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We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
We present preliminary results from MUSE on the Lyα luminosity function in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS). Using a large homogeneous sample of LAEs selected through blind spectroscopy, we utilise the unprecedented detection power of MUSE to study the progenitors of L* galaxies back to when the Universe was just ~2 Gyr old. We present these results in the context of the current literature, and highlight the importance of the forthcoming Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) study with MUSE, which will increase the size of our sample by a factor of ~ 10.
To determine the clinical effect of post-operative radiotheraphy and systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of salivary duct carcinoma.
The medical records of 26 patients treated by surgery with or without radiotheraphy and/or systemic chemotherapy for salivary duct carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the role of post-operative adjuvant treatment for the patients' prognosis.
The overall three-year and five-year survival rates were 54 and 48.1 per cent, respectively. There was no correlation with the clinical stage and the patients' prognosis. The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative radiotheraphy was 64 and 33 per cent, respectively (p = 0.29). The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative chemotherapy was 53 and 56 per cent, respectively (p = 0.78).
Post-operative adjuvant therapy did not improve the patients' overall prognosis with salivary duct carcinoma. Developing novel treatment modalities may be necessary to improve the prognosis of this aggressive disease.
One of the critical issues for development of the nuclear fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) is the high heat flux on heat-resistant equipments, especially the blanket and divertor. Materials of such equipments require relatively high thermal conductivities. In this study, we developed iron-based composite materials with carbon nanotube (CNT) and copper, which have high thermal diffusivities, by means of Hot Pressing (HP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS).
The thermal diffusivity in the iron/CNT composites was not high enough compared with that of pure iron, while iron/copper composite showed a relatively high thermal diffusivity in the joining conditions. One of the reasons not to be improved thermal diffusivity could be non-mono-dispersion of CNT by the formation of carbides in the matrix.
We carried out an extensive photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the SPB binary, HD 25558 (see Fig. 1 for the time and geographic distribution of the observations). The ~2000 spectra obtained at 13 observatories during 5 observing seasons, the ground-based multi-colour light curves and the photometric data from the MOST satellite revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a very long orbital period of about 9 years. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and have found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both components show line-profile variations consistent with stellar pulsations. Altogether, 11 independent frequencies and one harmonic frequency were identified in the data. The observational data do not allow the inference of a reliable orbital solution, thus, disentangling cannot be performed on the spectra. Since the lines of the two components are never completely separated, the analysis is very complicated. Nevertheless, pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the cross-correlated line profiles was successful, and we were able to attribute all the frequencies to the primary or secondary component. Spectroscopic and photometric mode-identification was also performed for several of these frequencies of both binary components. The spectroscopic mode-identification results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. While the primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d rotation period, seen at ~60° inclination, the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d rotation period, and is seen at ~20° inclination. Our spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field was detected in the primary.
The detailed analysis and results of this study will be published elsewhere.
Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated. However, few comprehensive epidemiological studies have examined this altered state of consciousness superimposed on dementia. We investigated the frequency of delirium in patients with dementia, its prevalence in patients with each dementia type, and its association with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients with neurodegenerative dementias.
We studied 261 consecutive outpatients in the memory clinic of a psychiatric hospital between April 2010 and September 2011. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests and computed tomography (CT), and their Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and Delirium Rating Scale – Revised 98 scores were recorded. The diagnosis of delirium was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. CVD was detected by CT.
Among the 206 patients with dementia, delirium was present in 40 (19.4%). The proportion of patients who experienced episodes of delirium was 14.7% in the Alzheimer's disease, 34.4% in the vascular dementia, 31.8% in the dementia with Lewy bodies, and none in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Delirium was frequently observed in patients with dementia and CVD. The NPI total and agitation subscale scores were significantly higher in dementia patients with delirium than in those without delirium. PSMS scores were significantly lower for patients with delirium than for patients without delirium.
The frequency of delirium varies with each dementia type. In addition, delirium decreases activities of daily living, exaggerates behavioral and psychological symptoms dementia, and is associated with CVD in patients with neurodegenerative dementias.
Rhino-sinus mucosal involvement is well documented in untreated lepromatous leprosy, but less understood in ex-leprosy patients (i.e. leprosy patients who have been treated and cured) with atrophic rhinitis.
Materials and methods:
Rhino-sinus abnormalities were investigated in 13 ex-lepromatous leprosy patients with atrophic rhinitis, using interviews enquiring about sinonasal symptoms, nasal endoscopy, nasal swab culture and computed tomography. Endoscopic sinus surgery had been performed in three patients. The clinical course, computed tomography findings and nasal biopsy results of these three patients were evaluated.
All patients had turbinate atrophy and 6 of the 13 (46.2 per cent) had septal perforation. Paranasal sinus involvement was noted in 9 of 12 examined patients (75 per cent). The most commonly affected sinus was the maxillary sinus (in 8 of 12; 66.7 per cent). All three patients treated by endoscopic sinus surgery experienced relapse and required further surgery. Maxillary sinus irrigation was effective for reduction of persistent symptoms such as postnasal discharge and crusts.
Ex-lepromatous leprosy patients with atrophic rhinitis had various rhino-sinus abnormalities and persistent symptoms. These patients had chronic rhinosinusitis because of underlying atrophic rhinitis. These patients required repeated otolaryngological observations together with combined surgery and conservative treatment.
The objective of this study is to establish alloy designing which can reduce the amount of V for a Ni-base dual two-phase intermetallic alloy, without degenerating the dual two-phase microstructure. It was demonstrated that the favorable dual two-phase microstructure will be maintained as far as the valence electron concentration (e/a) of the alloys added by Cr is not so much different from that of the base alloy (i.e. the alloy without additive elements). Consequently, it was found that the dual two-phase microstructure was maintained even though the amounts of V were reduced by 7 at.%, 7 at.%, and 10at.% by substituting of Cr for V, Cr for both of Ni and V, and Cr for Ni, respectively. The hardness of the alloys with reduced V content was higher than that of the base alloy.