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To date there have been few studies on equine personality, with many equine studies on individual differences focussing on the measurement of temperament. Personality is defined by Pervin and John (1997, ) as “Those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving” and is different to temperament in that it has a greater emphasis on social aspects of behaviour. Interest in this area of research has recently increased, which could be attributed to the potential implementation of personality assessment in management practices, welfare issues and potential applications in equine veterinary medicine (Mills, 1998).
Assessment of animal personality often involves using human raters to assess the personality of animals familiar to them. In order to demonstrate reliable personality data three criteria should be met, these are as follows; 1) assessments made by independent observers must agree with one another, 2) these assessments must predict behaviours and real-world outcomes and 3) observer ratings must be shown to reflect genuine attributes of the individual rated and not just the observers’ implicit theories about personality (Kenrick and Funder, 1988; Gosling and Vazire, 2002).
The study aim was to establish and quantify suicide risk following acute admissions for all major physical illnesses, for confirmatory purposes, from two independent information sources from different countries.
Record linkage of inpatient and death certificate data for 11 004 389 acute admissions for physical illnesses in England and 713 496 in Wales. The main outcome measure was standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide at 1 year following discharge from hospital.
There were 1781 suicides within 1 year of discharge in England (SMR = 1.7; 95% = 1.6–1.8) and 131 in Wales (SMR = 2.0; 1.7–2.3). Of 48 major physical illnesses that were associated with at least eight suicides in either country, there was high consistent suicide mortality (significant SMR >3) in both countries for constipation (SMR = 4.1 in England, 7.5 in Wales), gastritis (4.4 and 4.9) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (3.4 and 4.5). There was high suicide mortality in one country for alcoholic liver disease, other liver disease and chronic pancreatitis; for epilepsy and Parkinson's disease; for diabetes, hypoglycaemia and hypo-osmolality & hyponatraemia; and for pneumonia, back pain and urinary tract infections.
There is little or no increased suicide mortality following acute admissions for most physical illnesses. Much of the increased suicide mortality relates to gastrointestinal disorders that are often alcohol related or specific chronic conditions, which may be linked to side effects from certain therapeutic medications. Acute hospital admissions for physical illnesses may therefore provide an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention among people with certain conditions, particularly alcohol related disorders.
Concerns relating to increased use of psychotropic medication contrast with those of under-treatment and under-recognition of common mental disorders in children and young people (CYP) across developed countries. Little is known about the indications recorded for antidepressant prescribing in primary care in CYP.
This was an electronic cohort study of routinely collected primary-care data from a population of 1.9 million, Wales, UK. Poisson regression was undertaken to model adjusted counts of recorded depression symptoms, diagnoses and antidepressant prescriptions. Associated indications were explored.
3 58 383 registered patients aged 6–18 years between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2013 provided a total of 19 20 338 person-years of follow-up. The adjusted incidence of antidepressant prescribing increased significantly [incidence rate ratio (IRR) for 2013 = 1.28], mainly in older adolescents. The majority of new antidepressant prescriptions were for citalopram. Recorded depression diagnoses showed a steady decline (IRR = 0.72) while depression symptoms (IRR = 2.41) increased. Just over half of new antidepressant prescriptions were associated with depression (diagnosis or symptoms). Other antidepressant prescribing, largely unlicensed, was associated with diagnoses such as anxiety and pain.
Antidepressant prescribing is increasing in CYP while recorded depression diagnoses decline. Unlicensed citalopram prescribing occurs outside current guidelines, despite its known toxicity in overdose. Unlicensed antidepressant prescribing is associated with a wide range of diagnoses, and while accepted practice, is often not supported by safety and efficacy studies. New strategies to implement current guidance for the management of depression in CYP are required.
We used laboratory and field feeding trials to investigate adult carabid beetle preferences for three brassicaceous weed species (rapeseed, wild mustard, and field pennycress) that are pests in canola. All carabid species preferred seeds of rapeseed most and those of field pennycress least and showed intermediate preference for wild mustard seeds. Beetles highly preferred imbibed seeds of all three weed species. Activity–density of carabids and mean weed seed removal were highly correlated in field plots of canola, with activity–density accounting for 67% of the observed variation in seed removal. Our study indicates that seed consumption among carabids is influenced by several factors, including weed species, physiological state of seeds, and carabid activity–density. Carabid seed predation is significant in canola agroecosystems; therefore, understanding these influences has implications for ecological weed management.
GK Per, a classical nova system that erupted in 1901, is one of the more unusual examples of its type. It has the longest known orbital period for a classical nova (1.997d; Crampton, Cowley & Fisher 1986); and it contains a white dwarf primary with an evolved K2 sub-giant secondary. Most remarkably, the IRAS Sky Survey (1991) reveals that GK Per exhibits far-IR dust emission extending ~ 17′ to the NW and SE of the nova (Bode et al. 1987; Seaquist et al. 1989). We have re-analysed the IRAS data using maximum entropy reconstruction (Bontekoe et al. 1991; Bontekoe, Koper & Kester 1994) to resolve structures at a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit of IRAS, which is 1′ at 60 μm and 1.7′ at 100/μm.
We present MERLIN maps of V1016 Cyg at 6 cm, observed on 1992 July 21 and 1995 March 23. Previously discovered bipolar structure is resolved into three distinct peaks. Evolution and proper motion of these peaks has been measured.
Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.
Ground beetles are postdispersal weed seed predators, yet their role in consuming buried seeds is not well studied. We conducted greenhouse experiments to investigate how seed burial affects consumption of weed seeds (volunteer canola) by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Seed burial depth influenced seed consumption rates as demonstrated by a significant interaction between seed burial depth, carabid species, and gender of the carabid tested. We observed higher seed consumption by females of all species, and greater consumption of seeds scattered on the soil surface compared with seeds buried at any depth. However, there was evidence of seed consumption at all depths. Adults of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) and Harpalus affinis (Schrank) consumed more buried seeds than did those of Amara littoralis Mannerheim. Agricultural practices, such as tillage, bury seeds at different depths and based on the results of this study, these practices may reduce seed consumption by carabids. Soil conservation practices that reduce tillage (conservation or zero tillage) will favor greater weed seed predation due, in part, to the high availability of seeds at the soil surface or at shallow soil depths.
Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.
A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the ‘slow tail’ of the distribution).
Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07–1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60–1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.
Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.
Weed management is a challenge in all agroecosystems. Given the negative consequences associated with herbicide-based weed management, it is important to consider integrated weed management options with emphasis on strategies such as biological control. Postdispersal weed seed predation by granivorous and omnivorous carabid beetles results in substantial natural suppression of weed populations. Although the role of ground beetles as “generalist predators” in various agroecosystems is known, their contribution to weed management is not well recognized. In this context, this review presents an account of carabids and their granivorous nature, the importance of a seed diet in the life histories of different carabid groups, factors affecting granivory, and their potential role in weed seed management. Below, we discuss the interrelationships among various factors influencing weed seed consumption by carabids, its consequences for weed management, and the need for future research.
The scientific literature contains evidence suggesting that women who have been treated for breast cancer may, as a result of their diagnosis, increase their phyto-oestrogen (PE) intake. In the present paper, we describe the creation of a dietary analysis database (based on Dietplan6) for the determination of dietary intakes of specific PE (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, coumestrol, matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol), in a group of women previously diagnosed and treated for postmenopausal breast cancer. The design of the database, data evaluation criteria, literature data entry for 551 foods and primary analysis by LC–MS/MS of an additional thirty-four foods for which there were no published data are described. The dietary intake of 316 women previously treated for postmenopausal breast cancer informed the identification of potential food and beverage sources of PE and the bespoke dietary analysis database was created to, ultimately, quantify their PE intake. In order that PE exposure could be comprehensively described, fifty-four of the 316 subjects completed a 24 h urine collection, and their urinary excretion results allowed for the description of exposure to include those identified as ‘equol producers’.
Little is known about how the rates and characteristics of mental health service users in unpaid work, training and study compare with those in paid employment.
From staff report and patient records, 1353 mental health service users of seven Community Mental Health Teams in two London boroughs were categorized as in paid work, unpaid vocational activity or no vocational activity. Types of work were described using Standard Occupational Classifications. The characteristics of each group were reported and associations with vocational status were explored.
Of the sample, 5.5% were in paid work and 12.7% were in unpaid vocational activity, (including 5.3% in voluntary work and 8.1% in study or training). People in paid work were engaged in a broader range of occupations than those in voluntary work and most in paid work (58.5%) worked part-time. Younger age and high educational attainment characterized both groups. Having sustained previous employment was most strongly associated with being in paid work.
Rates of vocational activity were very low. Results did not suggest a clear clinical distinction between those in paid and unpaid activity. The motivations for and functions of unpaid work need further research.
Coherent iron-copper multilayers of a wavelength of 2.5nm that were measured to be nonmagnetic were structurally characterised using high resolution and Fresnel techniques. A measurement of the tetragonal distortion from layer to layer and as a whole would allow an assessment of the degree to which the material exhibits any anomaly in its elastic behaviour. The modelling of the distortions requires however the measurement of the abruptness of the interfaces and this requires the quantification of the Fresnel contrast. The degree to which the measurements can be obtained to the required accuracies is considered.
Aero engine designs can have a life time of over 45 years, which is long enough for the understanding of environmental problems to change significantly. This places the aero engine designer in a position of uncertainty, as unforeseen environmental problems could affect the viability of a design. ‘Risk’ is used to describe future uncertainties that can lead to undesirable consequences. This paper presents a framework for environmental risk management that allows the designer to answer the question: what is the risk to a design from its environmental impacts over the life cycle? The framework provides a process for turning complex environmental business hazards into a form that can be used to develop mitigating actions within the design process. The paper demonstrates the framework through two examples and discusses findings, leading to conclusions on what is required to implement the framework into a business.
We have integrated recent research results in the curriculum of the University of Maryland, while leaving the basics intact. This allows us to teach the fundamental laws and to show the students how these help us to answer questions that are of importance today. This can be done as part of a laboratory and as part of a class. In the laboratory classes, we emphasize what is measured (the main topic), then measure samples recently done in the literature. If available, we measure two samples and have a discussion on what are the differences. These are then related to the manner the samples have been grown. In the classes, we show the basic equation or relation, and introduce how it can answer a question that is pertinent to today's research.
Electron and ion beams can be used to deposit thin films and etch surfaces using gas phase precursors. However, the generation of undesirable gas phase products and the diffusion of the reactive species beyond the region irradiated by the electron or ion beam can limit selectivity. Tn this paper, the feasibility of processing condensed precursors such as diborane, tri-methyl aluminum, ammonia and water at 78 K with low energy (100–1000 eV) electron and ion beams (Ar+, N2+ and H2+) ranging in current density from 50 nA to several μ a per cm2 is examined. It was found that boron, boron nitride and stoichiometric aluminum oxide films could be deposited from the condensed volatile species using charged particle beams and some of the physical and chemical aspects and limitations of this new technique are discussed.