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Two separate experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Citra, FL to investigate the effects of preplant application timing of 2,4-D and dicamba on sesame stand and yield. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to determine the application timing that caused 10% stand or yield reduction (GR10) compared to the nontreated control (NTC) and expressed as d before planting (DBP; longer intervals indicate more injury). Likewise, regression analysis was used to determine sesame stand that resulted in 10% yield reduction (YR10) expressed as plants m−1 row. Stand measured 3 wk after planting (WAP) revealed 2,4-D applied at 0.53 kg ae ha−1 to be the least injurious treatment to sesame stand (GR10=6.4 DBP). Conversely, dicamba at 1.12 kg ha−1 produced a GR10 of 15.7 DBP for sesame stand at 3 WAP. 2,4-D applied at 0.53 and 1.06 kg ha−1 and dicamba applied at 0.56 kg ha−1 had the lowest GR10 for yield of 2, 3.7, and 3 DBP, respectively. Dicamba applied at 1.12 kg ha−1 proved to be the most injurious treatment to yield, which produced a GR10 value of 10.3 DBP. To simulate possible stand losses associated with dicamba or 2,4-D and the subsequent effect on yield, a separate experiment was conducted in which sesame was thinned to various plant densities and yield was recorded to determine the relationship between plant stand and seed yield. The regression analysis of these data was then compared to that of the experiment treated with 2,4-D and dicamba to separate any physiological effects of the herbicides that would lead to yield reduction from yield effects due to stand loss only. Rate constants were compared and no statistical differences were detected between herbicide and non-herbicide treatments, suggesting that yield reductions that occur from preplant applications of 2,4-D and dicamba were purely due to stand reductions.
As part of a study investigating the carbon balance of a blanket bog, we made an assessment of the spatial variation of radiocarbon concentrations in the surface layers of a small area of peatland in the north of England. The peat depth at which bomb-14C content was the highest varied considerably between cores sampled from across the site. At several sampling locations, 14C levels >100% Modern were confined to the surface 8 cm, whereas bomb 14C was evident at 1 site, located only meters away, to a depth of at least 12–16 cm. Using the layer where 14C levels first exceeded 100% Modern as a chronological reference layer, we estimated the carbon accumulation rate over the last 50 yr for the surface peat at each site (range ∼20 to ∼125 g C m2 yr-1). Our results show that although carbon accumulation over the last 50 yr was similar across the site, variation in the depth to which bomb 14C was evident implied considerable variation in the vertical peat growth rate.
A method for collecting an isotopically representative sample of CO2 from an air stream using a zeolite molecular sieve is described. A robust sampling system was designed and developed for use in the field that includes reusable molecular sieve cartridges, a lightweight pump, and a portable infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). The system was tested using international isotopic standards (13C and 14C). Results showed that CO2 could be trapped and recovered for both δ13C and 14C analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively, without any contamination, fractionation, or memory effect. The system was primarily designed for use in carbon isotope studies of ecosystem respiration, with potential for use in other applications that require CO2 collection from air.
The III-V nitrides are promising materials for use in UV-blue-green optoelectronics, high-temperature electronics, and negative-electron-affinity (NEA) electron emitter applications. In order to realize this potential, it is important to develop an etching technology for device fabrication. The stability of the III-V nitrides to harsh chemical environments makes most wet etching extremely difficult, so that dry etching alternatives are desirable. Recent experiments have shown that BCI3-based chemistries are effective for reactive ion etching of GaN and that KOH-based solutions may preferentially etch AIN from GaN. This paper reports on the use of BCI3 for etching AIN and AlGaN in addition to GaN and the creation of structures such as mesas and lines. It also examines the potential use of potassium Hydroxide (KOH) as a wet etchant of the nitrides. AIN, AlGaN, and GaN films grown by either metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were patterned with Ni in 250 μm × 250 μm squares and 5 μm wide lines to create mesas and lines for typical light emitting diode (LED) or laser diode applications. Reactive ion etching was performed in a commercial reactor using BCI3 pressures ranging from 5 to 30 mTorr. Gas flow rates of 5 to 50 seem and RF powers of 50 to 150 W were employed. High nitride etch rates of up to 730 Å/min. were observed but lower etch rates were needed to avoid etching of the Ni mask. Smooth mesa surfaces and sidewalls were observed in scanning electron micrographs of the etched nitride structures. Mesas as small as 5 μm × 5 μm were patterned and made in this way. Lines were also made in a similar manner as narrow as 5 μm on GaN/AIN epilayers. Subsequent wet etching of these lines showed that KOH-based solutions such as AZ400K developer attack not only AIN but also GaN depending upon the quality of the film. Possibilities for using this wet etch as a defect etchant or selective etch of nitrides on SiC are discussed.
Gallium nitride layers were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on AlN buffer layers deposited in the range of 450–650°C. The GaN growth conditions were kept constant so that changes in film properties were due only to changes in the buffer layer growth temperature. A monotonie improvement in relative crystallinity as measured by double-crystal X-ray diffraction corresponded with a decrease in buffer layer growth temperature. Improvements in GaN electron transport at 300 and 77 K were also observed with decreasing AlN buffer layer temperature. Photoluminescence spectra for the lowest temperatures studied were dominated by sharp excitonic emission, with some broadening of the exciton linewidth observed as the buffer layer growth temperature was increased. The full width at half maximum of the excitonic emission was 2.7 meV for GaN grown on a 450°C buffer layer. These results indicate that minimizing AlN buffer layer temperature results in improvements in GaN film quality.
The surface structure of organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) grown α-GaN films was investigated using optical and scanning force microscopy (SFM). Optical microscopy shows that the surface is decorated with several different types of faceted features that have lateral dimensions of 10 to 75 μm and occur with a density of approximately 104/cm2. SFM images show that on the flat regions of the surface, single diatomic layer steps, 2.6 Å high, are straight, evenly spaced (at 500 to 1500 Å intervals), and oriented along á101ñ directions. The SFM images also show that the regular step patterns are often interrupted by faceted growth hillocks, 0.8 to 5 μm in diameter and 120 to 400 Å high, that occur with a density of 106/cm2. An open-core screw dislocation with a Burgers vector of 5.2 Å occurs at the center of each hillock and is a source for spiral steps. Other dislocations are also observed to intersect the flat regions of the surface and create a step, but these have smaller Burgers vectors, do not form spirals, and do not have open cores. Based on these observations, we conclude that thick OMVPE GaN films grow by a combination of the layer-by-layer and spiral growth mechanisms.
MBE growth of III-V nitrides is being studied at NCSU using MOVPE grown GaN buffer layers on SiC as substrates. Rf plasma sources are being used for the generation of active nitrogen during MBE deposition. Through the use of multiple rf plasma sources, sufficient active nitrogen is generated in order to examine the properties of III-V nitride layers grown at higher substrate temperatures and growth rates. The resulting MBE-grown GaN films exhibit remarkably intense photoluminescence (PL) dominated by a sharp band-edge peak at 3.409 eV having a FWHM of 36 meV at 300K. No deep level emission is observed. AlGaN and InGaN films and quantum well structures have also been prepared using multiple sources. A modulated beam MBE approach is used in conjunction with the multiple rf plasma sources to grow InGaN. RHEED and TEM studies reveal flat 2D InGaN quantum well structures. Depending on the indium content, GaN/InGaN single-quantum-well structures exhibit electroluminescence at 300K peaked in the blue-violet to the green spectral region.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an emerging semiconductor material which has been widely predicted to be superior to both Si and GaAs in the area of power electronic switching devices . This paper presents an overview of SiC power devices and concludes that MOS Turn-Off Thyristor (MTOTM) is one of the most promising near term SiC switching device given its high power potential, ease of turn-off, 500°C operation and resulting reduction in cooling requirements. It is further concluded that in order to take advantage of SiC power devices, high temperature packages and components with double sided attachment need to be developed along with the SiC power devices.