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The Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma campaign, launched in January 2009 in England, intends to make fundamental improvements across England in: public knowledge, attitudes and discriminatory behaviour in relation to people with mental illness. To be effective and valid the campaign must reach a wide range of diverse audiences. This study explores attitudes of people from ethnic minority communities in relation to mental health.
The study investigates:
1) General attitudes and perceptions about mental illness in ethnic minority communities
2) How we might increase awareness about mental wellbeing and decrease stigma in ethnic minority communities.
Ten focus groups with members of ethnic minority groups were conducted. Five groups consisted of service users and five were composed of non-service users. Two groups comprised participants from an Indian origin, two Somali origin, two Afro-Caribbean origin and the other groups were mixed.
We will present findings regarding the ways in which traditional perceptions of mental health and personal experiences of ethnic minority service users affect their perceptions of sources of support such as family, friends, medical staff and religion and how this feedback could inform ant-stigma interventions.
The study suggests that in order to maximise the impact of anti-stigma campaigns, attention should be given to sources of discrimination and traditional perceptions of mental illness which are emphasised by ethnic minority groups. When planning anti-stigma campaigns it is important to incorporate experiences and perceptions from a wide range of audiences.
Previous cross sectional studies have reported increased anxiety and depression in individuals with whiplash trauma. The common interpretation is that the whiplash trauma increases the risk of developing mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to test an hypothesis on the opposite direction of causality, namely that symptoms of anxiety and depression increase the risk reporting whiplash trauma in the future.
We used longitudinal data from two waves of a public health survey in Norway, conducted in 1984-86 and 1995-97, where 37 792 individuals participated in both waves (response rate at follow-up 68%). Mental health was screened for symptoms of anxiety and depression at baseline by self-report on 12 items (the Anxiety Depression Index-12). Self reported whiplash trauma was registered as a dichotomy at follow-up, and followed up with age at whiplash trauma in positive cases.
Whiplash trauma was reported by 956 individuals at follow-up, whereof 277 were reported to have occurred between baseline and follow-up. Symptoms of anxiety and depression increased the likelihood of self-report of whiplash trauma at follow-up (OR=1.24 per SD increase in mental symptom load, 95% confidence interval 1.10 – 1.40, p<.001), adjusted for age and gender. Whiplash was associated with increased disability pension award.
Our finding suggests that the increased level of psychopathology found in individuals with a history of whiplash trauma might partly be present already prior to the whiplash injury. This finding is contrary to the common conception of causality in the whiplash-mental health association.
Social contact is one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations and is supported by decades of positive evidence. Several studies specifically support social contact interventions as a way of reducing stigma against people with mental health problems. Despite the effectiveness of this approach, some social groups have few opportunities for social contact in the real world.
Using the England Time to Change anti-stigma campaign as an example, we investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering social contact interventions at the mass population level to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems.
To investigate: (i) the feasibility of scaling up social contact interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems and (ii) the effectiveness of mass population social contact interventions to: improve intended stigmatising behaviour, increase willingness to disclose mental health problems and to promote engagement in antistigma activities.
Two types of mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via self-report questionnaire. Participants at social contact events were asked about the occurrence and quality of contact, attitudes, readiness to discuss mental health, and intended behaviour towards people with mental health problems.
Findings on feasibility and effectiveness of social contact programmes will be presented.
This study suggests that social contact interventions can be used by anti-stigma campaigns to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems. Further investigation is needed regarding the maintenance of these changes
The new channels of communication as social media (e.g. Facebook and Twitter) and the social marketing campaign (i.e. campaign focused on enabling, encouraging and supporting behavioural changes among target audiences) can represent useful strategies to challenge stigma attached to mental disorders.
To evaluate the efficacy of the social marketing campaign of the time to change (SMC-TTC) anti-stigma programme on the target population in England during 2009–2014.
To assess the impact of the SMC-TTC anti-stigma programme in terms of:
– use of the social media channels;
– levels of awareness of the SMC-TTC;
– changes in knowledge, attitude, and behaviour related to mental disorders.
Participants completed the mental health knowledge schedule (MAKS), the community attitudes toward mental illness (CAMI) and the reported and intended behaviour scale (RIBS), together with an ad-hoc schedule on socio-demographic characteristics.
In total, 10526 people were interviewed, it was found a growing usage of the SMC-TTC media channels and of the level of awareness of the campaign (P < 0.001). Being aware of the SMC-TTC was found to be associated with higher score at MAKS (OR = .95, CI = .68 to 1.21; P < .001), at “tolerance and support” CAMI subscale (OR = .12, CI = .09 to .16; P < .001) and RIBS (OR = .71, CI = .51 to .92; P < .001), controlling for confounders.
In the general population, SMC-TTC has been found to be effective in improving attitudes and behaviours towards people with mental disorders.
Considering these promising results obtained in England, social media can represent the possible way forward for challenging stigma. The future on-going evaluation of the SMC-TTC may further shed light on the essential role of social media in reducing of stigma and discrimination.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In England, during 2009–2014 the ‘Time to Change’ anti-stigma programme has included a social marketing campaign (SMC) using mass media channels, social media and social contact events but the efficacy of such approach has not been evaluated yet.
The target population included people aged between mid-twenties/mid-forties, from middle-income groups. Participants were recruited through an online market research panel, before and after each burst of the campaign (with a mean number of unique participants per each burst: 956.9 ± 170.2). Participants completed an online questionnaire evaluating knowledge [Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS)]; attitudes [Community Attitudes toward Mental Illness (CAMI)]; and behaviours [Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS)]. Socio-demographic data and level of awareness of the SMC were also collected.
A total of 10,526 people were interviewed. An increasing usage of the SMC-media channels as well as of the level of awareness of SMC was found (P < 0.001). Being aware of the SMC was found to be associated with higher score at MAKS (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.68 to 1.21; P < 0.001), at ‘tolerance and support’ CAMI subscale (OR = 0.12, CI = 0.09 to 0.16; P < 0.001), and at RIBS (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51 to 0.92; P < 0.001), controlling for confounders.
The SMC represents an important way to effectively reduce stigma. Taking into account these positive findings, further population-based campaigns using social media may represent an effective strategy to challenge stigma.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
In recent years, researchers in pre-Hispanic Central America have used new approaches that greatly amplify and enhance evidence of plants and their uses. This paper presents a case study from Puerto Escondido, located in the lower Ulúa River valley of Caribbean coastal Honduras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using multiple methods in concert to interpret ethnobotanical practice in the past. By examining chipped-stone tools, ceramics, sediments from artifact contexts, and macrobotanical remains, we advance complementary inquiries. Here, we address botanical practices “in the home,” such as foodways, medicinal practices, fiber crafting, and ritual activities, and those “close to home,” such as agricultural and horticultural practices, forest management, and other engagements with local and distant ecologies. This presents an opportunity to begin to develop an understanding of ethnoecology at Puerto Escondido, here defined as the dynamic relationship between affordances provided in a botanical landscape and the impacts of human activities on that botanical landscape.
In the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center, patients colonized or infected with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are placed in contact isolation until they are deemed “decolonized,” defined as having 3 consecutive perirectal swabs negative for VRE. Some decolonized patients later develop recurrent growth of VRE from surveillance or clinical cultures (ie, “recolonized”), although that finding may represent recrudescence or new acquisition of VRE. We describe the dynamics of VRE colonization and infection and their relationship to receipt of antibiotics.
In this retrospective cohort study of patients at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, baseline characteristics were collected via chart review. Antibiotic exposure and hospital days were calculated as proportions of VRE decolonized days. Using survival analysis, we assessed the relationship between antibiotic exposure and time to VRE recolonization in a subcohort analysis of 72 decolonized patients.
In total, 350 patients were either colonized or infected with VRE. Among polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive, culture (Cx)-negative (PCR+/Cx−) patients, PCR had a 39% positive predictive value for colonization. Colonization with VRE was significantly associated with VRE infection. Among 72 patients who met decolonization criteria, 21 (29%) subsequently became recolonized. VRE recolonization was 4.3 (P = .001) and 2.0 (P = .22) times higher in patients with proportions of antibiotic days and antianaerobic antibiotic days above the median, respectively.
Colonization is associated with clinical VRE infection and increased mortality. Despite negative perirectal cultures, re-exposure to antibiotics increases the risk of VRE recolonization.
Recovery Colleges are opening internationally. The evaluation focus has been on outcomes for Recovery College students who use mental health services. However, benefits may also arise for: staff who attend or co-deliver courses; the mental health and social care service hosting the Recovery College; and wider society. A theory-based change model characterising how Recovery Colleges impact at these higher levels is needed for formal evaluation of their impact, and to inform future Recovery College development. The aim of this study was to develop a stratified theory identifying candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes (impact) for Recovery Colleges at staff, services and societal levels.
Inductive thematic analysis of 44 publications identified in a systematised review was supplemented by collaborative analysis involving a lived experience advisory panel to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. This was refined through semi-structured interviews with 33 Recovery College stakeholders (service user students, peer/non-peer trainers, managers, community partners, clinicians) in three sites in England.
Candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes were identified at staff, services and societal levels. At the staff level, experiencing new relationships may change attitudes and associated professional practice. Identified outcomes for staff included: experiencing and valuing co-production; changed perceptions of service users; and increased passion and job motivation. At the services level, Recovery Colleges often develop somewhat separately from their host system, reducing the reach of the college into the host organisation but allowing development of an alternative culture giving experiential learning opportunities to staff around co-production and the role of a peer workforce. At the societal level, partnering with community-based agencies gave other members of the public opportunities for learning alongside people with mental health problems and enabled community agencies to work with people they might not have otherwise. Recovery Colleges also gave opportunities to beneficially impact on community attitudes.
This study is the first to characterise the mechanisms of action and impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, mental health and social care services, and wider society. The findings suggest that a certain distance is needed in the relationship between the Recovery College and its host organisation if a genuine cultural alternative is to be created. Different strategies are needed depending on what level of impact is intended, and this study can inform decision-making about mechanisms to prioritise. Future research into Recovery Colleges should include contextual evaluation of these higher level impacts, and investigate effectiveness and harms.
To characterize trends in outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in the United States
Retrospective ecological and temporal trend study evaluating outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 2013 to 2015
National administrative claims data from a pharmacy benefits manager PARTICIPANTS. Prescription pharmacy beneficiaries from Express Scripts Holding Company
Annual and seasonal percent change in antibiotic prescriptions
Approximately 98 million outpatient antibiotic prescriptions were filled by 39 million insurance beneficiaries during the 3-year study period. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were azithromycin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and cephalexin. No significant changes in individual or overall annual antibiotic prescribing rates were found during the study period. Significant seasonal variation was observed, with antibiotics being 42% more likely to be prescribed during February than September (peak-to-trough ratio [PTTR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.61). Similar seasonal trends were found for azithromycin (PTTR, 2.46; 95% CI, 2.44–3.47), amoxicillin (PTTR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.42–1.89), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (PTTR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.68–2.29).
This study demonstrates that annual national outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices remained unchanged during our study period. Furthermore, seasonal peaks in antibiotics generally used to treat viral upper respiratory tract infections remained unchanged during cold and influenza season. These results suggest that inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics remains widespread, despite the concurrent release of several guideline-based best practices intended to reduce inappropriate antibiotic consumption; however, further research linking national outpatient antibiotic prescriptions to associated medical conditions is needed to confirm these findings.
Background: Increased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)>70 mmHg has been associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since this reported association, significant changes in ventilation strategies and fluid management have been accepted as routine critical care. Recently, individualized perfusion targets using autoregulation monitoring suggest CPP titration>70 mmHg. Given these clinical advances, the association between ARDS and increased CPP requires further delineation. Objective: To determine the association between ARDS and increased CPP after TBI. Methods: We conducted a single-center historical cohort study investigating the association of increased CPP and ARDS after TBI. We collected demographic data and physiologic data for CPP, intracranial pressure, mechanical ventilation, cumulative fluid balance and delta/driving pressure (ΔP). We collected outcomes measures pertaining to duration of ventilation, intensive care unit admission length, hospitalization length and 6-month neurological outcome. Results: In total, 113 patients with severe TBI and multimodal neuromonitoring were included. In total, 16 patients (14%) developed ARDS according to the Berlin definition. There was no difference in the mean CPP during the first 7 days of admission between patients who developed ARDS (74 mmHg SD 18 vs. 73 mmHg SD 18, p=0.86) versus those who did not. Patients who developed ARDS had a higher ΔP (15 mmHg  vs. 12 mmHg , p=0.016) and lower lung compliance (35 ml/cmH2O  vs. 49 ml/cmH2O , p=0.024) versus those who did not. Conclusion: We did not observe an association between increased CPP and ARDS. Patients with ARDS had higher ΔP and lower lung compliance.
Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.
The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.
Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner education, and female offspring gender, distinguished the emergent trajectory from the chronic trajectory. Younger maternal age distinguished the improving group from the resilient group. Exposure to medical, interpersonal, financial, and housing adversity predicted membership in the chronic, emergent, and improving trajectories compared with the resilient trajectory. Finally, exposure to medical, interpersonal, and financial adversity was associated with the chronic v. improving group, and inversely related to the emergent class relative to the improving group.
There are distinct temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, after childbirth, and beyond. Most women show stable low levels of depressive symptoms, while emergent and chronic depression patterns are separable with distinct correlates, most notably maternal age, education levels, adversity exposure, and child gender.
Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users.
Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users’ experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations.
The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma.
Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.
Object-based, experiential learning/evidence-based inquiry engages young minds and models how research is conducted. It is clear that this kind of authentic experience stays with students long afterward. Our research investigated 74 fifth-grade public school students’ conceptions of evidence, of the provisional nature of archaeological and historical interpretations, and of the purposes for using archaeology to study the past. Three and four years later, we conducted follow-up interviews with 29 of the students to investigate what they remembered about their archaeological experience, including classroom instruction, excavation/labwork, and concepts related to archaeological processes and historical information. Our study shows that in-depth archaeological study has considerable sticking power. It also provides important insights into how students think about archaeology, history, and the past, and how they relate “things” to the past and to past cultures. In particular, it shows that the materiality of archaeology offers students opportunities to create multiple, evidence-based interpretations when they are taught to understand culture in material ways. Our study also offers concrete suggestions for anyone considering using objects to teach about the past: use an inquiry-based approach, take students’ prior knowledge into account, use metaphors carefully with younger children, and make the human-object connection explicit for all.
This study was conducted to examine the incidence trend of campylobacteriosis in Michigan over a 10-year period and to investigate risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with infection. Campylobacter case data from 2004 to 2013 was obtained from the Michigan Disease Surveillance System. We conducted statistical and spatial analyses to examine trends and identify factors linked to campylobacteriosis as well as ecological associations using animal density data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service. An increasing trend of Campylobacter incidence and hospitalization was observed, which was linked to specific age groups and rural residence. Cases reporting ruminant contact and well water as the primary drinking source had a higher risk of campylobacteriosis, while higher cattle density was associated with an increased risk at the county level. Additional studies are needed to identify age-specific risk factors and examine prevalence and transmission dynamics in ruminants and the environment to aid in the development of more effective preventive strategies.
A new protocol for the quantitative determination of zeolite-group mineral compositions by electron probe microanalysis (wavelength-dispersive spectrometry) under ambient conditions, is presented. The method overcomes the most serious challenges for this mineral group, including new confidence in the fundamentally important Si-Al ratio. Development tests were undertaken on a set of natural zeolite candidate reference samples, representing the compositional extremes of Na, K, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba zeolites, to demonstrate and assess the extent of beam interaction effects on each oxide component for each mineral. These tests highlight the variability and impact of component mobility due to beam interaction, and show that it can be minimized with recommended operating conditions of 15 kV, 2 nA, a defocused, 20 μm spot size, and element prioritizing with the spectrometer configuration. The protocol represents a pragmatic solution that works, but provides scope for additional optimization where required. Vital to the determination of high-quality results is the attention to careful preparations and the employment of strict criteria for data reduction and quality control, including the monitoring and removal of non-zeolitic contaminants from the data (mainly Fe and clay phases). Essential quality criteria include the zeolite-specific parameters of R value (Si/(Si + Al + Fe3+), the 'E%' charge-balance calculation, and the weight percent of non-hydrous total oxides. When these criteria are applied in conjunction with the recommended analytical operating conditions, excellent inter-batch reproducibility is demonstrated. Application of the method to zeolites with complex solid-solution compositions is effective, enabling more precise geochemical discrimination for occurrence-composition studies. Phase validation for the reference set was conducted satisfactorily with the use of X-ray diffraction and laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy.
Legislative redistricting alters the political and electoral context for some voters but not others, thus offering a potentially promising research design to study many questions of interest in political science. We apply this design to study the effect that descriptive representation has on co-ethnic political engagement, focusing on Hispanic participation following California's 2000 redistricting cycle. We show that when redistrictors draw legislative boundaries in California's 1990, 2000, and 2010 apportionment cycles, they systematically sort higher-participating Hispanic voters into majority-Hispanic (MH) jurisdictions represented by co-ethnic candidates, biasing subsequent comparisons of Hispanic participation across districts. Similar sorting occurs during redistricting in Florida and Texas, though here the pattern is reversed, with less-participating Hispanic voters redistricted to MH districts. Our study highlights important heterogeneity in redistricting largely unknown or underappreciated in previous research. Ignoring this selection problem could significantly bias estimates of the effect of Hispanic representation, either positively or negatively. After we correct for these biases using a hierarchical genetic matching algorithm, we find that, in California, being moved to a district with an Hispanic incumbent has little impact on Hispanic participation in our data.
Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones, which were traditionally seen in the community setting (USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10), are often identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections using Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance definitions. This study examined the demographics and healthcare risk factors of patients with HA-MRSA to help understand if community MRSA clones are from a source internal or external to the hospital setting. Despite USA300/CMRSA10 being the predominant clone in Alberta, hospital clones (USA100/CMRSA2) still dominated in the acute care setting. In the Alberta hospitalized population, patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, and a greater proportion had none or ambulatory care-only healthcare exposure. These findings suggest that there are two distinct populations of HA-MRSA patients, and the patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones identified in hospital more greatly resemble patients affected by those clones in the community. It is possible that epidemiological assessment overidentifies HA acquisition of MRSA in patients unscreened for MRSA on admission to acute care.