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This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of flint maize processing methods on the estimation of the readily soluble fraction (a), the potentially degradable fraction (b) and the rate of degradation of b (c) for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and starch in the rumen; and (2) verify whether two different applications of in situ technique can be used to estimate in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. Five ruminally cannulated Nellore bulls (265 ± 18.2 kg; 8 ± 1.0 mo) were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Three experimental diets were composed of 0.30 whole-plant maize silage, 0.10 supplement and 0.60 of one of the following processing methods: dry ground maize grain (DMG); high-moisture maize (HMM); reconstituted maize grain silage (RMG). Two additional diets were composed of 0.10 supplement, 0.80 snaplage and 0.10 stalklage (SNAP-80); or 0.10 supplement and 0.90 snaplage (SNAP-90). Digestibilities were estimated using in vivo procedure or predicted from in situ technique using a single 24 h incubation point or an equation proposed in previous literature. Diets based on ensiled grains presented greater (P < 0.05) fraction a and c and lower (P < 0.05) fraction b of DM, OM and starch compared to DMG. Both alternative use of in situ technique accurately estimated (P > 0.05) in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. The results suggest that ensilage process may increase the availability of nutrients. The two different applications of in situ technique showed precision and accuracy to estimate in vivo digestibility.
Nebovirus is a new genus of viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family recently characterized in cattle, and is associated with gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea, anorexia and intestinal lesions particularly in calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of neboviruses in Brazilian cattle and analyse phylogenetically the virus strains detected. A prevalence of 4·8% of neboviruses in faecal samples from 62 head of cattle from different Brazilian states was detected. All positive animals were aged <20 days and had diarrhoea. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the virus sequences into the Newbury1 clade. There was >96·0% nt (100% aa) sequence identity between the virus sequences in this study and >88·8% nt (>94·4% aa) identity with Newbury1/UK. Our results indicate, for the first time, the occurrence of neboviruses in Brazil as well as in South America, and the first Newbury1-like nebovirus found outside the UK.
Researches worldwide have been studying ruminal methane production in vitro and the in vitro gas production technique has demonstrated an ability to predict the in vivo enteric methane production from ruminants (Getachew et al., 2005; Tavendale et al., 2005). Studies of rumen microbial ecology in animals fed with tannin rich plants have demonstrated that tannins can affect rumen ecology. The objective of this study was to measure methane (CH4) production of Brazilian tannin rich plants incubated in vitro.
Brazil has arid regions where livestock production is limited by forage source. However, some native herbaceous browses have a dry tolerance and have been used as animal feeds. Some of those plants have anti nutritional compounds such as tannins that can interfere on intake and digestibility. Tannins have a high affinity to proteins and could make these molecules unavailable for animal. Compounds as polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used on tannin studies, because it has more affinity with tannins than proteins. Based on that, it is possible to evaluate the nutritive potential of tanniniferous plants, using PEG in gas based techniques for assessing anti nutritional factors in tanniniferous plants for ruminants. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological activity of tannins using the in vitro gas method with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG).
Various properties of particles can be altered by coating them with a layer of different chemical composition. Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) particles has been coated with silica for control of their sintering, corrosion resistance, and stabilization of magnetic properties. This silica cover was obtained by hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in 2-propanol. This material was characterized by transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, (XEDS) X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry, (XPS) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and (VSM) vibrating sample magnetometry. YIG was heterocoagulated by silica as indicated by TEM micrographies. XPS measurements indicated that only binding energy for silicon and oxygen was found on the silica shell, which confirms that the YIG was covered. The values of the saturation magnetization differ from the heterocoagulated system to well-crystallized YIG.
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