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Sheath blight caused by soil borne necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani [teleomorph-Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk.] is a major disease of rice. The disease is increasing over the year in India and cause up to 69% yield loss under favourable conditions. A total of 67 accessions of Oryza nivara were screened to identify resistance against sheath blight during 2015. Out of these, 16 accessions were found moderately resistant (MR) which were further evaluated during the year 2016 and 2017. After three years of screening, 12 of them were found to have a consistent moderate resistant reaction whereas four of the O. nivara accessions namely, IRGC81941, IRGC102463C, CR100097 and CR100110A have shown moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against sheath blight. A correlation study revealed that different disease variables measured were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated. All the genotypes and genotype × environment interaction had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on all the disease variables. Cluster analysis showed that all the accessions were clustered into four groups which showed resistant, MR, moderately susceptible and susceptible reactions. Among all the O. nivara accessions IRGC81941A showed the maximum potential against sheath blight due to a least relative lesion height of 22.80%. None of the accession had complete resistance to the disease. The identified promising accessions such as IRGC81835, IRGC81941A, CR100008 and CR100111B can be utilized in a sheath blight resistance breeding program.
To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
We simulate the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluids separated by an interface in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow at a shear Reynolds number equal to 15 200. The viscosity and density of the two fluids are equal, and various surface tensions and initial droplet diameters are considered in the present study. We show that the two-phase flow reaches a statistically stationary turbulent state sustained by a non-zero mean turbulent production rate due to the presence of the mean shear. Compared to single-phase flow, we find that the resulting steady-state conditions exhibit reduced Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers owing to the presence of the dispersed phase, which acts as a sink of turbulent kinetic energy for the carrier fluid. At steady state, the mean power of surface tension is zero and the turbulent production rate is in balance with the turbulent dissipation rate, with their values being larger than in the reference single-phase case. The interface modifies the energy spectrum by introducing energy at small scales, with the difference from the single-phase case reducing as the Weber number increases. This is caused by both the number of droplets in the domain and the total surface area increasing monotonically with the Weber number. This reflects also in the droplet size distribution, which changes with the Weber number, with the peak of the distribution moving to smaller sizes as the Weber number increases. We show that the Hinze estimate for the maximum droplet size, obtained considering break-up in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, provides an excellent estimate notwithstanding the action of significant coalescence and the presence of a mean shear.
Dementia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without pharmacologic prevention or cure. Mounting evidence suggests that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may slow cognitive decline, and is important to characterise in at-risk cohorts. Thus, we determined the reliability and validity of the Mediterranean Diet and Culinary Index (MediCul), a new tool, among community-dwelling individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of sixty-eight participants (66 % female) aged 75·9 (sd 6·6) years, from the Study of Mental and Resistance Training study MCI cohort, completed the fifty-item MediCul at two time points, followed by a 3-d food record (FR). MediCul test–retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman plots and κ agreement within seventeen dietary element categories. Validity was assessed against the FR using the Bland–Altman method and nutrient trends across MediCul score tertiles. The mean MediCul score was 54·6/100·0, with few participants reaching thresholds for key Mediterranean foods. MediCul had very good test–retest reliability (ICC=0·93, 95 % CI 0·884, 0·954, P<0·0001) with fair-to-almost-perfect agreement for classifying elements within the same category. Validity was moderate with no systematic bias between methods of measurement, according to the regression coefficient (y=−2·30+0·17x) (95 % CI −0·027, 0·358; P=0·091). MediCul over-estimated the mean FR score by 6 %, with limits of agreement being under- and over-estimated by 11 and 23 %, respectively. Nutrient trends were significantly associated with increased MediCul scoring, consistent with a Mediterranean pattern. MediCul provides reliable and moderately valid information about Mediterranean diet adherence among older individuals with MCI, with potential application in future studies assessing relationships between diet and cognitive function.
Design and development of 2 kW, 3 dB tandem hybrid coupler for the frequency range of 155–225 MHz has been presented in this paper. The developed 3 dB coupler is to be used in a prototype of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) system of Tokamak, which has been developed to test the resilience of ICRF network during continuously variable RF load excursions. The 3 dB coupler divides the RF power between two antennae of the prototype and protects the RF source by coupling of reflected power to the isolated port. The developed coupler shows excellent coupling flatness of −3 ± 0.3 dB over 38% of fractional bandwidth and also provides voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) <1.3, isolation better than 32 dB and return loss better than 25 dB in full band. The presented work establishes a technique which can be useful for the development of high-power hybrid coupler in the range of high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF).
Background: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a rare clinico-radiological entity associated with multiple etiologies including infection, metabolic, and epileptic disorders. We describe the case of a child with a reversible splenial lesion who presented with encephalopathy and prior history of episodic ataxia. Methods: A 3-year-old girl presented to the Stollery Children’s hospital with three days of respiratory symptoms followed by acute onset ataxia and encephalopathy. Blood, respiratory samples, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were drawn to investigate for infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic causes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain was done and repeated. Results: A respiratory panel tested positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), enterovirus, and rhinovirus. CSF analysis revealed elevated white blood cell count (283). MRI brain demonstrated diffusion restriction involving the posterior body and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral middle cerebral peduncles, which resolved nine days later. The patient received high-dose steroids with gradual improvement in the encephalopathy and ataxia. Conclusions: This report contributes to the complexities in clinical understanding of RESLES, as it highlights a novel presentation with ataxia and encephalopathy. The patient’s diagnosis was complicated by previous ataxic episodes of unknown etiology, which allows further consideration of a metabolic or genetic ataxic syndrome and its relationship to encephalopathy.
Introduction: Situational awareness (SA) is essential for maintenance of scene safety and effective resource allocation in mass casualty incidents (MCI). Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can potentially enhance SA with real-time visual feedback during chaotic and evolving or inaccessible events. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of paramedics to use UAV video from a simulated MCI to identify scene hazards, initiate patient triage, and designate key operational locations. Methods: A simulated MCI, including fifteen patients of varying acuity (blast type injuries), plus four hazards, was created on a college campus. The scene was surveyed by UAV capturing video of all patients, hazards, surrounding buildings and streets. Attendees of a provincial paramedic meeting were invited to participate. Participants received a lecture on SALT Triage and the principles of MCI scene management. Next, they watched the UAV video footage. Participants were directed to sort patients according to SALT Triage step one, identify injuries, and localize the patients within the campus. Additionally, they were asked to select a start point for SALT Triage step two, identify and locate hazards, and designate locations for an Incident Command Post, Treatment Area, Transport Area and Access/Egress routes. Summary statistics were performed and a linear regression model was used to assess relationships between demographic variables and both patient triage and localization. Results: Ninety-six individuals participated. Mean age was 35 years (SD 11), 46% (44) were female, and 49% (47) were Primary Care Paramedics. Most participants (80 (84%)) correctly sorted at least 12 of 15 patients. Increased age was associated with decreased triage accuracy [-0.04(-0.07,-0.01);p=0.031]. Fifty-two (54%) were able to localize 12 or more of the 15 patients to a 27x 20m grid area. Advanced paramedic certification, and local residency were associated with improved patient localization [2.47(0.23,4.72);p=0.031], [-3.36(-5.61,-1.1);p=0.004]. The majority of participants (78 (81%)) chose an acceptable location to start SALT triage step two and 84% (80) identified at least three of four hazards. Approximately half (53 (55%)) of participants designated four or more of five key operational areas in appropriate locations. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of UAV technology to remotely provide emergency responders with SA in a MCI. Additional research is required to further investigate optimal strategies to deploy UAVs in this context.
We analyze Sun-as-a-star observations spanning over solar cycles 22 – 24 from the ground-based network BiSON and solar cycles 23 – 24 collected by the space-based VIRGO and GOLF instruments on board the SoHO satellite. Using simultaneous observations from all three instruments, our analysis suggests that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for modifying the frequencies remained comparable between cycle 23 and cycle 24 but differ from cycle 22. Thus we infer that the magnetic layer of the Sun has become thinner since the beginning of cycle 23 and continues during the current cycle.
Using continuous observations for 22 years from ground-based network GONG and space-borne instruments MDI onboard SoHO and HMI onboard SDO, we report both global and local properties of the convection zone and their variations with time.
Predictions of sunspot cycle are important due to their space weather effects. Bhatt et al. (2009) predicted sunspot cycle 24 (Maximum amplitude: 92.8±19.6; Timing:October 2012±4 months) using relative sunspot number (International Sunspot Number), and average geomagnetic activity index aa considering 2008 as the year of sunspot minimum. Owing to the extended solar minimum till 2009, we re-examine our prediction model. Also, the newly calibrated international sunspot number reduces many discrepancies in the old dataset and is available from Solar Influences Data Center (SIDC) website. Considering 2009 as sunspot minimum year and newly calibrated international sunspot number, (i) The annual maximum amplitude of cycle 24 = 118.5±24.4 (observed = 113.3±0.1), (ii) A smoothed monthly mean sunspot number maximum in January 2014±4 months (observed in February 2014). Our prediction method appears to be a reliable indicator for the predictability of cycle 25.
We study 30 solar flare events associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that produced geomagnetic storms as measured in Dst index. Our study reveals that the magnitude of Dst index is significantly associated with maximum solar wind speed, peak of Bz component of the IMF and the product of peak Bz and solar wind speed (minimum and maximum). From our investigations, it can be inferred that CMEs travel with higher speed in the beginning and their speed reduces as they reach L1 location.
The temporal correlation between neutron and hard X-ray (HXR) emissions from a hundred joules plasma focus device (PF-400J) was studied. A method, time history analysis, to estimate the time of origin of neutrons with respect to HXRs is applied. In most of the discharges, it was found that neutrons are originated before HXRs in the axial direction and after HXRs in the radial direction. In some discharges, the time difference between HXRs and neutrons origin was found large enough, so that it can be interpreted that those neutrons would have been originated before the pinch. A qualitative discussion is conjectured to explain the experimental observations.
We have developed a single-channel photopolarimeter to measure polarization ∼1%, with an accuracy of 0.1% or so. Laboratory tests show that the performance of the instrument is as per the requirements.
The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.
This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal agents for treating oral lichen planus.
Forty patients with clinical and/or histologically proven oral lichen planus were randomly placed into four groups and treated with topical triamcinolone, oral dapsone, topical tacrolimus or topical retinoid for three months. Pre- and post-treatment symptoms and signs were scored for each patient.
Patients in all treatment groups showed significant clinical improvement after three months (p < 0.05), with steroidal and non-steroidal agents having equal efficacy. Furthermore, of the non-steroidal drugs, oral dapsone had greater efficacy than topical retinoid (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences in outcome were recorded for oral dapsone vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05) and for topical retinoid vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05).
Non-steroidal drugs such as dapsone, tacrolimus and retinoid are as efficacious as steroidal drugs for treating oral lichen planus, and avoid the side effects associated with steroids.
To evaluate the short- to medium-term effectiveness of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser Dermastat in patients with recurrent anterior epistaxis.
Fifty-eight patients presenting with recurrent anterior epistaxis were treated using potassium titanyl phosphate laser Dermastat. Those with recurrent epistaxis arising from prominent vessels in Little's area, and/or those for whom treatment with silver nitrate cautery failed, were included. The main outcome measure was resolution of epistaxis at two months.
Fifty-eight patients were treated; 27 were under 18 years old. Thirty patients had prominent vessels. Thirty-one patients had undergone previous cautery treatment. Thirty-eight patients had treatment to the left side, 19 to the right and 1 to both. At two months, 74 per cent reported resolution of epistaxis with no complications. This increased to 78 per cent at further follow up.
Our technique is a successful, safe treatment for recurrent anterior epistaxis in an otherwise treatment-resistant group. A single procedure is effective. The handpiece and tip are reusable and sterilisable, resulting in cost-effectiveness.
We present observations of the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346 carried out with the 1-m telescope at the Vainu Bappu Observatory in Kavalur, India using (1) a high resolution piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Spectrometer (with a velocity resolution of 10 km s−1) for line studies in the 6000 A - 7000 A spectral range and (2) a pressure scanned Fabry-Pérot spectrometer (with a velocity-resolution of 5 km s−1) in the green region. The nebula was observed in the H I 6563 A and [N II] 6583 A emission lines using a 15″ aperture and in the [O III] 5007 A line using an 8″ aperture centered on the bright central spot. A number of scans in each of these lines were co-added to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The [O III] profile shows a well defined split between the blue and the red component, typical of an expanding shell. The [N II] profile does not show a well resolved split, although a pronounced suggestion of a split was observed in all the scans. The Hα profile was broad and asymmetric. The composite [O III] and [N II] profiles were decomposed into two individual Gaussians for obtaining the expansion velocity.