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To examine the quality of life (QOL) of parents of children with a specific mental disorder (any age).
Relevant articles were searched using different databases. Articles were included that compared the QOL of parents with mentally-ill children to parents of healthy controls or norm values or provided the required data for this comparison. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain an overall mean effect size estimate. Additional analyses were performed to assess publication bias and moderation.
Twenty-six out of 10 548 articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Most of these studies focused on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder, used clinical samples that mainly included males and young children and studied the QOL of mothers. The meta-analysis revealed that parents of mentally-ill children are experiencing a clinically relevant reduction in their QOL relative to parents of healthy children and norm values (g = −0.66).
The compromised QOL of parents of mentally-ill children needs to be considered and addressed by health professionals who are in contact with them. The paper provides insights into existing research gaps and suggests improvements for subsequent work.
The Learning Health System Network clinical data research network includes academic medical centers, health-care systems, public health departments, and health plans, and is designed to facilitate outcomes research, pragmatic trials, comparative effectiveness research, and evaluation of population health interventions.
The Learning Health System Network is 1 of 13 clinical data research networks assembled to create, in partnership with 20 patient-powered research networks, a National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.
Results and Conclusions
Herein, we describe the Learning Health System Network as an emerging resource for translational research, providing details on the governance and organizational structure of the network, the key milestones of the current funding period, and challenges and opportunities for collaborative science leveraging the network.
In November 2009, we initiated a multistate investigation of Salmonella Montevideo infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern JIXX01.0011. We identified 272 cases in 44 states with illness onset dates ranging from 1 July 2009 to 14 April 2010. To help generate hypotheses, warehouse store membership card information was collected to identify products consumed by cases. These records identified 19 ill persons who purchased company A salami products before onset of illness. A case-control study was conducted. Ready-to-eat salami consumption was significantly associated with illness (matched odds ratio 8·5, 95% confidence interval 2·1–75·9). The outbreak strain was isolated from company A salami products from an environmental sample from one manufacturing plant, and sealed containers of black and red pepper at the facility. This outbreak illustrates the importance of using membership card information to assist in identifying suspect vehicles, the potential for spices to contaminate ready-to-eat products, and preventing raw ingredient contamination of these products.
Thin film silicon solar cells are attractive for photovoltaics; however, the poor charge transport in this material requires that the devices are thinner than the absorption length. Adequate absorption can nevertheless be achieved by light scattering at textured interfaces because light can get trapped inside the absorber layer if it is scattered into angles above the critical angle of total internal reflection. This situation can be identified with the propagation of a guided mode in a waveguide where silicon plays the role of the high index guiding medium and the interface texture serves to couple the incident light to modes via grating coupling. We present an experimental realization of a solar cell structure on a line grating where the enhanced photocurrent can be clearly related to resonant excitation of waveguide modes.
Silver can be used as the back contact and reflector in thin film silicon solar cells. When deposited on textured substrates, silver films often exhibit reduced reflectance due to absorption losses by the excitation of surface plasmon resonances. We show that thermal annealing of the silver back reflector increases its reflectance drastically. The process is performed at low temperature (150°C) to allow the use of plastic sheets such as polyethylene naphthalate and increases the efficiency of single junction amorphous solar cells dramatically. We present the best result obtained on a flexible substrate: a cell with 9.9% initial efficiency and 15.82 mA/cm2 in short circuit current is realized in n-i-p configuration.
The influence of the type of alumina used as catalyst support on the evolution, activity, and lifetime of the catalyst during water-assisted CVD growth (or ‘supergrowth') of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) carpets has been studied. The catalyst consisted of a thin Fe film supported on alumina films deposited by different methods: atomic layer deposition (ALD), e-beam, and magnetron sputtering. In order to fully understand the influence of the type of alumina on SWNT carpet growth, crystalline alumina (c-cut sapphire) and annealed alumina deposited by e-beam were also used as catalyst supports. The activity and lifetime of Fe catalyst during SWNT carpet growth showed a strong dependence on the type of alumina used as support. Fe supported on sputtered alumina (sputtered/Fe) showed the highest catalytic activity and lifetime, which was closely followed by e-beam/Fe while Fe supported on sapphire (sapphire/Fe) showed the least catalytic activity and lifetime. AFM, XPS depth profile, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) studies revealed that the catalyst evolution and the porosity of the different alumina supports correlate with the lifetime and activity of the catalysts.
In this work, we study the replication of nanotextures used in thin film silicon solar cells to enhance light trapping onto inexpensive substrates such as glass or polyethylene naphtalate (PEN). Morphological analysis was carried out to asses the quality of these replicas. Moreover, single and tandem a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on top of the master and replica structures to verify their suitability to be used as substrates for solar cells in n-i-p configuration. We find stabilized efficiencies around 8% which are similar for tandem cells on masters and PEN replicas.
We investigate the influence of refractive index contrast on the light scattering properties of nanotextured interfaces, which serve as front contact for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells. We here focus on ZnO surfaces with randomly oriented pyramidal features, known for their excellent light trapping performance. Transparent replicas, with a different refractive index, but practically identical morphology compared to their ZnO masters, were fabricated via nanoimprinting. Within the theoretical framework we recently proposed, we show how the angular and spectral dependence of light scattered by nanostructures with identical morphology but different refractive index may be related to each other allowing direct comparison of their light trapping potential within the device.
An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify risk factors related to hygiene and husbandry practices which determine the introduction of Campylobacter spp. into broiler chicken flocks. All 176 broiler farms in an area in southeastern Norway participated in the study. Each farm was represented by one flock selected at random during a one-year period. The flocks were examined for Campylobacter colonization at slaughter, and the flock managers were sub-sequently interviewed about hygiene and husbandry practices. Campylobacter spp. were recovered from 32 (18%) of the flocks. The proportion of colonized flocks varied geographically and seasonally with a peak in the autumn. The following variables were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter colonization using logistic regression analysis: (i) feeding the broilers undisinfected water (odds ratio (OR) = 3·42, P = 0·045), (ii) tending other poultry prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 6·43, P = 0·007), (iii) tending pigs before entering the house (OR = 4·86, P = 0·037), (iv) geographic region (Hedmark versus Østfold county) (OR = 2·91), P = 0·023, (v) season (autumn versus other seasons) (OR = 3·43, P = 0·008). Presence of rats on the farm was associated with an increased risk, but this factor did not reach statistical significance (OR = 3·96, P = 0·083). Preventive measures should include dis-infection of drinking water and strict hygienic routines when the farm workers enter the rearing room. The results indicated that disinfection of drinking water is the preventive measure most likely to have the greatest impact on the prevalence of Campylobacter among broiler chicken flocks in the study area (population attributable fraction = 0·53).
We present advanced light trapping concepts for thin film silicon solar cells. When an amorphous and a microcrystalline absorber layers are combined into a micromorph tandem cell, light trapping becomes a challenge because it should combine the spectral region from 600 to 750 nm for the amorphous top cell and from 800 to 1100 for the microcrystalline bottom cell. Because light trapping is typically achieved by growing on textured substrates, the effect of interface textures on the material and electric properties has to be taken into account, and importantly, how the surface textures evolve with the thickness of the overgrowing layers. We present different scenarios for the n-i-p configuration on flexible polymer substrates and p-i-n cells on glass substrate, and we present our latest stabilized efficiencies of 9.8% and 11.1%, respectively.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of ostracod and gastropod shells from the southwestern Black Sea cores combined with tephrochronology provides the basis for studying reservoir age changes in the late-glacial Black Sea. The comparison of our data with records from the northwestern Black Sea shows that an apparent reservoir age of ∼1450 14C yr found in the glacial is characteristic of a homogenized water column. This apparent reservoir age is most likely due to the hardwater effect. Though data indicate that a reservoir age of ∼1450 14C yr may have persisted until the Bølling-Allerød warm period, a comparison with the GISP2 ice-core record suggests a gradual reduction of the reservoir age to ∼1000 14C yr, which might have been caused by dilution effects of inflowing meltwater. During the Bølling-Allerød warm period, soil development and increased vegetation cover in the catchment area of the Black Sea could have hampered erosion of carbonate bedrock, and hence diminished contamination by “old” carbon brought to the Black Sea basin by rivers. A further reduction of the reservoir age most probably occurred contemporary to the precipitation of inorganic carbonates triggered by increased phytoplankton activity, and was confined to the upper water column. Intensified deep water formation subsequently enhanced the mixing/convection and renewal of intermediate water. During the Younger Dryas, the age of the upper water column was close to 0 yr, while the intermediate water was ∼900 14C yr older. The first inflow of saline Mediterranean water, at ∼8300 14C yr BP, shifted the surface water age towards the recent value of ∼400 14C yr.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.
Progressive switching of grains in ferroelectric materials leads to internal stresses, which may give rise to degradation of the material or even fracture. Here we propose a two-dimensional multigrain model for ferroelectric polycrystal. The numerical computations employ the nonlinear micromechanics model of Huber et al.  for each grain. Results for the macroscopic response, butterfly and hysteresis loops, as well as internal stress and electric field distributions are presented.
Neat Fibers of HiPco single wall carbon nanotubes extruded from strong acid suspensions exhibit preferred orientation along fiber axes. We characterize the extrusion-induced alignment using x-ray fiber diagrams and polarized Raman scattering, using a model which allows for some fraction of the sample to remain completely unaligned. We show that both x-ray and Raman data are required for a complete texture analysis of SWNT fibers.
No controlled trial of treatment of generalised social phobia has been conducted in general practice.
To examine the efficacy of sertraline or exposure therapy, administered alone or in combination in this setting.
Study was of a randomised, double-blind design. Patients (n=387) received sertraline 50–150 mg or placebo for 24 weeks. Patients were additionally randomised to exposure therapy or general medical care.
Sertraline-treated patients were significantly more improved than non-sertraline-treated patients (χ2=12.53, P<0.001; odds ratio=0.534; 95% CI 0.347–0.835). No significant difference was observed between exposure— and non-exposure-treated patients (χ2=2.18, P=0.140; odds ratio=0.732; 95% CI 0.475–1.134). In the pairwise comparisons, combined sertraline and exposure (χ2=12.32; P<0.001) and sertraline (χ2=10.13; P=0.002) were significantly superior to placebo.
Sertraline is an effective treatment for generalised social phobia. Combined treatment with sertraline and exposure therapy, conducted by the general practitioner, may enhance the treatment efficacy in primary care.
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