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To examine the association between parenting styles and overall child dietary quality within households that are low-income and food-insecure.
Child dietary intake was measured via a 24 h dietary recall. Dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Parenting styles were measured and scored using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Linear regressions were used to test main and interaction associations between HEI-2005 scores and parenting styles.
Non-probability sample of low-income and food-insecure households in South Carolina, USA.
Parent–child dyads (n 171). Parents were ≥18 years old and children were 9–15 years old.
We found a significant interaction between authoritative and authoritarian parenting style scores. For those with a mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 3·36, P < 0.05). For those with an authoritarian score that was 1 sd above the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 8.42, P < 0.01). For those with an authoritarian score that was −1 sd below the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a lower HEI-2005 score; however, this was not significant (b = −1·69, P > 0·05). Permissive parenting style scores were negatively associated with child dietary quality (b = −2·79, P < 0·05).
Parenting styles should be considered an important variable that is associated with overall dietary quality in children living within low-income and food-insecure households.
We report here for the first time the presence of Ophelimus mediterraneus sp. n. in Mediterranean Europe. This species appears to be closely related to Ophelimus maskelli, a well-known invasive pest of Eucalyptus. Based on molecular (cytochrome oxidase I, 28S), morphological (multivariate ratio analysis) and bio-ecological investigations, our study gives unambiguous relevant criteria that allow the discrimination between these two species. A full description of O. mediterraneus sp. n. is also provided. The geographic distribution of O. mediterraneus sp. n. as well as its impact on Eucalyptus species needs to be more widely assessed since its presence may have been confused with O. maskelli in their sympatric introduced areas. Further investigations of potential parasitoids in the native area may thus be welcomed to evaluate classical biological control achievability.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Habitat fragmentation creates habitat edges, and ecological edge effects can cause major changes in the ecology and distribution of many taxa. However, these ecological changes may in turn influence animal movements and lead to molecular edge effects and edge-related genetic structure, matters that are largely unexplored. This study aims to infer molecular edge effects and to test three possible underlying mechanisms in the Endangered golden-brown mouse lemur Microcebus ravelobensis, a nocturnal species in the dry deciduous forest of the Ankarafantsika National Park in north-western Madagascar. Mouse lemurs were sampled in one edge and two interior habitats in close proximity to each other (500–1,400 m) in a continuous forest. A total of 41 mouse lemur samples were genotyped with seven nuclear microsatellites, and a fragment of the mitochondrial control region was sequenced for all samples. The overall genetic diversity (allelic richness, heterozygosity, haplotype richness, nucleotide diversity) was lower in the edge habitat compared to the two interior sites and all subpopulations showed signals of relatively low genetic exchange and significant genetic differentiation between them despite the short geographical distances, supporting the local preference model. These findings can be interpreted as preliminary signals of a molecular edge effect and suggest the potential for local adaptation. They are highly relevant for the conservation of fragmented populations, because a further subdivision of already small populations may increase their vulnerability to stochastic demographic changes and collapse.
The efficacy of valbenazine (INGREZZA) in tardive dyskinesia (TD) was demonstrated in placebo-controlled clinical trials, based on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total score (sum of items 1-7). In these trials, mean changes in the AIMS total score were significantly greater with valbenazine 80 mg than with placebo. Currently, no minimal clinically important difference (MCID) has been established for the AIMS total score in patients with TD. Using valbenazine trial data, analyses were conducted to establish a MCID for AIMS total score in TD.
Data were pooled from three 6-week trials: KINECT (NCT01688037), KINECT 2 (NCT01733121), KINECT 3 (NCT02274558). Using the Clinical Global Impression ofChange (CGI-TD) as an anchor comparison, AIMS total score changes from baseline to Week 6 were summarized for all study participants (pooled valbenazine and placebo groups) with a “minimal” CGI-TD score of ≤3 (minimally improved or better) or “robust” ≤2 (much improved or better) at Week 6.
In the pooled population (N=373), 72% and 29% of all participants had CGI-TD scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively. The median (maximum, minimum) change from baseline in AIMS total score at Week 6 was -2 (-13, 8) in participants with CGI-TD score ≤3 and -3 ( 13, 8) in participants with a score ≤2.
Pooled data from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials suggest that a 2 point decrease in AIMS total score may represent the minimal clinically meaningful improvement. Larger AIMS score improvements were associated with “much improved” or “very much improved” CGI TD assessments.
This study was funded by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Nurses are critical to the research enterprise. However all nurses are not prepared to participate as members of the research team since education and training in clinical research nursing and nurse-specific Good Clinical Practice are not consistently included in nursing curricula. The lack of nurse education and training in clinical research and Good Clinical Practice leaves research participants vulnerable with a nursing workforce that is not prepared to balance fidelity to protocol and patient quality care and safety.
A collaborative network of nurses within Clinical and Translational Science Awards and beyond was established to address this education and training need. Over a 2-year period, using expert opinion, Delphi methods, and measures of validity and reliability the team constructed curriculum and knowledge test items.
A pilot modular electronic curriculum, including knowledge pretest and post-tests, in clinical research nursing and nurse-specific Good Clinical Practice competencies was developed.
As the scope and setting of clinical research changes, it is likely that all practicing nurses, regardless of their practice setting or specialty, will care for patients on research protocol, making all nurses, in essence, clinical research nurses. The curriculum developed by this protocol will address that workforce education and training need.
Preston et al (1976) and Burke (1982, these proceedings) have long extolled the virtues of launching a radio telescope into space to increase VLBI baseline lengths and thus angular resolution, and to provide a much enhanced image formation capability. The scientific motivation for this has been covered in a number of memoranda referenced by Burke in these proceedings, and by Anderson et al (1982). Efforts to mobilise western astronomical support for space VLBI met with success in late 1982 at a meeting of US and European radio astronomers in Toulouse, France, at which a decision was taken to propose a joint mission to ESA and NASA. Shortly thereafter, a formal proposal was made to ESA (Anderson et al 1982) for a free flying satellite in an elliptical orbit out to 15000 km from the Earth, designed to observe in concert with the major ground-based VLBI networks and arrays. The mission, dubbed QUASAT, was received favourably in both ESA and NASA, with the result that formal Assessment Studies are scheduled to begin in both agencies in October 1983.
A proposal has been made to use the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as an orbiting element for a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) demonstration. The TDRSS is a satellite system designed to coherently track and relay data between other satellites and the central ground station. This system could also be used to coherently observe a celestial radio source. A ground-based frequency standard would be used to coherently drive the spacecraft receiver local oscillator and transmitter. The data will be telemetered to a ground station, where it will be recorded on a Mark III terminal.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
Holocene patch-reefs occur throughout the shallow marine platform, to the lee of the barrier reef in northern and southern Belize, Central America. Patch reefs on the northern shelf that occur within an areally extensive patch reef complex (Mexico Rocks) indicate that differences exist between reefs here and well-studied patch reefs on the southern shelf that have been used by workers as a general model for patch reef development throughout Belize. This model proposes that patch reefs on the Belizean shelf are dominated by typical Atlantic-Caribbean, biotically-zoned coral assemblages of Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis that kept up or caught up with Holocene sea level rise during the last 8000 years to form large “keep up” or in some instances “catch up” reefs.
In contrast to those in the south, the northern patch reefs are not biotically zoned, are dominated by Montastrea annularis rather than Acropora spp., and are much younger (400 years old) than those in the south. In addition, northern shelf patch reefs developed predominantly by lateral growth in a milieu of static sea level and are herein called “accretion” type reefs. These differences in biotic and sedimentologic parameters between reefs on the northern and southern shelves imply fundamentally different ecologic and sea level history controls on patch reef formation from north to south. A leading contributor to the variation among the reefs along the Belizean shelf may be species-specific growth rates of the coral species that initiate each patch reef, and response to sea level fluctuation versus stasis through time.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.