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The relationship between feed intake at production levels and enteric CH4 production in ruminants consuming forage-based diets is well described and considered to be strongly linear. Unlike temperate grazing systems, the intake of ruminants in rain-fed tropical systems is typically below maintenance requirements for part of the year (dry seasons). The relationship between CH4 production and feed intake in animals fed well below maintenance is unexplored, but changes in key digestive parameters in animals fed at low levels suggest that this relationship may be altered. We conducted a study using Boran yearling steers (n 12; live weight: 162·3 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of moderate to severe undernutrition on apparent digestibility, rumen turnover and enteric CH4 production of cattle consuming a tropical forage diet. We concluded that while production of CH4 decreased (1133·3–65·0 g CH4/d; P < 0·0001), over the range of feeding from about 1·0 to 0·4 maintenance energy requirement, both CH4 yield (29·0−31·2 g CH4/kg DM intake; P < 0·001) and CH4 conversion factor (Ym 9·1–10·1 MJ CH4/MJ gross energy intake; P < 0·01) increased as intake fell and postulate that this may be attributable to changes in nutrient partitioning. We suggest there is a case for revising emission factors of ruminants where there are seasonal nutritional deficits and both environmental and financial benefits for improved feeding of animals under nutritional stress.
Inflammation confounds the interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers resulting in estimates that may not reflect the true burden of deficiency. We aimed to assess and compare the micronutrient status of a cohort of Indonesian infants (n 230) at aged 6, 9 and 12 months by ignoring inflammation (unadjusted) and adjusting four micronutrient biomarkers for inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) using the following methods: (1) arithmetic correction factors with the use of a four-stage inflammation model; and (2) regression modelling. Prevalence of infants with any inflammation (CRP>5 mg/l and/or AGP>1 g/l) was about 25% at each age. Compared with unadjusted values, regression adjustment at 6, 9 and 12 months generated the lowest (P<0·001) geometric mean (GM) for serum ferritin (26·5, 14·7, 10·8 μg/l) and the highest GM for serum retinol-binding protein (0·95, 1·00, 1·01 μmol/l) and Zn (11·8, 11·0, 11·5 μmol/l). As a consequence, at 6, 9 and 12 months regression adjustment yielded the highest prevalence of Fe deficiency (20·3, 37·8, 59·5 %) and the lowest prevalence of vitamin A (26·4,16·6, 17·3 %) and Zn (16·9, 20·6, 11·0 %) deficiency, respectively. For serum Se, irrespective of adjustment, GM were low (regression: 0·73, 0·78, 0·81 μmol/l) with prevalence of deficiency >50 % across all ages. In conclusion, without inflammation adjustment, Fe deficiency was grossly under-estimated and vitamin A and Zn deficiency over-estimated, highlighting the importance of correcting for the influence of such, before implementing programmes to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. However, further work is needed to validate the proposed approaches with a particular focus on assessing the influence of varying degrees of inflammation (i.e. recurrent acute infections and low-grade chronic inflammation) on each affected nutrient biomarker.
Habrobracon hebetor (Say) is a parasitoid of various Lepidoptera including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), a key pest of different crops and vegetables. The development of both H. armigera and H. hebetor were simultaneously evaluated against a wide range of constant temperatures (10, 15, 17.5, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 35, 37.5 and 40 °C). Helicoverpa armigera completed its development from egg to adult within a temperature range of 17.5–37.5 °C and H. hebetor completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 15–40 °C. Based on the Ikemoto and Takai model the developmental threshold (To) and thermal constant (K) to complete the immature stages, of H. armigera were calculated as 11.6 °C and 513.6 DD, respectively, and 13 °C and 148 DD, respectively, for H. hebetor. Analytis/Briere-2 and Analytis/Briere-1 were adjudged the best non-linear models for prediction of phenology of H. armigera and H. hebetor, respectively and enabled estimation of the optimum (Topt) and maximum temperature (Tmax) for development with values of 34.8, 38.7, 36.3, and 43 °C for host and the parasitoid, respectively. Parasitisation by H. hebetor was maximal at 25 °C but occurred even at 40 °C. This study suggests although high temperature is limiting to insects, our estimates of the upper thermal limits for both species are higher than previously estimated. Some biological control of H. armigera by H. hebetor may persist in tropical areas, even with increasing temperatures due to climate change.
The Eastern Gangetic Plain is among the world's most intensively farmed regions, where rainfed and irrigated agriculture coexist. While the region and especially Bangladesh is a major producer of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), there is potential to further develop sustainable rice production systems. Specifically, there is scope to include a replacement crop for the short fallow between rice crops in the dominant cropping pattern of rainfed monsoon rice harvest followed by irrigated spring rice. The aim of the current research was to identify a suitable cool-season legume crop – pea (Pisum sativum L.) or lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris) – that could be grown in the brief period between rice crops. The study comprised four crop sequence experiments comparing legume cultivars differing in maturity grown in between both long and short duration rice cultivars. These experiments were done at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute regional station at Rajshahi over three cropping cycles. This was followed by an evaluation of pea vs. fallow between rice crops on three farmers’ fields in one cropping cycle. Here it is demonstrated that green pod vegetable pea is one of the best options to intensify the rainfed monsoon rice–fallow–spring irrigated rice cropping system, notwithstanding other remunerative rabi cropping options that could displace boro rice. The inclusion of an extra crop, pea as green pod vegetable, increased farm productivity by 1·4-fold over the dominant cropping sequence (rice–fallow–rice) and farm net income by fourfold. The study highlighted the advantages in total system productivity and monetary return of crop intensification with the inclusion of a pea crop between successive rice crops instead of a fallow period.
Psychiatric patients tend to have severe metabolic alterations of multifactorial causes, lifestyle, diet, drug use and psychopharmacological treatment, especially antipsychotic drugs which act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, strokes, infections and complications of diseases basal negatively influencing its evolution and prognosis.
Rating the profile lipid and the prevalence of obesity in patients registered as disorder mental severe in treatment with antipsychotics.
A descriptive study was performed taking as variables to take into account levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, weight and size.
Of the 28 patients included in the study 7 refused to perform the corresponding measurements. Of the 21 remaining, 3 showed values higher than 150 mg/dl triglycerides and cholesterol figures higher than 200 mg/dl. Other 3 patients presented hypercholesterolemia without alteration of triglycerides and 2 hypertriglyceridemia without elevation of the cholesterol. Concerning the IMC, found that 7 patients presented overweight (BMI > 25 and < 30) and 5 patients obesity (BMI > 30). Of the 8 patients with lipid disorders, 2 had prescribed treatment with risperidone (oral or injectable) more quetiapine, 2 oral risperidone as monotherapy, risperidone1 more amisulpride, 1 quetiapine more aripiprazole, quetiapine 1 in monotherapyand 1 injection invega more oxcarbamacepina.
We found lipid alterations in a 38.1% of patients and a BMI greater than 25 in a 57.14% of 21 patients who agreed to the study. The most prescribed antipsychoticamong these patients were risperidone (5 patients) followed closely by quetiapine (4 patients).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Dengue fever is an arthropod-borne viral infection that has become endemic in several parts of India including Delhi. We studied occurrence of co-infection with dengue viruses during an outbreak in New Delhi, India in 2014. For the present study, blood samples collected from symptomatic patients were analysed by RT–PCR. Eighty percent of the samples were positive for dengue virus. The result showed that DENV-1 (77%) was the predominant serotype followed by DENV-2 (60%). Concurrent infection with more than one serotype was identified in 43% of the positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis clustered DENV-1 strains with the American African and DENV-2 strains in Cosmopolitan genotypes. Four common amino-acid mutations were identified in the envelope gene of DENV-1 sequences (F337I, A369T, V380I and L402F) and one common mutation (N390S) in the DENV-2 sequences. Further analysis revealed purifying selection in both the serotypes. A significant number of patients were co-infected with DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes. Although we do not have direct evidence to demonstrate co-evolution of these two stereotypes, nonetheless their simultaneous occurrence does indicate that they are favoured by evolutionary forces. An ongoing surveillance and careful analysis of future outbreaks will strengthen the concept of co-evolution or otherwise. Whether the concurrent dengue viral infection is correlated with disease severity in a given population is another aspect to be pursued. This study is envisaged to be useful for future reference in the context of overall epidemiology.
The personality disorders are defined according to the DSM-5 like “an enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's cultures. These patterns develop in adolescence and the beginning of adulthood, and are associated with significant distress or disability”. The personality disorders can be a risk factor for different processes of the psychiatric pathology like suicide. The personality disorders are classified in 3 groups according to the DSM-5:
– cluster A (strange subjects): paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal;
– cluster B (immature subjects): antisocial, bordeline, histrionic and narcissistic;
– cluster C (frightened subjects): avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive.
To describe the influence of personality disorders in suicide attempts.
Exhibition of clinical cases.
In this case report, we exhibit three clinical cases of suicide attempts which correspond to a type of personality disorder belonging to each of the three big groups of the DSM-5 classification, specifically the paranoid disorder of the cluster A, the disorder borderline of cluster B and the obsessive compulsive of cluster C.
The personality disorders have a clear relation with the suicide attempts, increasing this influence in some of them, especially the borderline personality disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder without a clearly identified pathophysiology. The association between this disease and the antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) has been recently reported.
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and / or anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) in sera of patients with schizophrenia.
Materials and methods
Our retrospective study was performed on 80 patients with schizophrenia newly admitted in closed wards of the department of Psychiatry. Eighty healthy blood donors with no history of autoimmune or mental diseases served as controls. Search for aCL and aβ2GPI antibodies were detected by ELISA.
The aCL antibodies are significantly more frequent in schizophrenic patients than in controls (21.25% vs 3.75%, p<10-3) and it is the aCL-IgM isotype witch is therefore most detected with a frequency of 16.25%. The seroprevalence of aβ2GPI was also significantly higher in patients than in controls (27.5% vs 1.25%; p=<0,005) and it is the aβ2GPI-IgA isotype witch is the most common (22.5% of schizophrenic patients). The prevalence of aCL antibodies was 21.25% vs 27.5% for aβ2GPI antibodies. The frequency of aCL and / or aβ2GPI antibodies is 31.25%. Among this seropositive group, 3.75% had only aCL antibodies and 10% had only aβ2GPI antibodies.
Our study supports the hypothesis of the high prevalence of aCL antibodies and especially of the aCL-IgM isotype in schizophrenia patients. In this study we have shown a high seroprevalence of aβ2GPI antibodies which are specific ma
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of rheumatoid factors (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) in patients with schizophrenia in acute phase and in healthy blood donors (HBD).
Materials and methods
Our retrospective study was performed on 80 patients with schizophrenia newly admitted in closed wards of the department of Psychiatry, Farhat Hached Hospital of Sousse, Tunisia during 2010. Eighty HBD with no history of autoimmune or mental diseases served as controls. Search for RF and anti-CCP antibodies were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
RF were significantly more frequent in schizophrenic patients than in controls (17.5% vs 3.75%, p = 0.01) and RF-IgM isotype was more frequent in schizophrenic patients than in HBD 12.5%. Anti-CCP was detected only in seven patients with schizophrenia with a frequency of 8.75% and in five HBD with a frequency of 6.25%. The frequency of serological markers of RA (FR IgG or IgA or IgM or anti-CCP) was significantly higher in patients than in HBD (23.75% vs 11.25%, p = 0.037).
Contrary to literature data, our study found a high frequency of RF in the acute phase of schizophrenia and particularly of the IgM isotype. Thus a large population study would be interesting to confirm this association between the RA and schizophrenia.
The cropping systems of the Eastern Gangetic Plains of Bangladesh, India and Nepal are based on rice. There is a scope to intensify such systems through diversification with lentil, the most popular food legume. Two strategies were evaluated to fit lentil into the short fallow between successive monsoonal (i.e., T. aman) and pre-monsoonal (aus) or irrigated rice (boro) crop. These were early-flowering sole-cropped lentil and relay-sown lentil into rice. Firstly, 18 early-flowering lentil lines at three contrasting sowing dates were tested over two seasons on a research station at Ishurdi in Bangladesh. Secondly, relay sowing was evaluated at the same location with six early-flowering lines and two control cultivars in two seasons. It was also assessed on ten farms in Western Bangladesh, comparing relay with sole cropping over 3 years. Flowering in the early-flowering lentil lines was consistently 9–17 days earlier, than the control cultivars, but they did not achieve an economic yield (<1·0 t/ha). Relay sowing with an existing cultivar produced an economic yield of lentil, which was comparable or higher than sole-cropped lentil in all situations. The relay-sown lentil matured in sufficient time to allow the land to be prepared for the succeeding rain-fed rice crop. It was concluded that the substitution of relay-sown lentil for fallow in the monsoonal rice–fallow–rain-fed rice cropping pattern is a useful option to intensify and diversify cropping in the Eastern Gangetic Plain.
The addition of a CdMgTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should improve its performance by reflecting both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cell’s current, and reduction of forward current will increase its voltage. To achieve electron reflection, conformal CMT layers were deposited at the back of CdTe cells, and a variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were performed. Oxidation of magnesium in the CMT layer was addressed by adding a CdTe capping layer. MgCl2 passivation was substituted for CdCl2 in some cases, but little difference was seen.
Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is a fatal disease of broiler chickens causing high mortality and heavy economic losses in various countries. More than 100 million birds have been affected by this destructive disease in less than two years worldwide. As it is a viral disease, the only solution is to vaccinate chickens. Different types of vaccines are being used against this disease in different areas of the world. Liver organ inactivated vaccines are more extensively used to control the disease initially. These vaccines have many drawbacks regarding their dose, un-predictable immune response and secondary bacterial infections. Following this, oil adjuvant vaccine was used to control the disease, however the handling stress and the formation of granuloma at the site of injection remains a problem. Consequently there is a need for cell culture adapted and attenuated vaccines, which can be administered through oral routes. A chicken embryo-adapted inactivated vaccine has shown good results but requires a continuous supply of specific, pathogen-free chicken embryos and a continuous life killing process. The continuous cell lines are a more promising solution for the production of cell culture-adapted and attenuated vaccines, which are safer, more economical and easy to administer. The following review discusses the development of modern HPS vaccines.
The calc-alkaline, gneissic El Shalul granite is the westernmost gneiss dome or core complex within the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Previous studies have indicated that it represents either a window into the underlying pre-Neoproterozoic Sahara metacraton or a melt derived from the metacraton. U–Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of magmatic zircons from two samples of the variably foliated El Shalul pluton gives ages of 637 ± 5 Ma and 630 ± 6 Ma, excluding it from representing exhumed cratonic rocks. The ages are, however, indistinguishable from the age of the Um Ba'anib pluton, constituting the core of the Meatiq Gneiss Dome, as well as several other plutons in the Eastern Desert, indicating an important magmatic pulse in the Arabian–Nubian Shield in Late Cryogenian time. Major and trace element data indicate a within-plate setting. Bulk rock Nd-isotope and Hf-isotope data on zircons from the El Shalul pluton indicate derivation of the primary melt from a relatively juvenile source, either the lower crust of a mid-Neoproterozoic volcanic arc or as a result of fractionation of a mantle-derived mafic melt. Sm–Nd bulk rock isotopic data indicate a model age of c. 720 Ma for the protolith from which the melt was derived. Time-corrected Hf-isotope data obtained on the magmatic zircons indicate that the bulk of the source rock was extracted from the mantle around 810 Ma.
We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2–16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83–0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05–1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41–0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.