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While hot-water drilling is a well-established technique used to access the subsurface of ice masses, drilling into high-elevation (≳ 4000 m a.s.l.) debris-covered glaciers faces specific challenges. First, restricted transport capacity limits individual equipment items to a volume and mass that can be slung by small helicopters. Second, low atmospheric oxygen and pressure reduces the effectiveness of combustion, limiting a system's ability to pump and heat water. Third, thick supraglacial debris, which is both highly uneven and unstable, inhibits direct access to the ice surface, hinders the manoeuvring of equipment and limits secure sites for equipment placement. Fourth, englacial debris can slow the drilling rate such that continued drilling becomes impracticable and/or boreholes deviate substantially from vertical. Because of these challenges, field-based englacial and subglacial data required to calibrate numerical models of high-elevation debris-covered glaciers are scarce or absent. Here, we summarise our experiences of hot-water drilling over two field seasons (2017–2018) at the debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, where we melted 27 boreholes up to 192 m length, at elevations between 4900 and 5200 m a.s.l. We describe the drilling equipment and operation, evaluate the effectiveness of our approach and suggest equipment and methodological adaptations for future use.
We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
Introduction: Medical transport services are essential in the regionalization of trauma care. Given the limited number of designated trauma centers, transport times can be prolonged, with patient care managed by paramedics for the duration of their transfer. Pain management is a paramount component, but oligoanalgesia can occur. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate pain management practices during transport of trauma patients by air. Methods: We conducted a 12-month review of ORNGE electronic paramedic records. ORNGE is the exclusive provider of air and land transport in Ontario, Canada. Cases from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 were screened. Patients were identified according to inclusion (≥18 years old requiring transportation to designated trauma center) and exclusion criteria (GCS<14; intubation; accompanied by a nurse or physician). Information was collected in a standardized, piloted data form used by a single trained data extractor. Demographics, injury description, and transportation parameters were recorded. Outcomes included pain assessment according to changes on a 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS), patterns of analgesia administration, and analgesia-related adverse events (AEs). Results were reported as mean, (standard deviation), [range], or percentage. Results: Of 600 potential records, 372 patients met our inclusion criteria with the following characteristics: age 47.0 [19-92] years; 70.4% male; 97.0% blunt injury. Duration of transport was 82.4 (46.3) minutes. Pain was initially assessed in 90.0% of patients. Overall, NRS at baseline was 4.9 (2.8). Of the 62.4% who received analgesia, NRS at baseline was 5.9 (2.5). Fentanyl was most commonly administered (78.5%) at 44.3 [25-60] mcg. NRS after the first dose of analgesia decreased by 1.1 (1.6) points. A total of 73.7% of patients received further analgesia, equal to 2.4 [1-19] additional doses. While 23.4% of patients had no change in NRS after the first dose of analgesia, subsequent doses resulted in no change in NRS in over 65% [65.4-71.3] of patients. A total of 43 AEs (6.7%) were recorded after 638 doses of analgesia, and the most common AE was nausea (39.5%). Conclusion: The majority of patients were assessed for pain. Although the first analgesia administration had minimal effect on NRS, subsequent doses appeared to have even less of an impact. AEs were infrequent.
Two-thirds of the members of the Commission have replied to the request of the chairman for an expression of their opinion. Most of them are in general well satisfied with the existing system of classification and nomenclature. Lindblad reports on successful work upon the determination of absolute magnitudes of faint stars, in many ways. Adams writes: “I might suggest that attention be called in the report to the fact that the ultra-violet spectra, even of stars like β Orionis, show large numbers of lines. As you probably remember, the spectrum of Sirius resembles, at first sight, the solar spectrum. If all observatories had the facilities for getting spectra in the far ultra-violet, this region would probably furnish the best criteria for spectral type.” Merrill suggests: “The nomenclature which, upon the basis of atomic transition, assigns the adjective ‘nebular’ to lines which may not occur in nebulae, and ‘ auroral ‘ to lines which may not occur in the aurora, is surely not an ideal one.
There has been a marked change in the past few years in the incidence of interest in stellar spectra. The great initial task of classification has attained its first objective—though the Henry Draper Extension, and other investigations are still progressing. Perhaps a million stars are still accessible to classification with existing instruments; but more and more time is being spent upon individual spectra, and upon theoretical investigations. In these fields progress has been very rapid, and only some of the more important results may be mentioned here.
Investigation of stellar spectra has been active during the last four years. Without attempting to make a complete survey, some important researches may be mentioned.
The theory of the intensities and contours of absorption lines has been discussed by Eddington, Milne, Pannekoek, Woolley, H. H. Plaskett, and others, and has proved to be difficult. For example, no quantitative theory has yet been developed for the residuai intensity which remains in even the strongest lines, although the physical causes underlying the formation of residual intensities are rather obvious. Study of solar lines with light which has left the surface at different angles shows that the processes which produce the wings and the centre are probably different. The most promising line of attack on this intricate problem appears to be in studies of the solar spectrum, where different regions of the disc may be separately investigated, rather than of integrated starlight. The highest dispersion available, even in solar work, will be none too great.
We report near-infrared spectroscopy of three Seyfert galaxies. Velocity resolved spectra covering low excitation-potential transitions of [Ar III] 8.991 µm, [S IV] 10.514 µm, and [Ne II] 12.813 µm were obtained using the facility mid-infrared array spectrometer (SpectroCam) of the Palomar Observatory Hale 5-m Telescope, and low-resolution spectra covering [Mg V] 5.608 µm, [Ar II] 6.985 µm, and [Ne VI] 7.642 µm were obtained using the faint-object spectrograph (HIFOGS) of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO).
We find high contrast [Ar III] and [S IV] in each galaxy, and [Ne II] in NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 (12.8 µm data were not obtained on NGC 5506). The line profiles are well resolved. In NGC 1068 and NGC 4151, they are fit by singlecomponent Gaussians. However, in NGC 5506, evidence for a broad pedestal is seen in the [Ar III] and [S IV] spectra, similar to the broad Paβ component reported by Blanco et al. (1990) and Rix et al. (1990).
Mastoid surgery carried out to treat chronic otitis media can lead to improvement in objective and subjective measures post-operatively. This study investigated the subjective change in quality of life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory relative to the type of mastoid surgery undertaken.
A retrospective multicentre postal survey of 157 patients who underwent mastoid surgery from 2008 to 2012 was conducted.
Eighty-three questionnaire responses were received from patients who underwent surgery at one of three different hospitals (a response rate of 53 per cent). Fifty-seven per cent of patients had a Glasgow Benefit Inventory score of 0, indicating no change in quality of life post-operatively. Thirty-five per cent scored over 50, indicating significant improvement. The only significant difference found was that women fared worse after surgery than men.
The choice of mastoid surgery technique should be determined by clinical need and surgeon preference. There is no improvement in quality of life for most patients following mastoid surgery.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of the immune and gastrointestinal systems of infants. In the present study, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy, maternal weight gain during pregnancy or mode of infant feeding alter the markers of gut immune defence and inflammation. Women (n 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to continue consuming their habitual diet or to consume two 150 g portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 weeks of pregnancy to delivery. Faecal samples were collected from the mothers (n 75) at 38 weeks of gestation and from their infants (n 38) on days 7, 14, 28 and 84 post-partum. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to determine faecal microbiota composition and ELISA to measure faecal secretory IgA (sIgA) and calprotectin concentrations. There was no effect of salmon consumption on maternal faecal microbiota or on maternal or infant faecal sIgA and calprotectin concentrations. The degree of weight gain influenced maternal faecal microbiota, and the mode of infant feeding influenced infant faecal microbiota. Faecal samples collected from infants in the salmon group tended to have lower bacterial counts of the Atopobium cluster compared with those collected from infants in the control group (P= 0·097). This difference was significant in the formula-fed infants (P< 0·05), but not in the exclusively breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the impact of oily fish consumption during pregnancy on maternal and infant gut microbiota composition is limited, but significant differences are associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy and mode of infant feeding.
The device performance of GaAs p-i-n solar cells containing stacked layers of self-assembled InAs quantum dots is investigated. The solar cells demonstrate enhanced external quantum efficiency below the GaAs band gap relative to a control device without quantum dots. This is attributed to the capture of sub-band gap photons by the quantum dots. Analysis of the current density versus voltage characteristic for the quantum dot solar cell reveals a decrease in the series resistance as the device area is reduce from 0.16 cm2 to 0.01 cm2. This is effect is not observed in control devices and is quantum dot related. Furthermore, low temperature measurements of the open circuit voltage for both quantum dot and control devices provide experimental verification of the conditions required to realise an intermediate band gap solar cell.
The electronic structure of delta plutonium (δ-Pu) and plutonium compounds is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results for δ-Pu show a small component of the valence electronic structure which might reasonably be associated with a 5f6 configuration. PES results for PuTe are used as an indication for the 5f6 configuration due to the presence of atomic multiplet structure. Temperature dependent PES data on δ-Pu indicate a narrow peak centered 20 meV below the Fermi energy and 100 meV wide. The first PES data for PuCoIn5 indicate a 5f electronic structure more localized than the 5fs in the closely related PuCoGa5. There is support from the PES data for a description of Pu materials with an electronic configuration of 5f5 with some admixture of 5f6 as well as a localized/delocalized 5f5 description.
Asymmetric reflections in which the beam paths are skew with respect to the sample surface have been used to characterize thin heteroepitaxial layers by double axis X-ray diffractometry. By utilizing reflections with Braqg cones which are partially embedded in the sample surface it is possible to tune to grazing the angles of incidence or emergence. Enhanced layer to substrate peak intensity ratio and narrower layer peak widths can be obtained. The technique is demonstrated using skew angle reflections 333, 133 and 044 from a 400Å GaInAsP layer on an InP substrate.
Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) oxides formed using TEOS and oxygen (O2) are compared with RTCVD oxides formed using silane (SiH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These oxides were deposited under varying pressure and gas composition to investigate the film step coverage and electrical properties. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used in determining the oxide step coverage. Excellent oxide conformality, greater than 90 %, was achieved with SiH4 and N2O over a wide range of aspect ratios. The average breakdown field obtained for the SiH4/N2O oxides is approximately 13 MV/cm, which is greater than values measured for oxides formed by conventional dry thermal process. Oxides deposited using TEOS typically have an average breakdown field of about 8 MV/cm. We conclude that the SiH4/N2O oxide process for the deposition of SiO2 films in a RTCVD reactor is a very promising candidate for sidewall spacer formation in advanced device applications.
Recent progress on the use of molecular engineering approaches for the enhancement and spectral tuning of the optical limiting responses of phthalocyanine complexes is presented. Examples are given involving the use of the heavy-atom approach to enhance the limiting response of naphthalocyanines and of donor substitution of naphthalocyanines to red shift the optical limiting response, as demonstrated for indium and tin octabutoxynaphthalocyanines. These approaches have led to new materials for optical limiting with potential for high performance. An experimental demonstration of the “bottleneck” limiter concept, in which the optical-limiting material is distributed nonhomogeneously to permit strong pumping of excited-state population throughout the interaction region, is presented and shows an order-of-magnitude increase in pulse suppression compared to a homogeneous distribution, without an increase in linear absorbance.
Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) has been investigated as an alternative to low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) for formation of sidewall spacer dielectric. Silane (SiH 4 ) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) were chosen as the silicon gas sources in these studies. Reasonable deposition rates were obtained for RTCVD oxides, oxynitrides and nitrides for use in thin sidewall spacer application. Refractive index and etch rate measurements suggest that oxides deposited with a 2 % flow rate ratio of SiH 4 /N2O and annealed at 900 °C for 10 seconds produces films with excellent structural quality. Refractive index and wet etch rate both exhibit a linear dependence with the gas flow ratio. An increase in deposition pressure decreased the refractive index while increasing the etch rate. Oxide and oxynitride dielectrics formed using SiH 4 had a much superior step coverage over a wide range of aspect ratios than TEOS dielectrics. Dit and breakdown fields for oxides and oxynitrides with 3 atomic % nitrogen were comparable to that of thermal oxide indicating their good electrical quality. The results reported suggest that RTCVD sidewall spacers are a promising candidate for use in future MOSFET devices.
Mid-infrared photoresponse studies were performed on an oriented p-type cadmium germanium arsenide uniaxial crystal. The effects of optical polarization alignment, parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis of the crystal, were studied, as well as the effects of the transport electric-field direction. The measured optical band edge was 0.578 eV at 10 K for all polarization and bias configurations. This band gap energy is in good agreement with absorption and photoluminescence results for this sample. However, the photoresponse spectrum measured with unpolarized light at 10 K showed a much lower onset at 0.50 eV. This difference in the low temperature activation energy of the photoresponse is attributed to deep native defect levels near the band edge. These deep levels at times obscure the true band edge and can cause under estimates of the band gap energy. These results can explain the wide disparity in the reported CdGeAs2 band gap in the literature. In addition, the intensity of the photoresponse was found to be only slightly dependent on the optical polarization direction, but strongly dependent on the bias electric-field direction. The largest photoreponse was observed when the optical polarization was parallel to the c-axis and the bias electric field was perpendicular to the c-axis. The bias electric-field direction also had a significant effect upon the temperature dependence of the peak photoresponse intensity. The temperature dependence of the CdGeAs2 energy band gap was determined by empirical fitting.