in rapid acceptance of these materials into the chromatography market.
We report here on the synthesis of 3-D porous silver, cobalt oxide and zinc oxide monoliths, their materials characterization, fabrication as liquid chromatographic columns and initial chromatographic characterization. The, as prepared, columns gave very low back pressure, consistent with the bicontinuous nature of the columns. Cobalt oxide and zinc oxide both demonstrated retention of a number of nitrogen heterocycles, providing the basis for molecular separation.
From wings of flies to plant leafs, hydrophobic surfaces are well-common in nature. Many of these surfaces have micro and nano hierarchical structures coated with low surface energy layer. In this work, we mimicked similar structure by fabricating Teflon coated periodic and well-ordered silver nanorod arrays and investigated the effect of nanorod separation on water contact angle (WCA). The silver nanorod arrays were deposited on patterned and flat silicon substrates using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. Then a thin layer of Teflon was deposited on the silver nanorods by small angle deposition (SAD) technique. A systematic increase in water contact angle was observed with increasing nanorod separation which is attributed to the decreased area fraction of solid-liquid interface.
Two methods to create biomimetic anti-reflection nanostructures in ordinary glass microscope object slides are presented. One technique is based on a nanosphere lithography process combined with physical vapour deposition of nickel and reactive ion etching (RIE). The other uses plasma induced dewetting of a smooth nickel surface. The amount of reflected light was measured and a method to simulate the reflectivity from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography scan of the glass surface is presented. The reflectivity for visible light at normal incidence was reduced to 20-50 % of the original value with both methods and the simulation gives results in good agreement to the measurement.
Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized using the butterfly Callophrys rubi as a template. The replicas are synthesized with a high degree of fidelity, which is confirmed by the spectral and morphological characterization. Further, the material is shown to be optically active.
Hierarchically porous materials are of interest in a wide range of applications. If the materials are electronic or ionic conductors such materials are of interest as electrodes for use in fuel cells, flow batteries, electrocatalysis, and pseudo/supercapacitors. We have demonstrated the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon, metal and metal oxide monoliths. Hierarchically porous silica with porosity at three length scales: 0.5-30 micrometer, 200-500 nm, and 3-8 nm, is used as a template to form these materials. The porosity of the silica template is produced by spinodal decomposition (0.5-30 micrometer), particle agglomeration (200-500 nm) and addition of surfactant or block copolymer (3-8 nm). Nanocasting: replication of all or part of the structure via one of a number of chemical replication techniques has been used to produce the carbon, metal oxide and metal replicas. The final surface areas of the materials can be as high as 1200 m2/g for carbon replicas, and >300 m2/g for metals and metal oxides. The use of the nanocasting technique allows for formation of materials that are compositionally or spatially heterogeneous.
We report here results on the synthesis and characterization of hierarchically porous monoliths of carbon and, nickel and the use of some of these monoliths in catalysis and electrochemical capacitors.