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Death ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults.
Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61.3 (range 47–77)) who were asked in wave 2 of the study in 2000 if they had ‘Thought about death more than usual, either your own, someone else's or death in general?’ in the past 2 weeks. Death data were obtained from the municipal resident registration file. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine associations.
During the follow-up period (2000–2008), there were 672 deaths. In a model adjusted for baseline covariates, GTOD were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.20–2.29). Stratified analyses showed an association between GTOD and mortality in men, older subjects (⩾70 years), married individuals and those with higher social support.
GTOD are associated with an increased mortality risk among older citizens in Japan. Research is now needed to determine the factors underlying this association and assess the clinical relevance of screening for GTOD in older individuals.
Correlator type processors have been currently used in VLBI, in which the number of correlators increases as N(N-1)/2 where N is the number of antennas. In a large elements VLBI array in future, this will introduce difficulty in constructing the processor. If we took the grid array configuration of antenna, FFT processor could be used in VLBI processing instead. FFT processor is used as a digital lens for a directional finding facility of the arrival waves. In FFT, the number of multiplications increases only as N log N. Although it gives maximum redundancy of Fourier components, the next step of the research on crustal motion will require measuring the velocities as a vector fields. Higher S/N ratio is also obtained in the VLBI maps.
The present processor, which was originally constructed for a pilot system of the radio patrol camera at Waseda University, is formed by a FFT Processor and eight Complex Amplitude Equalizers(1,2). When it is used as an VLBI processor, phase and amplitude fluctuations due to local oscillators and/or propagation effects are absorbed by the quick control of the Complex Amplitude Equalizers.
Here, we show examples of the computer controlled phase adjustment using the Equalizers(3). Our telescope is an 8 elements Very Short Baseline Interferometer (only 2m) at 10 GHz. Fig.1 is the block diagram of the present system. In VLBI system the recording facilities should exist between A/Ds and the Equalizers. The FFT processor is an error free ideal lens, and from the sampling theorem it makes eight independent beams in our system. Fig.2 is the dirty beams before removing phase errors, and Fig.3 the beams after the error removed. Both are 180 deg beam switched, while non switched in Fig.4.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
We report NH3 observations of the Sgr A complex region including Sgr A West and the 20 km/s and 50 km/s molecular clouds (M–0.13–0.08 and M–0.02–0.07) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the 45m telescope. NH3(1,1) and (2,2) lines were simultaneously observed to estimate the kinetic temperature. Our results suggest strong interaction between the molecular clouds and the continuum sources in the Sgr A complex. The interaction with continuum sources might be an important factor in determining the physical conditions of molecular gas in the galactic center region.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
NGC 3079 has very luminous water megamaser from the nucleus, the peak of the spectrum being blueshifted by 180 km s−1 from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (Vsys = 1131 km s−1) (Henkel et al. 1984, Haschick & Baan 1985). Core-jet like continuum structure is also found in the nuclear region (Irwin & Seaquist 1988). No velocity drift for main features of water maser (VLSR = 941–975 km s−1) has been shown (Nakai et al. 1995). However, the drift was recently detected for the maser of 1190 km s−1 (Nakai 1997). HI and OH absorptions are detected in the nucleus (Haschick & Baan 1985, Irwin & Seaquist 1991). Thus this galaxy is very unique object to investigate water masers, continuum structure and absorption features all together with VLBI.
About 10 X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and LMC/SMC are considered to contain black hole candidates (BHCs). Among these objects, Cyg X-1 was identified as the first BHC, and it has led BHCs for more than 25 years(Oda 1977, Liang and Nolan 1984). It is a binary system composed of normal blue supergiant star and the X-ray emitting compact object. The orbital kinematics derived from optical observations indicates that the compact object is heavier than ~ 4.8 M⊙ (Herrero 1995), which well exceeds the upper limit mass for a neutron star(Kalogora 1996), where we assume the system consists of only two bodies. This has been the basis for BHC of Cyg X-1.
The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) is the first dedicated Space-VLBI mission. We report here on the planning for a second generation mission which builds on and extends the successful collaborations established for the VSOP mission, and which aims to improve both resolution and sensitivity by a factor of ∼10.
We are using the VSOP space VLBI mission to observe a complete sample of Pearson-Readhead survey sources at 4.8 GHz to determine core brightness temperatures and pc-scale jet properties. To date we have imaged 27 of the 31 objects in our sample. Our preliminary results show that the majority of objects contain strong core components that remain unresolved on baselines of 30,000 km. The brightness temperatures of several cores significantly exceed 1012 K, which is indicative of highly relativistically beamed emission. We also find that core brightness temperature is correlated with intraday variability in compact AGNs.
We conducted an observation of weak HI and OH absorption features in the parsec-scale nuclear region of NGC 3079 using a global VLBI network; the VLBA, the VLA and the Green Bank 43-m telescope of NRAO. One mas corresponds to 0.076 pc in NGC 3079.
Zwicky started extragalactic supernovae patrol using 10 inch Schmidt camera about fifty years ago. After that the research of supernovae was accelerated, because the wide view of the Schmidt camera made it possible to watch large field of the sky. The key technology of the Schmidt camera was its sophisticated optical system.
Anticipated next supernova in our Galaxy may be undetectable by the optical instrument due to the Galactic extinction. However, supernovae are now known to be intense radio sources after a year or so of the explosion. Even if the positions are beyond the Galactic center, the radio supernova could be observed using middle size radio telescope.
The Mitaka correlator is an FX-type correlator with 10-station inputs, which is designed for space VLBI and will be used for VSOP mainly. We report here the capabilities of the correlator, the results of model comparisons and the preliminary results of fringe test between the satellite HALCA and Japanese ground telescopes.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
We report on the first results of our ground-survey of H2O masers to establish a list of suitable candidates for space-VLBI observations. Due to the large VSOP/HALCA baselines and its limited sensitivity only very strong and compact sources will be detected. The best candidates from this survey will be part of The VSOP Survey which intends to observe a large number of continuum and maser sources. This systematic and uniform survey, of a large number of sources, will be invaluable in determining the properties of the sub-milliarcsecond emission from maser sources.
We present multi-frequency observations towards the nucleus of NGC 3079 using both Japan VLBI Network (J-Net) and the VLBA including phased VLA and Effelsberg. We detected two continuum components at 1.4 and 8.4 GHz, and determined the spectral indices for each component. Further, we found several H ɪ absorption features towards the continuum components whose velocity gradient is opposite to the galaxy rotation. Assuming rotation, the central mass is estimated to be 3 × 106M⊙. The water maser distribution extends in North-South direction along the galactic disk, while no clear indication of a Keplerian rotating disk was found.
We report the observations of compact steep-spectrum radio sources (CSSs) by VLBI at 22 and 43 GHz and single dich at 22, 43, and 92 GHz. Our results show that CSS also has an active core as well as other AGNs.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005–2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.
Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
This present study provides an overview of the clay-mineral reactions involved in the chloritization process in a mixed-layer mineral series, and focuses on the properties of the resulting lowtemperature chlorites (formed at <220°C) in diagenetic and hydrothermal systems. According to the literature, most chlorite species occurring in low-temperature geological systems are derived fromspecific clay precursors except for direct precipitates from solution in veins. In addition, three main types of clay-mineral series have been associated with these chloritization processes: saponite-to-chlorite, berthierineto- chlorite and kaolinite-to-sudoite reactions. The conversion of saponite to chlorite results in the most common sequence of trioctahedral clay minerals related to the occurrence of Mg-Fe trioctahedral chlorite in a wide variety of hydrothermal and diagenetic to very low-grade metamorphism environments. Two models were proposed in the literature to describe the saponite-to-chlorite conversion through corrensite. The first model is a continuous transition model based on solid-state transformation (SST) mechanisms and is valid in rock-dominated systems (closed micro-systems with very low fluid-rock ratios). The second model is a stepwise transition model based on dissolution-crystallization mechanisms (DC) and is efficient in fluid-dominated systems (open systems with high fluid-rock ratio). The berthierine to Fechlorite transition results in a sequence of trioctahedral phases which are related to chloritization processes in iron-rich and reducing environments. This transformation is a cell-preserved phase transition dominated by a SST mechanismthat operates simultaneously in different domains of the parental mineral and may be considered as a polymorphic mineral reaction. Finally, the conversion of kaolinite to sudoite (Al-Mg ditrioctahedral chlorite) has not been documented like the other two aforementioned conversion series. Despite the scarcity of detailed investigations, the conversion of kaolinite to sudoite through tosudite is considered a stepwise mineral reaction that is dominated by a DC mechanism. From a compilation of literature data, it appears that several parameters of hydrothermal and diagenetic chlorites differ, including the minimal temperature, the textural and structural characteristics and the extents of compositional fields. In hydrothermal systems, discrete chlorite occurs at a minimal temperature near 200°C, regardless of its chemical composition. In diagenetic systems, discrete chlorite occurs at minimal temperatures that vary according to its crystal chemistry (100–120°C for Mg-chlorite as opposed to 40–120°C for Fe chlorite). The strong discrepancy between the lowest temperature at which Mg- and Fe-chlorite form in buried sediments and in geothermal systems should result from drastically different heating rates, heat-flow conditions and tectonism between basins at passivemargins and geothermal systems at active margins. The morphology, structure and compositional fields of the diagenetic Fe-rich chlorite may have been inherited from those of the berthierine precursor. All of the chlorite species formed through theDC mechanism have good geothermometry potential. However, the SST mechanism in which berthierine is transformed into chlorite could have unexplored consequences regarding the use of the chemistry (including stable isotope composition) of diagenetic Fe-chlorite for reconstructing the burial history of sediments. Further investigations regarding the formationmechanisms of mixed-layerminerals are required to provide us with insight to understand the chloritization process in low-temperature geological systems.