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Point of care ultrasound in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly being used to diagnose time-sensitive, vision-threatening conditions. We present a case of a 64-year-old female who presented to the ED with a three-day history of worsening left eye floaters. Point of care ocular ultrasound demonstrated a posterior chamber containing many echogenic opacities of varying size without acoustic shadowing. Movement of the eye resulted in significant after-movement of these opacities, giving the classic “washing machine” appearance seen with vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Based on these ultrasound findings, the patient was diagnosed with a VH and was referred to ophthalmology. The consulting ophthalmologist ultimately diagnosed the patient with asteroid hyalosis without VH. Asteroid hyalosis is a benign condition of the vitreous resulting in calcium phosphate and lipid deposits that can mimic more serious VH on point of care ultrasound. Knowledge of this mimic is helpful for communication with specialists and for awareness of the potential for misdiagnosis with ocular ultrasound.
Complex oxides and semiconductors exhibit distinct yet complementary properties
owing to their respective ionic and covalent natures. By electrically coupling
oxides to semiconductors within epitaxial heterostructures, enhanced or novel
functionalities beyond those of the constituent materials can potentially be
realized. Key to electrically coupling oxides to semiconductors is controlling
the physical and electronic structure of semiconductor – crystalline
oxide heterostructures. Here we discuss how composition of the oxide can be
manipulated to control physical and electronic structure in
Ba1-xSrxTiO3/ Ge and
SrZrxTi1-xO3/Ge heterostructures. In the
case of the former we discuss how strain can be engineered through composition
to enable the re-orientable ferroelectric polarization to be coupled to carriers
in the semiconductor. In the case of the latter we discuss how composition can
be exploited to control the band offset at the semiconductor - oxide interface.
The ability to control the band offset, i.e. band-gap engineering, provides a
pathway to electrically couple crystalline oxides to semiconductors to realize a
host of functionalities.
Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5·0 to 8·0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype.
Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with adverse effects on prognosis. There is little evidence on whether depression treatment improves quality of life (QoL) in ACS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of co-morbid depression and its treatment on QoL in ACS.
In total, 1152 patients were recruited at baseline, 2–14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode, and 828 were followed 1 year thereafter. Of 446 baseline participants with co-morbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to a 24-week double blind trial of escitalopram or placebo, while the remaining 146 received medical treatment only (MTO). QoL was measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life –Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF).
At baseline, QoL was significantly lower in patients with co-morbid depressive disorder than those without. QoL improvement was significantly greater in those receiving escitalopram than those receiving placebo over the 24-week treatment period. In the 1-year follow-up, the better outcomes associated with escitalopram remained evident against both placebo and MTO.
Depression was significantly associated with worse QoL even in patients with recently developed ACS. Depression treatment was associated with QoL improvement in ACS patients in the 24-week treatment period, the effects of which extended to 1 year.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The
SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by
means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a
17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and 4.3 arcsec resolution (full width half
maximum of the point spread function) The beam-steering mirror enables the SMT to access a
35 × 35degree region and point and settle within 1 sec. All mirrors were fabricated to
about 0.02 wavelengths RMS in wave front error (WFE) and 84.7% average reflectivity over
200 nm ~ 650 nm. The RC telescope was aligned to 0.05 wavelengths RMS in WFE (test
wavelength 632.8 nm). In this paper, the technical details of the RC telescope and slewing
mirror system assembly, integration, and testing are given shortly, and performance tests
of the full SMT optical system are reported.
Hypermucoviscous (HV) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been linked to virulence potential in experimental infections. We examined 33 isolates of K. pneumoniae from patients with bacteraemia for the HV phenotype on agar culture, and determined their virulence potential by screening for capsular (K) serotype by polymerase chain reaction and the presence of seven virulence factor genes. Fourteen (42·4%) isolates expressed the HV phenotype and 11 of these were serotype K1 or K2; these serotypes were not identified in HV-negative isolates. The genes rmpA, rmpA2, aerobactin, wabG and allS were significantly more frequent in HV than non-HV isolates. Multilocus sequence typing identified 21 sequence types (ST), eight of which were found in HV-positive isolates and the clonal relatedness of isolates of the most frequent types (ST23 and ST11) from different hospitals was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The HV phenotype was more associated with community-acquired infection with a lower frequency of fatal underlying illness, but with significantly more focal infections, notably liver abscesses. Clinicians should be aware of such clinical impacts of the HV phenotype.
Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and other methods based on the same principle, are sensitive and specific, but they suffer from several disadvantages, such as their inherent complexity and requirement for multiple reagents, incubation and washing steps and require a relatively large sample size. We have adapted a new carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNT-FET) based platform to capture Escherichia coli antigens using only the capture anti-body showing good correlation with an established ELISA assay contrived positive and negative specimens were used to test the new CNT-FET platform and results were obtained within three minutes per each sample. The test is easy to perform, rapid, and cost efficient making it a valuable screening tool for E. coli. In this study, we looked at the applicability of using CNT field effect transistor based biosensor as a rapid diagnostic platform for Escherichia coli O157:H7. The CNT-FETs platform detected positive E. coli samples in three minutes using only 2.5 μL of sample volume. This low sample volume required by the CNT-FET platform can be especially advantageous for diagnostic tests constricted by limited amount of samples.
We investigated the electrical characteristics of the MOSCAP structures with W/WNx/poly Si1−xGex gates stack using C-V and I-V. The low frequency C-V measurements demonstrated that the flat band voltage of the W/WNx /poly Si0.4Ge0.6 stack was lower than that of W/ WNx /poly Si0.2Ge0.8 stack by 0.3V, and showed less gate-poly-depletion-effect than that of W/ WNx /poly- Si0.2Ge0.8 gates due to the increase of dopant activation rate with the increase of Ge content in the poly Si1−xGex films. As Ge content in poly Si1−xGex increased, the leakage current level increased a little due to the increase of direct tunneling and QBD became higher due to the lower boron penetration.
Photo luminescence (PL) signal from the aluminum nitride (AlN) films, excited by near UV (363.8 nm) laser has been measured at the room temperature. The AlN films are deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering of aluminum in argon-nitrogen-hydrogen gas mixture. Positions of the PL peaks maximums are influenced by the AlN preparation regimes. The analysis of the PL data is based on the results of the structural studies and electron spectrum investigations.
In this paper, CVD diamond thin films for alpha particle detector have been prepared using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. Alpha particle detectors with coplanar and sandwich electrode geometry have been fabricated on the diamond films using liftoff technology. The detector performance has been tested using a 241 Am source with a characteristic energy of 5.5 MeV. An average charge collection efficiency of 32 % for the detector with coplanar and of 21 % for the detector with sandwich geometry is obtained.
Controlled ZnO nanostructures were grown on a flexible substrate for the future development of smart sensing tags. Thermolysis-assisted chemical solution deposition was used to grow ZnO nanorods at 85°C from 0.01mol of Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and HMT (Hexamethyltetramine) solution. To promote and modulate the ZnO nanorods, R.F. sputtered ZnO seed layers were deposited on polyimide substrates at various film thicknesses in the range of 8 to 160 nm. The optimum processing conditions to fabricate ZnO nanostructures have been investigated to examine the growth behaviors and to correlate the process parameters with the morphological characteristics. When the ethanol gas sensitivities were measured at different thickness of ZnO seed layers before growing ZnO nanorods, the highest sensitivity was obtained at 40 nm thick ZnO film at 300°C where the film thickness is similar to the Debye length. When ZnO nanorods were grown on such a ZnO seed layer, the sensitivities were more heavily influenced by the ZnO nanostructures rather than the thickness of the seed layer probably due to the dominant proportion of carrier density involved with the gas absorption.