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Capability theorists disagree on how to determine, for normative purposes, which capabilities are to be treated as basic, with Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen taking opposite views. This chapter will scrutinize this list debate. It has two aims. First, it argues that some distinction between basic and non-basic capabilities is an inherent commitment of capability theories, but that there are many more options for responding to the capability-selection problem than a procedure of democratic deliberation (Sen) or a philosophical criterion of neo-Aristotelian flourishing (Nussbaum). A whole range of possible procedures and philosophical criteria could be combined with the capability metric. Second, it responds to a forceful challenge raised by Ian Carter, who argues that capability theorists should not endorse the selection of specific capabilities as basic (either democratically or philosophically) at all. In his view, this will always have paternalistic implications; instead he proposes that the maximization of ‘capability as such’ should be the goal. In response, I distinguish well-being-based and autonomy-based capability theories, and argue that while Carter’s challenge is valid against the former, it fails against the latter.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems have developed protocols for prehospital activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to decrease first-medical-contact-to-balloon time (FMC2B). The rate of “false positive” prehospital activations is high. In order to decrease this rate and expedite care for patients with true STEMI, the American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) developed the Mission Lifeline PreAct STEMI algorithm, which was implemented in Los Angeles County (LAC; California USA) in 2015. The hypothesis of this study was that implementation of the PreAct algorithm would increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of prehospital activation.
This is an observational pre-/post-study of the effect of the implementation of the PreAct algorithm for patients with suspected STEMI transported to one of five STEMI Receiving Centers (SRCs) within the LAC Regional System. The primary outcome was the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The secondary outcome was FMC2B.
A total of 1,877 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome in the pre-intervention period and 405 patients in the post-intervention period. There was an overall decrease in cardiac catheterization laboratory activations, from 67% in the pre-intervention period to 49% in the post-intervention period (95% CI for the difference, -14% to -22%). The overall rate of cardiac catheterization declined in post-intervention period as compared the pre-intervention period, from 34% to 30% (95% CI, for the difference -7.6% to 0.4%), but actually increased for subjects who had activation (48% versus 58%; 95% CI, 4.6%-15.0%). Implementation of the PreAct algorithm was associated with an increase in the PPV of activation for PCI or CABG from 37.9% to 48.6%. The overall odds ratio (OR) associated with the intervention was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The effect of the intervention was to decrease variability between medical centers. There was no associated change in average FMC2B.
The implementation of the PreAct algorithm in the LAC EMS system was associated with an overall increase in the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
We present the case of a schizophrenic patient with severe insomnia that had a partial response to high doses of benzodiazepines and sedating antipsychotics. Treatment with agomelatine allowed to suspend benzodiazepine treatment and restore quality of sleep.
Mr. Y is a 36 year old male patient diagnosed with simple schizophrenia that has complained of insomnia since the age of sixteen. During the last three years the treatment that the patient was following was stable and consisted of 100 mg of diazepam, 300 mg of levomepromazine and 120 mg of clotiapine every night. During the last year 60 mg of duloxetine were added to treat a moderate depression. His mood improved with the prescribed treatment, but eleven months later it worsened. In an attempt to simultaneously treat the mood and the sleep disorder, during a period of 4 days, a dosis of 12.5 mg of aglomelatin at dinner was introduced while the morning dose of duloxetine was reduced to 30mg. On the fifth day, agomelatine was increased to 25 mg at dinner while duloxetine was suspended. The antipsychotic treatment was kept stable while the patient was instructed to reduce 10 mg of diazepam every week until next appointment one month later. In the next appointment the patient had completely suspended diazepam one week before the appointment. The patient referred improved sleep quality and no rebound insomnia.
Agomelatine may be a valid treatment of insomnia in schizophrenia.
Mefloquine is being used as malaria prevention by Plasmodium Falciparum in chloroquine-resistant zones. We describe a woman who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms during mefloquine treatment.
Methods and results
A 26-year-old Spanish woman had been working in Mali for the last six months and had started antimalarial prevention with mefloquine. In Mali, the clinical picture had a sudden debut and she related: excessive happiness, incapacity to sleep, and megalomania (she believed to have special powers and to be the mother of all the children). She was admitted in a hospital in Mali for seven days and received treatment with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Then, she was repatriated to Spain without treatment and she continued suffering the same symptoms. After 15 days, she went to our hospital and she was admitted. Treatment started with risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) and clonazepam (up to 1.5 mg/day). At admission Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 25 points. Physical examination and complementary tests were normal, and was orientated as a manic episode with psychotic symptoms secondary to mefloquine. She had a quick symptomatic improvement (after 7 days of treatment YMRS was 5 points) and was discharged after 15 days.
Mefloquine more frequent adverse neuropsychiatric effects are: dizziness, vivid dreams and insomnia. Others are confusion, and auditory hallucinations. Side effects are dose dependent. Psychotic symptoms are frequently auto-limited when mefloquine is suppressed but treatment with atypical antipsychotics is often needed. MDR1/ABCB1 polymorphisms may play a role in neuropsychiatric side effects
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
There is a significant incidence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis, the most common after receiving the diagnosis. We describe a man who was admitted for a first episode psychosis and a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made moreover.
A 24-year-old man was admitted with a paranoid delusion, auditory hallucinations with emotional response and the believe that their thoughts were being interfered. Blood test and cranial CT were normal. Risperidone was started. He developed ataxia and sensitive disturbances on the right arm. A cranial and spinal cord MRI revealed multiple T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions located in supra and infratentorial white matter, lesions in C3, and one lesion in right basal ganglia that enhanced with gadolinium. CSF analysis showed oligoclonals bands. Three years ago the patient had had transient sensitive symtoms. A diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was made and was started methyl-prednisolone intravenously. Risperidone was changed for amisulpride 800 mg/day because lack of response. He was discharged after 25 days. Six months later he has attenuated psychotic symptoms without news lesions in MRI. Glatiramer acetate has been started.
Results and conclusions
The most frequent disorder associated to multiple sclerosis is depression (prevalence of 20%). Psychosis is unusual, transient, sometimes as the onset relapse followed by remission. There's evidence of correlation between psychosis in multiple sclerosis and multiple lesions in temporal periventricular area. We suggest that in our case these two disorders are two separated entities since the enhanced lesion does not correpond with clinical findings.
Mefloquine is being used as malaria prevention by Plasmodium Falciparum in chloroquine-resistant zones. We describe a woman who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms during mefloquine treatment.
Methods and results
The case describes a 26-year-old Spanish woman who had been working in Mali for the last six months and had started antimalarial prevention with mefloquine. In Mali, the clinical picture had a sudden debut and she related: excessive happiness, incapacity to sleep, and megalomania (she believed to have special powers and to be the mother of all the children). She was admitted in a hospital in Mali for seven days and received treatment with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Then, she was repatriated to Spain without treatment and she continued suffering the same symptoms. After 15 days, she went to our hospital and she was admitted. Treatment started with risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) and clonazepam (up to 1.5 mg/day). At admission Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 25 points. Physical examination and complementary tests were normal, and was orientated as a manic episode with psychotic symptoms secondary to mefloquine. She had a quick symptomatic improvement (after 7 days of treatment YMRS was 5 points) and was discharged after 15 days.
Mefloquine more frequent adverse neuropsychiatric effects are: dizziness, vivid dreams and insomnia. Others are confusion, and auditory hallucinations. Side effects are dose dependent. Psychotic symptoms are frequently auto-limited when mefloquine is suppressed but treatment with atypical antipsychotics is often needed. MDR1/ABCB1 polymorphisms may play a role in neuropsychiatric side effects.
Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) is a statistical method created to explore the heterogeneity of clinical groups based on their longitudinal outcomes by identifying distinct trajectories of change. This model can be applied to assess heterogeneity in responses to treatment. This pilot study explored the relevance of the GBTM associated with the dimensional evaluation of mood (MATHYS) to define trajectory of recovery in acute bipolar mood episodes on a short period of time during a naturalistic study.
The sample consisted in 118 bipolar patients and all patients were recruited during an acute phase: 56% had a major depressive episode, 26% a manic or hypomanic episode, and 18% a mixed state using the DSM-IV criteria. Patients were assessed four times with MATHYS during a three weeks follow-up period. It is an observational study and treatment was prescribed as usual. We applied the GBTM method and MATHYS total score to define trajectories of recovery.
This method allows identifying 4 trajectories of recovery. At Baseline, two of them started with a score of inhibition but with quite different evolutive profiles (stable inhibition versus improvement). The two others trajectories started with a score of activation (mild versus moderate) and showed a linear improvement of symptoms but with a more rapid recovery for the patients with the higher activation at baseline.
When considering the diagnosis of patients belonging in each trajectory, there model seems particular relevant to explore the high heterogeneity in response to treatment in bipolar patients during an acute depressive episode.
Objective. As some temperament profiles may be markers of genetic vulnerability traits, we aimed to compare sensation seeking in euthymic bipolar patients and in controls. Methods. One hundred ninety-four patients fulfilling DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorders (BP), 81% of whom presented type I BP, and 95 controls were included in this study. Euthymia was assessed using both the MADRS and Bech mania scales. Subjects were evaluated using the French abbreviated form of Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), which provide a total score (TS) and four subscores: Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (Dis), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). Results. SSS total score differed significantly between men (17.2 ± 0.5) and women (15.3 ± 0.6) (P = 0.02) and all the subscores were negatively correlated with age. On adjustement for sex and age, we found that bipolar patients had a high Dis score (P = 0.003). However, if the same analysis was performed with a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence as a covariable, no such difference was found (P = 0.436). The SSS demonstrated a high degree of test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.91). Conclusion. These results suggest that sensation seeking assessed with the SSS is not a temperament characteristic associated with bipolar disorders but is instead linked to a tendency towards alcohol abuse.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Face aux difficultés persistantes pour traiter efficacement la dépression bipolaire et à face à la complexité des guidelines, il est indispensable d’identifier des prédicteurs de réponse aux traitements médicamenteux. Les dépressions bipolaires sont plus difficiles à traiter que les dépressions unipolaires en raison d’une moins bonne réponse aux traitements pharmacologiques et du risque de virage de l’humeur. Dans les recommandations internationales, on observe depuis quelques années une évolution qui donne une place plus importante aux thymorégulateurs classiques (lithium et valproate), puis une apparition des antipsychotiques et enfin une régression des antidépresseurs . Rien cependant n’indique dans ces recommandations comment orienter son choix, notamment en fonction de caractéristiques cliniques de la dépression. Des études cliniques avec une approche dimensionnelle ont montré que les dépressions bipolaires pouvaient être caractérisées par la réactivité émotionnelle mesurée par la Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States Scale (MAThyS) , celle-ci pouvant constituer un marqueur d’intérêt de réponse aux traitements pharmacologiques. Dans cette perspective, l’utilisation de modèles statistiques originaux de trajectoire pour différencier des profils cliniques de réponses aux traitements a permis de montrer que l’hyperréactivité émotionnelle serait un facteur prédictif d’une bonne réponse aux antipsychotiques atypiques. La force de cette étude réalisée sur six semaines consécutives est de pouvoir observer la réponse aux traitements quel que soit l’épisode en cours sur un grand nombre de sujets, et l’une des limites était le faible effectif des patients sous antidépresseurs. Au vu de ces résultats prometteurs, nous prévoyons d’élargir l’échantillon et d‘utiliser la MAthyS pour suivre les réponses thérapeutiques.
Face aux difficultés persistantes pour traiter efficacement la dépression bipolaire et à la complexité des guidelines, il est indispensable d’identifier des prédicteurs de réponse aux traitements médicamenteux afin d’améliorer le pronostic fonctionnel des patients. Des études cliniques avec une approche dimensionnelle ont montré que les dépressions bipolaires pouvaient être caractérisées par la réactivité émotionnelle , celle-ci pouvant constituer un marqueur d’intérêt de réponse aux traitements pharmacologiques. Dans cette perspective, l’utilisation de modèles statistiques de trajectoire pour différencier des profils cliniques de réponses aux traitements a permis de montrer que l’hyperréactivité émotionnelle serait un facteur prédictif d’une bonne réponse aux antipsychotiques atypiques. Cependant, certaines dépressions bipolaires avec une hyporéactivité émotionnelle semblent résister aux traitements classiques. De ce fait, plusieurs études ont testé l’intérêt de thérapeutiques moins conventionnelles dans le traitement des dépressions bipolaires résistantes aux traitements habituels . Le pramipexole est un agoniste dopaminergique dont la particularité est d’avoir une affinité sélective pour les récepteurs D3 de la voie mésolimbique. Les données actuelles concernant l’efficacité antidépressive de ce traitement dans les dépressions bipolaires résistantes semblent en faveur de taux de réponses et de rémission significativement plus importants et plus précoces (dès la 3e semaine) en comparaison à des antidépresseurs classiques ou d’un placebo, et d’une bonne tolérance . Une série d’observations cliniques chez 64 patients souffrant de dépression (uni ou bipolaire) suivis en ambulatoire a montré une efficacité du pramipexole sur les symptômes de dépression dans un délai de 3 à 17 jours à des doses moyennes de 1,4 mg/j. L’hyporéactivité émotionnelle pourrait être un indicateur d’une meilleure efficacité du traitement. Nous proposons dans ce symposium de mettre en perspective les caractéristiques cliniques des dépressions bipolaires qui pourraient orienter le choix du clinicien entre antipsychotiques atypiques, antidépresseurs et thérapeutiques innovantes.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
To examine the predictive diagnostic value of affective symptomatology in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample with 5 years’ follow-up.
Affective dimensions (depressive, manic, activation, dysphoric) were measured at baseline and 5 years in 112 FEP patients based on a factor structure analysis using the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients were classified as having a diagnosis of bipolar disorder at baseline (BDi), bipolar disorder at 5 years (BDf), or “other psychosis”. The ability of affective dimensions to discriminate between these diagnostic groups and to predict a bipolar disorder diagnosis was analysed.
Manic dimension score was higher in BDi vs. BDf, and both groups had higher manic and activation scores vs. “other psychosis”. Activation dimension predicted a bipolar diagnosis at 5 years (odds ratio = 1.383; 95% confidence interval, 1.205–1.587; P = 0.000), and showed high levels of sensitivity (86.2%), specificity (71.7%), positive (57.8%) and negative predictive value (90.5%). Absence of the manic dimension and presence of the depressive dimension were both significant predictors of an early misdiagnosis.
The activation dimension is a diagnostic predictor for bipolar disorder in FEP. The manic dimension contributes to a bipolar diagnosis and its absence can lead to early misdiagnosis.
Antidepressants may induce manic or hypomanic episodes. The identification of predictors of antidepressant- induced mania (AIM) is essential to improve the management of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the rare studies on AIM are generally characterized by small sample sizes, varying definitions of AIM and heterogeneous groups of patients, thus leading to conflicting results.
To compare a population of AIM(+) to AIM(-) patients in order to identify specific clinical factors associated with AIM.
All 252 participants met the DSM-IV criteria for BD. Only patients who reported AIM in the 90 days after the beginning of an antidepressant (with or without a mood stabilizer) were diagnosed as AIM (+) and those without any lifetime history of AIM despite lifetime antidepressant prescription were considered AIM (-). Sociodemographic and clinical factors were collected using the DIGS, ALS, AIS BIS and WURS.
AIM(+) (N=74) and AIM(-) (N=178) patients did not differ significantly in terms of age, gender distribution, bipolar disorder duration and age of onset, ALS, BIS and WURS score. However, the rates of rapid cyclers, lifetime history of suicidal acts, alcohol use disorder and AIS score were significantly higher in the AIM(+)group. The type of polarity of onset was significantly different in both groups.
A history of rapid cycling, of suicidal acts and of alcohol use disorder could be considered as risk factors of AIM in BD. Patients with these factors could therefore be identified as a vulnerable subgroup prone to manic switch with antidepressant.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin fundamentally involved in the differentiation and growth during brain development. BDNF has pathogenically been linked to the schizophrenia neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Several studies have found lower BDNF blood levels in chronic schizophrenia than controls. Few studies suggest that BDNF levels in first-episode psychosis (FEP) are lower than in healthy controls (HC).
Comparing serum BDNF levels in a group of antipsychotic-naive FEP with HC and determining the serum BDNF pattern during the first year illness evolution.
Serum BDNF levels at admission of 28 inpatients with FEP were compared with 28 age/gender matched HC. BDNF was also measured at discharge, three, six, nine and twelve months. After discharge, antipsychotics were gradually decreased. Results are presented as mean±sd. and BDNF levels in ng./ml.
At admission, patients BDNF levels were significantly lower than controls (18.06±4.06 vs 26.55±3.22, p>0.001). At discharge FEP levels increase until HC levels without significant differences between gropus (25.95±3.93 vs 26.55±3.22, p=0.539). Upon the following determinations, BDNF FEP levels progressively decreased, reaching the admission values, and being significantly lower than the controls and that levels at discharge (patients: three months: 19.68±3.88; six months: 19.02±4.13; nine months: 17.64±5.24; twelve months: 17.51±3.45 vs controls: 26.55±3.22, all p>0.001).
Our results confirm the studies that found lower BDNF levels in chronic schizophrenia. Serum BDNF levels could be considered as a biological marker of treatment and evolution of FEP. Further studies with FEP patients with and without treatment are warranted.
Tapentadol is a centrally-acting synthetic analgesic which acts as a mu-opioid receptor agonist as well as a norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor. It is use to treat cronic pain. Most prevalence adverse effects are gastrointestinal and nervous symptoms. Furthermore, it has objectified, with less frequency, psychiatric disturbances.
To analyse the relationship between a maniac episode and tapentadol.
Forty-nine-year-old female, with personal history of dyslipidemia and lumbar herniated discs in L4-L5, L5-S1, in treatment with tapentadol 200 mg/day for 20 days and no past psychiatric history. She was admitted to the Psychiatry Department due to a maniac episode, with desinhibition, pressure and loud speech, euphoria, megalomaniac delusion and sleep disturbance for the last 10 days. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 36 points. Olanzapina 15 mg/day was introduced and tapentadol was removed. Symptoms remitted quickly and 6 days later, at discharge, YMRS was 4 points. One year later, the patient continued to be asymptomatic.
Opioids can produce psychiatric disorders like hallucination, sleep disorders, depressed mood, disorientation, agitation, nervousness, restlessness, euphoric mood. Secondary mania to tapentadol mechanism is unknown, but having opiate cases described, it is possible to attribute this episode to tapentadol.
– Secondary mania is associated with various medical conditions, including vitamin B12 deficiency, brain injury, HIV infection and drugs such as alcohol, caffeine, sympathomimetics, steroids, bupropion, isoniazid, clarithromycin and opioids.
– Further research is required to determine if the maniac episode was only isolated by the tapentadol or it is the beginning of a bipolar disorder.
S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced by the astrocytes that has been used as a biomarker of brain inflammation. S100B has been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, being considered a marker of state and prognosis.
Studying the relationship between serum S100B levels and psychopathology in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
At admission and discharge, serum S100B levels were measured in 20 never-medicated FEP in-patients and 20 healthy controls. Psychopathology was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). The total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores were assessed. Results are presented as mean±sd. and S100B levels in pg./ml.
At admission, patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations than healthy subjects (39.2±6.4 vs. 33.3±0.98, p<0.02). S100B levels increased from admission to discharge (39.2±6.4 vs. 40.0±6.8, p=0.285) but they do not reach statistical significance. There were no correlations between PANSS (total, positive, negative and general) scores and S100B at admission and discharge. Individual item by item PANSS correlations with S100B elicited a positive correlation with P5 (grandiosity) (r=0.486, p=0.030) and G5 (mannerisms/posturing) (r=0.514; p=0.02) at discharge. There also was a positive trend with G7 (motor retardation) (r=0.409; p=0.073) at discharge.
FEP in-patients have significantly increased serum levels of S100B proteins, suggesting an activation of glial cells that may be associated with a neurodegenerative/inflammatory process. Apart from the study of total scale scores, the analysis of individual item is also recommended. The long-term treatment effect (one year or more) may be relevant to see their relationship to S100B levels.
Bipolar disorder (BIPD) is a chronic and disabling illness with frequent comorbid addictive disorders (ADD). Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of cannabis use disorders (CUD) in that population.
We sought to characterize clinical, sociodemographic, childhood trauma and psychological correlates associated with CUD in bipolar patients.
Our main hypothesis was that BIPD + CUD patients would be more impulsive and affectively unstable than those without.
Patients enrolled in a French national network underwent a thorough assessment including lifetime diagnoses using the SCID-IV questionnaire and measures of current symptomatology (Altman and MADRS), impulsivity (BIS-10), emotional instability (AIM and ALS), hostility (BDHI) and history of childhood trauma (CTQ). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify specific associations between several correlates and CUD status.
Among the 718 patients included, 414 (57.7%) were women, with a mean age of 43 years, and 546 (76.4%) were diagnosed with type I bipolar disorder and 190 (26.9%) had at least one lifetime substance use disorder. CUD were associated with lifetime history of suicidal behavior, psychotic symptoms during an affective episode, rapid cycling and CTQ sub-scores, clinical and psychological dimensions. Parts of these associations remained after controlling for comorbid alcohol use disorders.
These results suggest a high prevalence of CUD in BIPD, which was associated with a higher severity and worse outcomes of illness. Although the retrospective nature of this study prevents causal interpretations, our results suggest that at-risk traits among CUD+BIPD patients may induce these clinical features.