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The project PARADISE (Psychosocial fActors Relevant to BrAin DISorders in Europe) funded by the European Community (Grant Agreement 652 no. HEALTH-F2-2009-241572) is being carried out in terms of the theoretical conceptualization of “horizontal epidemiology”, which argues that the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) people have to deal with when they have a brain disorder - either psychiatric or neurological - And the determinants of those PSDs are common across brain disorders.
To develop and test an innovative approach to collect clinical data on the PSDs based on the horizontal epidemiology.
1) To determine the PSDs and determinants commonly relevant across brain disorders. 2) To create a data collection protocol to describe and assess PSDs and their determinants across brain disorders.
In the first phase, a pilot data collection protocol was developed based on literature reviews and focus groups in 9 brain disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance use disorders) as well as data analyses of surveys and expert consultations. in the current second phase, the protocol is being tested in a sample of 700 patients across Europe.
The pilot data collection protocol contains 63 PSDs and 64 determinants, which have been identified as common across brain disorders.
If we are right about the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders, this way of collecting information would have profound consequences for how we organize and deliver services to people with brain disorders across Europe, improving their lives and life opportunities.
This paper describes a tri-trophic analysis of the ecological dynamics of a crop, an insect pest, and a natural enemy of the insect pest. Worldwide wheat (Triticum Linnaeus) (Poaceae) production in 2018–2019 was estimated at over 700 million metric tons in 2018–2019. Wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of wheat, is widely distributed in many parts of the world where wheat production occurs. Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of S. mosellana, has successfully established in most wheat midge-infested areas. Mechanistic, or process-based, population models were used in this study to assess the interactive population dynamics of the three species, based on their respective life cycles and meteorological factors. The models were validated with survey data from multiple sites over numerous years (1991–2016). These simulation models helped to detail our understanding of the tri-trophic population dynamics and will help guide pest management decisions both prior to the growing season and until wheat heading, when wheat is no longer susceptible to S. mosellana. The associated models also help identify gaps in system knowledge, provide a foundation for evaluating future innovative management options, and evaluate the potential impact of a changing climate.
Background: Cerebellar atrophy is characterized by loss of cerebellar tissue, with evidence on brain imaging of enlarged interfolial spaces compared to the foliae. Genetic ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are a heterogeneous group of disorders. We investigated the prevalence in Canada and the diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES) for this group of conditions. Methods: Between 2011 and 2017, WES was performed in 91 participants with cerebellar atrophy as part of one of two national research programs, Finding of Rare Genetic Disease Genes (FORGE) or Enhanced Care for Rare Genetic Diseases in Canada (Care4Rare). Results: A genetic diagnosis was established in 58% of cases (53/91). Pathogenic variants were found in 24 known genes, providing a diagnosis for 46/53 participants (87%), and in four novel genes, accounting for 7/53 cases (13%). 38/91 cases (42%) remained unsolved. The most common diagnoses were channelopathies in 12/53 patients (23%) and mitochondrial disorders in 9/53 (17%). Inheritance was autosomal recessive in the majority of cases. Additional clinical findings provided useful clues to some of the diagnoses. Conclusions: This is the first report on the prevalence of genetic ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy in Canada, and the utility of WES for this group of conditions.
Background: Inadequate postoperative pain control is common and is associated with negative clinical outcomes. The objective is to identify preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain control in the adult population undergoing inpatient surgery. Methods: Meta-analysis was performed according to MOOSE guidelines. Studies were included if they evaluated postoperative pain using a validated instrument in adults undergoing inpatient surgery and reported a measure of association between poor postoperative pain control and at least one preoperative predictor. Measures of association were pooled using random effects models. Results: A total of 33 studies representing 59,259 patients were included. Significant preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain included sleeping difficulties (OR 2.32 [95% CI 1.46-3.69]), history of depressive symptoms (OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.32-2.22]), use of preoperative analgesia (OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.18-2.03]), smoking (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.09-1.61]), -female sex (OR 1.29 [95% CI 1.17-1.43]), presence of preoperative pain (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.10-1.32]], history of anxiety symptoms (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.09-1.36)], younger age (OR 1.18 [95% CI 1.05-1.32)], and higher BMI (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.03]). Conclusions: Nine significant predictors of poor postoperative pain control were identified and these should be recognized as important factors when developing pre- and peri-operative strategies to improve pain outcomes.
Mosquito communities across the globe frequently comprise a mix of native and cosmopolitan species. New Zealand's mosquito communities are no exception. Here we describe the abundance, distribution and phenological patterns for a community of six mosquito taxa resident across the Kaipara Harbour region of northern New Zealand. Adult mosquitoes were sampled using baited light traps, serviced biweekly for 3½ years. Seasonal fluctuations in abundance of adults were examined for correlations with temperature and rainfall over the preceding weeks. Four endemic species comprised over 98% of the total catch, with Coquillettidia iracunda being the most abundant. Two introduced species, Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus were widely distributed, but each comprised <1% of the total catch. Culiseta tonnoiri was the only species that appeared geographically restricted, occurring at one-third of the sites. Distinct temporal peaks in adult abundance were evident: Aedes antipodeus was most abundant in spring, Ae. notoscriptus and Cq. iracunda were most abundant in summer and Cx. quinquefasciatus was most abundant in autumn. Culiseta tonnoiri and Culex pervigilans were of variable abundance throughout the year. For all species examined, temporal variations in abundance were more strongly associated with temperature in the preceding weeks than with preceding rainfall. A better knowledge of the factors driving patterns of spatial and temporal abundance will allow an improved understanding of how non-native species may integrate themselves into resident mosquito communities.
To describe our experience and provide guidelines for maximum safe balloon sizes according to age in children undergoing balloon dilatation.
A retrospective review was conducted of children undergoing balloon dilatation for subglottic stenosis in a paediatric tertiary unit between May 2006 and February 2016.
A total of 166 patients underwent balloon dilatation. Mean ( ± standard deviation) patient age was 4.5 ± 3.99 years. The median balloon size was 8 mm, the median balloon inflation pressure was 10 atm, and the mean balloon inflation time was 65.1 ± 18.6 seconds. No significant unexpected events occurred. The Pearson correlation co-efficient for the relationship between patient age and balloon size was 0.85 (p = 0.001), suggesting a strongly positive correlation.
This study demonstrated that balloon dilatation is a safe procedure for airway stenosis. The results suggest using a balloon diameter that is equal to the outer diameter of the age-appropriate endotracheal tube +1 mm for the larynx and subglottis and +2 mm for the trachea.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Increasing research effort is being dedicated to investigating the links between emotional processes and psychosis, despite the traditional demarcation between the two. Particular focus has alighted upon two specific anxious and depressive processes, worry and rumination, given the potential for links with aspects of delusions and auditory hallucinations. This study rigorously explored the nature of these links in the context of the daily life of people currently experiencing psychosis.
Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to assess the momentary links between worry and rumination on the one hand, and persecutory delusional ideation and auditory hallucinations on the other. Twenty-seven participants completed the 6-day experience sampling period, which required repeated self-reports on thought processes and experiences. Multilevel modelling was used to examine the links within the clustered data.
We found that antecedent worry and rumination predicted delusional and hallucinatory experience, and the distress they elicited. Using interaction terms, we have shown that the links with momentary symptom severity were moderated by participants' trait beliefs about worry/rumination, such that they were reduced when negative beliefs about worry/rumination (meta-cognitions) were high.
The current findings offer an ecologically valid insight into the influence of worry and rumination on the experience of psychotic symptoms, and highlight possible avenues for future intervention strategies.
Using the 22-m ‘Mopra’ antenna (near Coonabarabran, NSW) of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), we have observed emission from the 115-GHz J = 1−0 transition of CO towards the centre of each of the 1101 clouds listed in the Catalogue of Southern Dark Clouds (SDC) of Hartley et al. (1986). The velocity range covered was −96 to +70 km s−1, with a velocity resolution of 0· 120 km s−1. CO was detected at 1049 of the positions, with 367 spectra showing emission at more than one radial velocity. Here we present the most comprehensive general survey of the SDC catalogue, with the intensity, velocity and half-width of the CO detection and a code describing the profile shape. The presence of blue- or red-shifted wings in many observations can provide a starting point in searches for star-forming regions.
Treatment options for large subglottic haemangioma include steroids, laser ablation, open excision, tracheostomy and, more recently, propranolol. This article aims to present the Great Ormond Street Hospital guidelines for using propranolol to treat infantile isolated subglottic haemangioma by ENT surgeons.
The vascular malformations multidisciplinary team at Great Ormond Street Hospital has developed guidelines for treating infantile haemangioma with propranolol.
The Great Ormond Street Hospital guidelines for propranolol treatment for infantile subglottic haemangioma include investigation, treatment and follow up. Propranolol is started at 1 mg/kg/day divided into three doses, increasing to 2 mg/kg/day one week later. On starting propranolol and when increasing the dose, the pulse rate and blood pressure must be checked every 30 minutes for the first 2 hours. Lesion response to treatment is assessed via serial endoscopy.
Recent reports of dramatic responses to oral propranolol in children with haemangioma and acute airway obstruction have led to increased use. We advocate caution, and have developed guidelines (including pre-treatment investigation and monitoring) to improve treatment safety. Propranolol may in time prove to be the best medical treatment for subglottic haemangioma, but at present is considered to be still under evaluation.
It is now clear that the epoch when the Universe was half of its current age is a crucial period during which galaxies assembled their mass and evolved into the galaxies we observe in the local Universe. However, so far only very few direct studies of mass assembly in action, hence galaxy merging, were conducted over z=1 and usually relied on very small or biased samples. Based on very deep near infrared survey data, the latest UKIDSS-UDS DR8, combined with the optical data conducted by Subaru and CFHT and Spitzer IRAC observations, we explored the evolution of the merging rate up to z = 2, over the largest volume of the Universe at 0.4<z<2 ever sampled. The pair fraction is found to decrease by a factor of two during this period, and wet (gas rich) mergers dominate largely. The dry mergers are very rare, ruling it out as the main mechanism for the mass assembly of passive massive galaxies. Also while massive galaxies undergo a decrease of their pair fraction during this period, less massive systems follow an increase during the same period.
Anterior tongue reduction is indicated when macroglossia causes problems with oral hygiene, airway compromise, deglutition, articulation or orthognathic complications. Causes of macroglossia include hypothyroidism, mucopolysaccharide and lipid storage disease, lymphangioma, haemangioma, neurofibroma, and muscular macroglossia. This paper presents an 11-year experience of anterior tongue reduction at Great Ormond Street Hospital.
Retrospective study of patient medical records identified from the hospital ENT database. Anterior wedge resection was the preferred technique.
Anterior tongue reduction was performed on 18 patients, due to cystic hygroma with tongue involvement (nine patients), Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (eight) and Down's syndrome (one). Anterior wedge resection was preferred, using electrocautery in the majority, except for four cases involving CO2 laser. All but one patient had a good surgical outcome (i.e. tongue in mouth at rest). One patient subsequently required multiple laser procedures for recurrent macroglossia.
Anterior tongue reduction can be a safe procedure, with limited post-operative morbidity, consistently resulting in good surgical outcomes and improvement in macroglossia symptoms. Speech development does not appear to be adversely affected.
Vertical transmission of the protozoan parasite, Neospora caninum is highly efficient and can take two forms – endogenous transplacental transmission resulting from activation of the quiescent bradyzoite stage during pregnancy or exogenous transplacental transmission resulting from ingestion of oocysts during pregnancy. Calves born carrying infection derived from either endogenous or exogenous transplacental transmission are capable of infecting their offspring when they start to breed. This review considers firstly the frequency with which exogenous and endogenous transmission occur, secondly the role of the immune response in controlling N. caninum infection and thirdly how the parasite persists in an immune-competent host and is re-activated during pregnancy.
Fixed metaphase chromosomes of brown trout and Atlantic salmon were digested with various restriction enzymes and stained with Giemsa. C band-like patterns were produced in both species by Alu I, Dde I, Hae III and Mbo I. Alu I revealed extra chromosome bands in brown trout which allowed identification of additional chromosome pairs, while the other three enzymes produced patterns identical to C banding. In the Atlantic salmon Dde I revealed telomeric bands at all telomeres in addition to the conventional C bands and all four enzymes had differential effects on the nucleolar organizer-associated heterochromatin. The relevance of these findings to chromosome identification and constitutive heterochromatin organization in salmonid fishes is discussed.
Embryological remnants of third or fourth branchial pouches are a rare but important cause of recurrent neck abscesses in children. They are characterised by an internal opening in the piriform fossa. Traditional management involves surgical excision of the entire tract. We present our experience with the use of monopolar diathermy applied to the internal sinus opening as a treatment modality for this condition.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective, case report review was performed.
Four cases of piriform fossa sinus were treated with monopolar diathermy to the sinus opening via an endoscopic approach. The first three cases were treated in this way for recurrence, following external tract excision, while the fourth case had simultaneous excision of the tract and diathermy to the piriform fossa opening. There were no serious complications and no recurrence within a follow-up period ranging from nine to 27 months.
Obliteration of the internal opening of these sinuses by endoscopic diathermy is a safe and effective management option for this condition, either as an alternative to or as an adjunct to external surgical excision of the tract.
Artificial rearing is a common practice for rearing calves from the dairy herd destined for beef production. In commercial practice calves are typically weaned from 5 to 9 weeks old. There are four criteria that can be used to determine weaning time: age, compound feed intake, liveweight and milk price. Late weaning systems are based on the theory of giving the calf the best possible start in life, but are costly with high milk intakes (Davis and Drackley, 1998). Hence emphasis is usually placed on early weaning of the calf and encouraging concentrate intake. A number of factors can affect concentrate intake including quality and quantity of milk fed, size of the calf and concentrate texture. Recommendations are to typically wean calves when eating 1kg concentrate per day. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of weaning twice daily milk fed calves on either a low (0.75kg) or high (1.25kg) concentrate intake on performance to 12 weeks old.
Grasshopper population forecasting and monitoring methods in western Canada have traditionally been linked to pest control decisions primarily by providing warnings of the likelihood of crop damage. Risk to crops is categorized as very light (1–4 grasshoppers/m2), light (>4–8 grasshoppers/m2), moderate (>8–12 grasshoppers/m2), severe (>12–24 grasshoppers/m2), or very severe (>24 grasshoppers/m2). A summary of grasshopper infestation by risk category indicated that in 29 of 33 years, infestations warranted ratings of severe or very severe, with the majority of these infestations occurring in the 1980s. Infestations involving the two categories severe and very severe encompassed about 84 900 and 85 600 km2 of agricultural land during the two largest infestations in 1985 and 2002, respectively. Keeping grasshopper populations below economic thresholds through preventative measures is the goal of integrated pest management. To determine when control measures are warranted, producers are asked to monitor grasshopper populations and estimate the number of grasshoppers per square metre. Economic thresholds provide guidance in making a decision as to whether control is warranted in different crops. Using economic thresholds as a guide, this study identified the eco-districts most at risk of crop damage within each of four major eco-regions of Saskatchewan. Overall, risk was highest in five eco-districts of the Mixed Grassland Eco-region. These findings provide guidance for the agriculture industry in relation to grasshopper management and for future survey programs in relation to targeting regions of the province most at risk from grasshoppers.
Chondrodysplasia punctata is a term referring to a clinically heterogeneous group of bone and cartilage dysplasias which cause characteristic epiphyseal stippling. The condition can involve the ear, nose and throat in diverse ways at many levels. We present a case of X-linked brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata, which illustrates the features of this condition particularly relevant to the audiological physician, otolaryngologist and neonatologist.
We report on version 1.0 of the Edinburgh/AAO/Strasbourg catalogue of new and possible Planetary Nebulae (PN) distributed via cdrom at this meeting. We provide accurate positions, designations, images and other descriptive parameters for the PN. In future releases this will be supplemented by inclusion of spectra and related material such as line ratios, velocities etc.
The 900+ PN have been discovered solely from visual scrutiny of narrow-band exposures taken for the AAO/UKST H-alpha survey of the Southern Galactic Plane. Most have classic PN-type morphologies (i.e. bi-polar, rings, shells or ovals). SuperCOSMOS data will soon supersede our visual scanning but it proved an effective preliminary technique to identify candidate PN on the basis of morphology, isolation and identification as an H-alpha nebulosity. We already have confirmatory spectroscopy for ~ 700 objects. Much of our new sample are of very low surface brightness, with no obvious central star, and so have remained undetected in previous surveys. They are revealed here due to the excellent depth, resolution, coverage and uniformity of the H-alpha survey. Many PN are also well extended. The average angular size is 51″ with the median of 27″ but examples extend to several arcminutes. This may indicate many are in a highly evolved state where the central star has faded from easy optical detection and the nebula itself is dissipating into the ambient ISM. Large numbers of candidate PN have also been found in the Galactic Bulge region, most of which have been confirmed via UKST FLAIR/6dF MOS spectroscopy (Parker et al, in preparation and these proceedings).
By version 2.0 (release in 2002) we will have doubled the number of Galactic PN accrued from all sources over the last 75 years. This new catalogue should have a profound impact on many aspects of PN research.
We report on an unprecedented source of Planetary Nebulae (PN) discovered from AAO/UKST Hα survey images of the Southern Galactic Plane. A pristine region of PN discovery space is being sampled due to the excellent depth, coverage, resolution and uniformity of the Hα survey. Large numbers of new PN are being found (~1000 so far). They are typically more evolved, obscurred and of lower surface brightness than in most other surveys. The doubling of known PN should have a significant impact on many aspects of PN research.