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For several decades, higher education systems have undergone continuous waves of reform, driven by a combination of concerns about the changing labour needs of the economy, competition within the global-knowledge economy, and nationally competitive positioning strategies to enhance the performance of higher education systems. Yet, despite far-ranging international pressures, including the emergence of an international higher education market, enormous growth in cross-border student mobility, and pressures to achieve universities of world class standing, boost research productivity and impact, and compete in global league tables, the suites of policy, policy designs and sector outcomes continue to be marked as much by hybridity as they are of similarity or convergence. This volume explores these complex governance outcomes from a theoretical and empirical comparative perspective, addressing those vectors precipitating change in the modalities and instruments of governance, and how they interface at the systemic and institutional levels, and across geographic regions.
Prolonged survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment may lead to these surfaces transmitting this pathogen to others. We sought to determine the effectiveness of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection system in reducing the load of SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators.
Chamber slides and N95 respirator material were directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and were exposed to different durations of PX-UV.
For hard surfaces, disinfection for 1, 2, and 5 minutes resulted in 3.53 log10, >4.54 log10, and >4.12 log10 reductions in viral load, respectively. For N95 respirators, disinfection for 5 minutes resulted in >4.79 log10 reduction in viral load. PX-UV significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators.
With the potential to rapidly disinfectant environmental surfaces and N95 respirators, PX-UV devices are a promising technology to reduce environmental and personal protective equipment bioburden and to enhance both healthcare worker and patient safety by reducing the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
Asia after the Developmental State presents cutting-edge analyses of state-society transformation in Asia under globalisation. The volume incorporates a variety of political economy and public policy oriented positions, and collectively explores the uneven evolution of new public management and neoliberal agendas aimed at reordering state and society around market rationality. Taken together, the contributions explore the emergence of marketisation across Asia, including China, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam - what is now often described as the world's most economically dynamic region - and the degree to which marketisation has taken root, in what forms, and how this is impacting state, society and market relationships.
This paper describes how statistical methods can be tested on computer-generated data from known models. We explore bias and percentile tests in detail, illustrating these with examples based on insurance claims and financial time series.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: Inter-professional education (IPE) involves ‘occasions when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care’. Current literature has found IPE to increase knowledge and skills, improve attitudes towards other professions, and to promote superior clinical outcomes. Health Canada has collaborated to form accreditation standards to support IPE in Canadian medical schools. The proposed educational innovation termed the ‘nursing shift,’ based out of Kelowna General Hospital’s Department of Emergency Medicine, in partnership with UBC’s Southern and Island Medical Programs, endeavors to enhance IPE in our institution. Methods: This nursing shift was first trialed with third year medical students as a pilot rotation beginning in March of 2016. Based on overwhelmingly positive results obtained from narrative feedback, a formal rotation with the same structure will be implemented in the form of a prospective cohort study with 48 medical students from two UBC sites. One group will attend a nursing shift, while the other group will complete the standard emergency medicine rotation without this nursing shift. Impact will be measured using a mixed-method analysis where students will be asked to provide both quantitative feedback in the form of a questionnaire, and qualitative feedback in the form of a narrative response. The primary outcome will be quantitative score differences between the groups of students, and the secondary outcome will be qualitative results for those who completed the nursing shift. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The innovative educational concept consists of an 8-hour nursing shift where medical students spend the first 4 hours at triage with a nurse learning about patient intake. The remaining 4 hours are in the emergency department where students collaborate with a nurse on a number of tasks including preparing and administering medications, starting intravenous lines, and inserting Foley catheters. Conclusion: Healthcare systems are shifting to a more collaborative team oriented approach, and IPE has been shown to prepare students for this changing workplace. We seek to understand third year medical students’ experience of the nursing shift, and to evaluate any changes in attitudes towards inter-professional collaboration after engaging in this intervention. Evaluation of this novel implementation will enable us to assess and optimize the nursing shift, and if it is well received, encourage widespread adoption.
The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was independently domesticated in Mesoamerica and the Southwest, the latter as the only case of Native American animal domestication north of Mexico. In the upland (non-desert) portion of the American Southwest, distinctive closely related mtDNA lineages belonging to haplogroup H1 (thought to indicate domestication) occur from ca. 1 A.D. (Basketmaker II period) through early historic times. At many sites, low frequencies of lineages belonging to haplogroup H2 also occur, apparently derived from the local Merriam’s subspecies. We report genetic, stable isotope, and coprolite data from turkey remains recovered at three early sites in SE Utah and SW Colorado dating to the Basketmaker II, III, and early Pueblo II periods. Evidence from these and other early sites indicates that both the H1 and H2 turkeys had a predominantly maize-based diet similar to that of humans; prior to late Pueblo II times, the birds were kept primarily to provide feathers for blankets and ritual uses; and ritualized burials indicate turkeys’ symbolic value. We argue that viewing individuals from the H1 and H2 haplogroups as “domestic” versus “wild” is an oversimplification.
To improve wildlife conservation incentives in community-based natural resource management programs, a better understanding of rural communities' willingness to engage in wildlife conservation jobs is needed. We implement a discrete choice model explaining reservation wages for nine conservation jobs using contingent behavior data from rural Botswana residents. We present a model in which the conditional indirect utility function incorporates a more general value of time than has previously been used, and this specification outperforms the standard model. Sample estimates indicate that reservation wages are modestly higher for women than for men, and that residents have higher reservation wages for jobs requiring more exertion or involving more danger.