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Although the Great Basin of North America has produced some of the most robust and ancient fiber artifact assemblages in the world, many were recovered with poor chronological controls. Consequently, this class of artifacts has seldom been effectively incorporated into general discussions of early chronological and cultural patterns. In recent years, the Great Basin Textile Dating Project has accumulated direct AMS dates on textiles (bags, sandals, mats, cordage, and basketry) from dry caves in the Great Basin, particularly in the northern and western areas. We focus here on the terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene, to identify chronological patterns in this class of artifacts and to evaluate Adovasio’s characterization of the region’s earliest basketry as simple and undecorated. New AMS dates now suggest that the region’s earliest people had sophisticated textile traditions that incorporated numerous decorative elaborations. Some distinctive structures, including Fort Rock sandals and weft-faced plaited textiles, have limited early temporal ranges and may serve as diagnostic indicators for terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene times. Other basketry forms and structures that appear by about 9000 cal B.P. persist into the historic period, suggesting a stronger thread of continuity (especially in the north) from this time than is apparent in lithic traditions
This study considers the convective-type instability of the near-field flow of a planar, pure thermal plume with a finite area source. Previous studies revealed the existence of an off-axis thermal boundary-layer instability, driving a puffing instability in the central ascending column, and qualitatively showed correlations between instabilities in these two flow regions. This paper extends the analysis to examine the effect of Prandtl number on transitional near-field behaviours and reports on the stability characteristics of a near-field, pure thermal plume based on a direct stability analysis. The variations in flow behaviours in response to symmetric and asymmetric disturbances suggest the existence of coupled instability mechanisms in the off-axis thermal boundary layer and the central ascending column.
A super-Chandrasekhar (SC) supernova (SN) has an extremely high luminosity and a slow decline rate of the light curve in the early-phase. We present late-phase observations of the SC SN 2009dc. We find that the optical luminosity a year after maximum is much fainter than that expected from its early luminosity. We attempt to fit the analytic light curve model to the observations using Arnett's rule. The model successfully explains the light curves until 120 days. This suggests that the extremely high luminosity originates from the 56Ni decay. We suggest that the late-phase decline would be caused by dust formation. The existence of strong carbon features in early-phase spectra would support this scenario. We also find a blend of [Ca ii] and [Ni ii] in its late-phase spectrum. This indicates that the calcium is distributed in the inner layer along with nickel and iron. We conclude that the mixing may occur in the inner parts of the ejecta.
We successfully obtained the first optical spectra of the faint light echoes around Cassiopeia A and Tycho Brahe's supernova remnants (SNRs) with FOCAS and the Subaru Telescope. We conclude that Cas A and Tycho's SN 1572 belong to the Type IIb and normal Type Ia supernovae, respectively. Light echo spectra are important in order to obtain further insight into the supernova explosion mechanism of Tycho's SN 1572: how the Type Ia explosion actually proceeds, and whether accretion occurs from a companion or by the merging of two white dwarfs. The proximity of the SN 1572 remnant has allowed detailed studies, such as the possible identification of the binary companion, and provides a unique opportunity to test theories of the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. Future light-echo spectra, obtained in different spatial directions of SN 1572, will enable to construct a three-dimensional spectroscopic view of the explosion.
Studying a multi-dimensional structure of supernovae (SNe) gives important constraints on the mechanism of the SN explosion. Polarization measurement is one of the most powerful methods to study the explosion geometry of extragalactic SNe. Especially, Type Ib/c SNe are the ideal targets because the core of the explosion is bare. We have performed spectropolarimetric observations of Type Ib/c SNe with the Subaru telescope. We detect a rotation of the polarization angle across the line, which is seen as a loop in the Q - U plane. This indicates that axisymmetry is broken in the SN ejecta. Adding our new data to the sample of stripped-envelope SNe with high-quality spectropolarimetric data, five SNe out of six show a loop in the Q - U plane. This implies that the SN explosion commonly has a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional geometry.
Directional information should play a significant role
for a firm detection of the galactic dark matter.
We developed a prototype three-dimensional gaseous tracking device
for a direction-sensitive dark matter direct detection.
We investigated the performance of the prototype detector and demonstrated
a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment in a
We set the first limit
on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross s
ection by a direction-sensitive method.
Photocatalytic hydrogen production with gas-phase reactions in high vacuum was examined for nanocrystalline anatase-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films. The hydrogen generation process on platinized TiO2 specimens was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer at a real-time scale under various partial pressures of gaseous methanol and water. As a result, hydrogen generation was successfully detected under ultraviolet ray (UV) illumination even in high vacuum (∼ 10−7 Torr). And the amount of produced H2 largely depends on the temperature of TiO2 samples, probably due to different surface states of TiO2. This study suggests the possibility of new high-speed H2 production system with gas-phase photocatalytic reactions.
We have evaluated the hardness and elastic properties of thin films by using a simple procedure to calibrate the tip shape effect of the nano-indentation data. For the simplification, a truncated-shape approximation and linear fit are used to estimate the tip-shape and contact stiffness, respectively, substituting for polynomial area-function and power-law fit. The parameters used in the correction were determined by a fused silica and a single crystal silicon (100) surface. Different film/substrate systems are designed in order to assess these fitted parameters used in the correction. The transition behavior observed from the film to the substrate is well coincide with the other film thickness results, where the indentation depth above 50nm.
Variability of the light curves of the short-period eclipsing binary system GR Tau (, almost-contact binary) is studied. It is found that GR Tau experienced both the state which is characterized by asymmetric light curves and the state characterized by symmetrical light curves.
The amorphous/polycrystalline Si3N4/CrN and Si3N4/TiN nano-structured multilayer films have been fabricated by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and properties of these films were measured by XRD, HRTEM and nano-indenter There is no superhardness effect in the Si3N4/CrN multilayers. The hardness values of Si3N4/CrN multilayers are between those of the constituent CrN and Si3N4 films at a substrate temperature of 20∼C, and are a little higher than those of Si3N4 films at a deposition temperature of 500°C. However, the superhardness effect was found in Si3N4/ TiN multilayers. The hardness of Si3N4/ TiN multilayers is affected not only by modulation periods, but also by layer thickness ratio and deposition temperature. The maximum hardness value is about 40% higher than the value calculated from the rule of mixtures at a deposition temperature of 500°C and a layer thickness ratio (lSi3N4/ lTiN) of 3 / 1. Based on experimental results, the hardening mechanisms in these multilayers have been discussed.
In this work we report on tantalum oxide fabricated by anodic oxidation of tantalum nitride and tantalum silicide to be used as the dielectric of Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors. These films exhibit greatly improved leakage currents, breakdown voltage and very low defect density, thus allowing the fabrication of large area capacitors. Several counter and bottom electrodes have been used and compared. The effects of the different processing conditions (top-electrode metals, annealing conditions, bottom electrode stoichiometry and precursor) on the capacitor performances are extensively discussed throughout this work. The electrical behavior of the resulting high-density MIM capacitors has been extensively characterized. Finally, we propose a set of selection guides to select the more appropriate process parameter values and electrode materials for a given application of these capacitors.
We have investigated the impact of inversion layer quantization and polysilicon-gate depletion effects on the direct-tunneling gate-leakage current and reliability of ultra-thin silicon-dioxide gate dielectric. The gate-leakage current was measured for nMOSFET devices with gate oxide thickness down to 3 nm. A simulation-based methodology was used to determine the physical oxide thickness from the measured capacitance data, and the corresponding effective gate oxide thickness at inversion was computed from the simulation data obtained with and without the quantum mechanical and polysilicon depletion effects. The simulation results indicate that the effective gate oxide thickness is significantly higher than the physically grown oxide thickness due to inversion layer quantization and polysilicon depletion effects. The increase in oxide thickness is strongly dependent on the supply voltage and is more than 0.6 nm at 1 V. Our data, also, show that in order to maintain a leakage current ≥ 1 A/cm2 for 1 V operation, the effective gate oxide thickness must be ≥ 2.2 nm.
Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy with a spatial resolution at the atomic scale provide evidence of an atomically abrupt Si-SiO2, interface. Th micrographs revealed no indication for an interface layer of crystalline oxide at this thermally grown interface. Theoretical ab-initio calculations of two different interface structures showed that even in the most ideal interface the local density of states extends into the region of the oxide band gap. The O-K energy-loss near-edge structure was simulated for both interface models. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results of the O-K near-edge structure agreed and showed that states below the conduction band of the oxide are caused by the dimer-like SiO-Si bridges present in all structural models.
We report the electrical characterization of a direct tunneling diode structure that incorporates a multilayer dielectric. The dielectric consists of a stack of two thermally grown, ultrathin SiO2 layers, each ∼3.5 rin thick, separated by a deposited, continuous, undoped, ultrathin nanocrystalline Si layer ∼5.0 nm thick. Electrical measurements of this structure are reported for both n-type and p-type Si substrates. We find that the room temperature transport through this structure is accounted for by describing the intermediate Si layer as a quantum well with a continuum of states, and by otherwise assuming bulk properties for the ultrathin layers, such as the existence of a bandgap in the Si well and the usual Si-SiO2 interface potential barrier height at all interfaces. This structure is expected to be useful as the active dielectric in nonvolatile memory devices.
We have fabricated very thin TiO2 film (Teq∼20Å) by RTP oxidation of sputtered Ti in NO ambient on nitrogen passivated Si substrates. The leakage current is about two orders magnitude lower than SiO2 of identical Teq. Results show that NO passivation layer prior to sputtering is critical in reducing the leakage current. XPS results show that the temperature RTP NO oxidation of sputtered Ti is very important for achieving high quality TiO2 films. high oxidation temperature an SiO2 layer is formed at the interface between TiO2 and Si and the leakage current is approaching to that of SiO2.
We report the first direct observation of dissociative chemisorption of oxygen molecules on a silicon surface at room temperature via a molecular precursor state. We link this to the fact that smooth oxide layers can be grown easily on Si(113). The process of initial oxidation is discussed in terms of surface diffusion paths and surface stress. First ab initiocalculations help elucidate the favored adsorption sites and the oxidation mechanism. Experimental evidence was found for bond geometries resulting in the quasi-epitaxial growth of a chemisorption layer on the substrate at elevated temperatures (600°C). In contrast to the first stages of Si(001) oxidation, neither defects nor the ejection of Si atoms plays a significant role during the initial oxidation of Si(113).
The conduction band and valence band electron tunneling currents in ultra-thin SiO2 films at the transition from direct to Fowler-Nordheim tunneling regimes are studied. The slopes of the current voltage characteristics agree well with the simulations performed. The Stress-Induced Leakage Current (SILC) behavior is quite similar for both conduction and valence band currents even if the amplitude of the valence band SILC is much lower. We show that a linear dependence exists between the stress-induced interface trap density and both valence and conduction band SILC. A new model of SILC is also proposed.
Earlier growth studies on the rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in NO (RTNO) were not sufficiently comprehensive and were limited by temperature measurement uncertainty and thermal non-uniformity across the wafer. Using a state-of-the-art rapid thermal processing (RTP) system, the RTNO growth characteristics at 100 and 760 Torr, from 900 to 1200°C and from 0 to 480 s were investigated. It was found that the initial growth rate anomalously decreasedwith temperature and pressure. These anomalies were correlated to the evolution of the XPS N 1s spectrum of the RTNO film with oxidation time, temperature and pressure.