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Agriculture is one of the major sources of methane in the UK and the major contribution is that from the ruminant animal. Most current inventories include evaluations of emission rates determined from ammals in respiration chambers. Methodolgy has been developed at IGER, North Wyke which enables measurements to be made with grazing animals (tunnel system). Preliminary measurements have indicated that methane emissions from grazing sheep in the tunnel system were lower than reported values for zero-grazed grass determined in chambers. The objective was to determine if these observed differences were a result of methodological differences.
Piglet survival is based on a complex interaction between the piglets own genetic component (direct genetic effects), the dams genetic contribution (maternal genetic effects) and environmental effects (systematic environmental such as year-season, common litter and individual environmental effects). Disentanglement of direct and maternal genetic effects needs a powerful design of genetic relationships. In order to accomplish this, a two generation selection experiment was designed with different selection groups for direct and maternal effects and cross-classification of these selection groups. Survival at birth and survival during the nursing period may have genetically independent components and would then be treated as different traits. In addition, piglet survival traits are reported to have low direct and maternal heritabilities and traits genetically associated with survival, such as birth weight, may result in a more efficient change in survival than using survival per se. Therefore, the objective of the research was to estimate the genetic parameters of direct and maternal genetic effects of survival and birth weight in order to enhance the selection strategies for piglet survival.
Outdoor farrowing system account for 27% of breeding sows in England, and it is therefore important to understand the factors affecting their production efficiency. Piglet mortality is a significant economic and welfare issue, with farrowing and preweaning losses in commercial oudoor herds currently averaging 19% of all pigs born. Since sophisticated environmental and human interventions at the time of farrowing are infeasible in these systems, risk factors may differ in importance from those seen in indoor systems. A better understanding of the risk factors for different causes of mortality will help to design strategies to minimise losses.
Animal science research is important in relation to our understanding of animals, their function and performance, and their relationships with their social and physical environments. Animal science research covers a wide range of disciplines and so can lead to the use of a variety of experimental techniques on animals for many different purposes. This has the potential to lead to a multitude of diverse ethical issues. Members of the British Society of Animal Science and authors of papers submitted to the Society for publication come from countries around the world and therefore are subject to differences in legislative requirements and recommendations regarding animal experimentation. These legal requirements, along with the ethical implications of the research must be fully considered before any experimental work is undertaken.
Recent estimates of total pre-weaning piglet mortality range between 16-19% (MLC 2006). With environmental modification using the farrowing crate reaching its potential to decrease mortality, as well as raising serious welfare concerns, a different approach to effectively address piglet survival is needed. Genetic breeding programmes implemented in alternative farrowing systems could prove a viable option.
Pre-weaning mortality (11.9% as estimated by M.L.C., 2000) continues to be a major economic and welfare problem in commercial indoor pig production. The main causes of mortality are crushing by the sow and low viability/starvation. Both of these causes of death may be as a result of increasing sow body size and smaller piglet body size as a result of intense genetic selection for increasing litter size. However it is unclear whether sows are consistent across parities in their level of pre-weaning mortality. Therefore this study aimed to examine individual differences in piglet mortality of sows throughout their reproductive life, investigate factors likely to affect piglet mortality, and to assess whether piglet mortality may be a candidate trait for genetic selection.
Asia after the Developmental State presents cutting-edge analyses of state-society transformation in Asia under globalisation. The volume incorporates a variety of political economy and public policy oriented positions, and collectively explores the uneven evolution of new public management and neoliberal agendas aimed at reordering state and society around market rationality. Taken together, the contributions explore the emergence of marketisation across Asia, including China, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam - what is now often described as the world's most economically dynamic region - and the degree to which marketisation has taken root, in what forms, and how this is impacting state, society and market relationships.