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Neutron star mergers are one of the candidate astrophysical site(s) of r-process. Several chemical evolution studies however pointed out that the observed abundance of r-process is difficult to reproduce by neutron star mergers. In this study, we aim to clarify the enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies. We carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct a chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf galaxies assuming that neutron star mergers are the major source of r-process elements. Our models reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] with neutron star mergers with a merger time of 100 Myr. We find that star formation efficiency and metal mixing processes during the first ≲ 300 Myr of galaxy evolution are important to reproduce the observations. This study supports that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.
This paper solves the known problem of elimination of unnecessary internal element construction as well as variable elimination in XML processing with (a subset of) XQuery without ignoring the issues of document order. The semantics of XQuery is context sensitive and requires preservation of document order. In this paper, we propose, as far as we are aware, the first XQuery fusion that can deal with both the document order and the context of XQuery expressions. More specifically, we carefully design a context representation of XQuery expressions based on the Dewey order encoding, develop a context-preserving XQuery fusion for ordered trees by static emulation of the XML store, and prove that our fusion is correct. Our XQuery fusion has been implemented, and all the examples in this paper have passed through the system.
90nm-thick PZT capacitors using Pt/thinSRO stacked electrodes showed 2V operation capability, no remanence degradation after more than 1E10 switching cycles, and low imprint. Effects of SRO(SrRuO3) electrode have been studied for high-endurance PZT capacitors. In capacitors with only top SRO electrodes, the SRO increased polarization and improved saturation property compared to Pt electrode PZTs. Fatigue and imprint degradation was caused by Pt bottom electrode interface deterioration. It is thought that the oxygen vacancies created with Pb vacancies are important respecting endurance and retention. PZT films crystallized on SRO showed smaller coercive voltage Vc (2/3 of that for PZT/Pt) with random orientation. The SRO layers block Pb diffusion and supply oxygen, thereby resulting in less oxygen vacancy accumulation at PZT interfaces. We have improved the imprint property by the reduction of thermal budget in SRO/PZT/SRO structures.
One type of interplexiform cell (IPC) in the dace retina was discriminated physiologically from other cell classes and identified morphologically with HRP staining. This type responded with slow hyperpolarizing potentials to white diffuse light, and in addition a slow hyperpolarization (after potential) was observed after the cessation of light with relatively high intensities. The latency of the ON phase of the response was always longer than that of the second-order neurons and the amacrine cells. Morphologically, this type of IPC was similar in appearance with the dopaminergic IPC. The conventional synaptic specialization between this type of IPC and horizontal cells was observed, and the IPC was presynaptic.
Neuroendocrine mechanism involved in pupal colour dimorphism in Papilio xuthus L. has been studied using ultrastructural techniques. The browning hormone in the form of neurosecretory material is secreted in the brain during the larval stage and transported to the axonal endings in the prothoracic ganglion, irrespective of the colour of the future pupa. If larvae select for pupation environmental conditions that are conducive for the formation of a brown pupa, release of the browning hormone occurs in the middle of the prepupal stage. No release occurs in larvae that have selected environmental conditions that favour the formation of green pupae. It is suggested that the brain, having integrated and interpreted the environmental conditions selected by the larva for pupation, gives the order to release the browning hormone. Such an order is conveyed via neural path from the brain to either the prothoracic ganglion, or some still unknown neurohaemal organ associated with it, from which release then takes place.
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