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Despite improvements in the medical and surgical management of infants with CHD, growth failure before surgery in many infants continues to be a significant concern. A nutritional pathway was developed, the aim of which was to provide a structured approach to nutritional care for infants with CHD awaiting surgery.
Materials and methods
The modified Delphi process was development of a nutritional pathway; initial stakeholder meeting to finalise draft guidelines and develop questions; round 1 anonymous online survey; round 2 online survey; regional cardiac conference and pathway revision; and final expert meeting and pathway finalisation.
Paediatric Dietitians from all 11 of the paediatric cardiology surgical centres in the United Kingdom contributed to the guideline development. In all, 33% of participants had 9 or more years of experience working with infants with CHD. By the end of rounds 1 and 2, 76 and 96% of participants, respectively, were in agreement with the statements. Three statements where consensus was not achieved by the end of round 2 were discussed and agreed at the final expert group meeting.
Nutrition guidelines were developed for infants with CHD awaiting surgery, using a modified Delphi process, incorporating the best available evidence and expert opinion with regard to nutritional support in this group.
Erythema infectiosum (EI) or fifth disease is a mild, acute exanthematous disease, occurring mainly among children, for which a causative virus has long been sought. In May 1983 an outbreak of exanthematous illness was reported in a primary school in North London. Children attending the school were investigated by questionnaire and 162 (43·9%) reported an illness with the features of EI. In each of 36 cases investigated virologically the illness was associated with parvovirus infection. Moreoever, pre-existing antibody to parvovirus was correlated with protection from EI in 16 of 17 close family contacts of cases. We propose therefore that EI is the common manifestation of infection with the human parvovirus.
Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we genotyped 21 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients attending an adult cystic fibrosis unit. Eleven patients exhibited pulsotypes related to 2 locally endemic strains. Eleven chronically colonized patients were assessed over a period of up to 2 years, and all demonstrated a retention of strain type.
Two hypervariable Y-specific markers, the YCAII and DYS19 STRs, and the more stable Y Alu
Polymorphism (YAP) have been analysed in about 1400 individuals of 21 different populations,
mainly from Europe but also from the Middle East, Africa and Asia. On the basis of the frequency
distributions of these three Y-markers we compare, using different statistical analyses, their power
in detecting population genetic structure and in distinguishing closely related groups. The pattern
of populations' genetic affinities inferred from the three markers considered altogether suggests a
strong genetic structure that, with a few exceptions, broadly corresponds to the linguistic relatedness
and/or geographic location of the sampled populations.
Grazing-Emission X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (GEXRF) is a new analytical
X-ray fluorescence technique, which like TXRF takes advantage of the
total-reflection phenomenon. The main advantage of GEXRF over TXRF is its
sensitivity towards light elements. This paper presents straight GEXRF and
VPD-DC-GEXRF analysis results for Na, Mg, Al, K and Ca surface contamination
on silicon wafers.
We apply the technique of High Resolution X-ray Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) to the study of wavy layers in InGaAs multilayer thin films on InP substrates. By accurately measuring the positions of the layer Bragg peaks in reciprocal space we obtain measurements of the compositions and residual coherency strains in the layers. We discuss the contributions to the diffuse scatter around the Bragg peaks from factors such as lattice tilts and interface roughness. By modelling the shapes of the diffraction profiles we obtain measurements of mosaic block size both perpendicular and parallel to the multilayer/substrate interface. We conclude that the wavy interface morphology arises predominantly from layer thickness variations rather than lattice tilts.
It is a common assumption in child psychiatry that the personality and attitudes of parents exert a fundamental influence on the developing child. This hypothesis merits careful examination. The authors were particularly interested in testing it in relation to aberrant personalities and undeniable psychiatric disorder in childhood. Theoretically there are two main methodological steps;
(i)The proving of a correlation between parental and childhood variables. The present paper concentrates on this step.
(ii)experimental or other studies to demon strate causal relationships between these variables.
Among recent developments in human chromosome studies a triple-X state has been recognized in females in whom the chromosome number is 47, composed of 44 autosomes and 3 X chromosomes (Jacobs et al., 1959). Early surveys of nuclear sex have shown that the triple-X state is a not uncommon chromosomal anomaly. A survey of Edinburgh babies gave a frequency at birth of these abnormal females of 1.78/1,000 births (Court Brown, 1962) and by combining data of surveys from Edinburgh (Maclean et al., 1962), Glasgow (Fraser et al., 1960) and Baltimore (Johnston et al., 1961) the estimated frequency of the triple-X state in mental subnormality institutions is 4.51/1,000 in-patients.
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