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In 1978, Bracewell suggested the technique of nulling interferometry to directly image exoplanets which would enable characterisation of their surfaces, atmospheres, weather, and possibly determine their capacity to host life. The contrast needed to discriminate starlight reflected by a terrestrial-type planet from the glare of its host star lies at or beyond a forbidding
for an exo-Earth in the habitable zone around a Sun-like star at near-infrared wavelengths, necessitating instrumentation with extremely precise control of the light. Guided Light Interferometric Nulling Technology (GLINT) is a testbed for new photonic devices conceived to overcome the challenges posed by nulling interferometry. At its heart, GLINT employs a single-mode nulling photonic chip fabricated by direct-write technology to coherently combine starlight from an arbitrarily large telescope at 1 550 nm. It operates in combination with an actuated segmented mirror in a closed-loop control system, to produce and sustain a deep null throughout observations. The GLINT South prototype interfaces the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope and was tested on a sample of bright Mira variable stars. Successful and continuous starlight injection into the photonic chip was achieved. A statistical model of the data was constructed, enabling a data reduction algorithm to retrieve contrast ratios of about
. As a byproduct of this analysis, stellar angular diameters that were below the telescope diffraction limit (
100 mas) were recovered with 1
accuracy and shown to be in agreement with literature values despite working in the seeing-limited regime. GLINT South serves as a demonstration of the capability of direct-write photonic technology for achieving coherent, stable nulling of starlight, which will encourage further technological developments towards the goal of directly imaging exoplanets with future large ground based and space telescopes.
Annual grass weeds reduce profits of wheat farmers in the Pacific Northwest. The very-long-chain fatty acid elongase (VLCFA)-inhibiting herbicides S-metolachlor and dimethenamid-P could expand options for control of annual grasses but are not registered in wheat, because of crop injury. We evaluated a safener, fluxofenim, applied to wheat seed for protection of 19 soft white winter wheat varieties from S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone herbicides; investigated the response of six varieties (UI Sparrow, LWW 15-72223, UI Magic CL+, Brundage 96, UI Castle CL+, and UI Palouse CL+) to incremental doses of fluxofenim; established the fluxofenim dose required to optimally protect the varieties from VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides; and assessed the impact of fluxofenim dose on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in three wheat varieties (UI Sparrow, Brundage 96, and UI Castle CL+). Fluxofenim increased the biomass of four varieties treated with S-metolachlor or dimethenamid-P herbicides and one variety treated with pyroxasulfone. Three varieties showed tolerance to the herbicides regardless of the fluxofenim treatment. Estimated fluxofenim doses resulting in 10% biomass reduction of wheat ranged from 0.55 to 1.23 g ai kg−1 seed. Fluxofenim doses resulting in 90% increased biomass after treatment with S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone ranged from 0.07 to 0.55, 0.09 to 0.73, and 0.30 to 1.03 g ai kg−1 seed, respectively. Fluxofenim at 0.36 g ai kg−1 seed increased GST activity in UI Castle CL+, UI Sparrow, and Brundage 96 by 58%, 30%, and 38%, respectively. These results suggest fluxofenim would not damage wheat seedlings up to three times the rate labeled for sorghum, and fluxofenim protects soft white winter wheat varieties from S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, or pyroxasulfone injury at the herbicide rates evaluated.
In the 1950s, outdoor retailer Eddie Bauer donated down jackets to American mountaineers embarking on climbing expeditions in the Himalayas. In the 1990s, chemical manufacturer W. L. Gore & Associates donated both goods and $2 million to an expedition in Antarctica. The funds dedicated to sponsorship by the end of the twentieth century reflect a shift in how companies saw expeditions as useful to their marketing goals. This article uses two archives previously unexplored by historians that offer an unprecedented chance to compare sponsorship relationships in a single industry across decades. Commercial sponsorship of American expeditions and athletes has undergone three dramatic changes since 1950, and these shifts help explain how sponsorship as a form of marketing became so popular. Sponsorship contracts shifted from vague to specific as a result of decades of unsatisfying results for corporate sponsors. Sponsored athletes became business partners and began taking an active role in promoting the companies that provided them cash or donations in-kind. Finally, companies developed strategies for leveraging their sponsorship deals. The changing landscape of the business of expeditions ultimately reveals how the most long-lasting legacies of these extreme adventures happened far from the trail and much closer to company boardrooms, sponsorship managers’ offices and retail stores where consumers learned to engage with the narratives companies and athletes had crafted together.
Pairwise comparison is basically used to prioritize alternatives and select a solution in product development. Decision errors can happen when the amount of processing information increases. This research proposes an assisted decision tool to prioritize alternatives by using the pairwise comparison technique and a Quicksort algorithm. This software was evaluated in the product development workshop that aims to select the component to further develop in the new product generation. This tool provides high-reliability results, reduces procedure time and is a user-friendly interactive interface.
The aging of any biological system results in quantifiable change which may affect the output of the system in subtle or substantial ways. Human cognitive aging is no exception and the manner in which the system, in this case the brain, is able to withstand and/or adapt to the effects of age-related physiological change will determine the individual cognitive trajectory. In this chapter, we review the emerging field of blood biomarkers of cognitive aging with a focus on specific metabolic pathways implicated in cognitive health including cellular energetics, lipid metabolism, the maintenance of redox state, and inflammation. Challenges to blood biomarker development, including methodological and inferential limitations, are also reviewed. Ultimately, blood biomarkers of age-related neurodegenerative disease and cognitive success will provide clues for how we might all age successfully, reducing health care burden on societies and improving quality of life for individuals.
This study aimed to examine the association between the availability of firearms at home, and the proportion of firearm suicides in Switzerland in an ecological analysis. The data series were analysed by canton and yielded a fairly high correlation (Spearman's rho = 0.60). Thus, the association holds also at a sub-national level.
The human endocannabinoid system interacts with various neurotransmitter systems and the endocannabinoid anandamide was found significantly elevated in CSF and inversely correlated to psychopathology (Giuffrida et al. 2004) providing a link to the neurobiology of schizophrenia. While delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, shows psychedelic properties, the major herbal cannabinoid compound cannabidiol was suggested recently a re-uptake inhibitor of anandamide. In addition potential antipsychotic properties have been hypothezised.
We performed an explorative, 4-week, double-blind, controlled clinical trial on the effects of purified cannabidiol in acute schizophrenia compared to the antipsychotic amisulpride. The antipsychotic properties of both drugs were the primary target of the study. Furthermore, side-effects and anxiolytic capabilities of both treatments were investigated.
42 patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria of acute paranoid schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis participated in the study. Both treatments were associated with a significant decrease of psychotic symptoms after 2 and 4 weeks as assessed by BPRS and PANSS. However, there was no statistical difference between both treatment groups. In contrast, cannabidiol induced significantly less side effects (EPS, increase in prolactin, weight gain) when compared to amisulpride.
Cannabidiol proved substantial antipsychotic properties in acute schizophrenia. This is in line with our suggestion of an adaptive role of the endocannabinoid system in paranoid schizophrenia, and raises further evidence that this adaptive mechanism may represent a valuable target for antipsychotic treatment strategies.
The Stanley Medical Research Institute (00-093 to FML) and the Koeln Fortune Program (107/2000 + 101/2001 to FML) funded this study.
Various studies have reported a positive relationship between child maltreatment and personality disorders (PDs). However, few studies included all DSM-IV PDs and even fewer adjusted for other forms of childhood adversity, e.g. bullying or family problems.
We analyzed questionnaires completed by 512 participants of the ZInEP epidemiology survey, a comprehensive psychiatric survey of the general population in Zurich, Switzerland. Associations between childhood adversity and PDs were analyzed bivariately via simple regression analyses and multivariately via multiple path analysis.
The bivariate analyses revealed that all PD dimensions were significantly related to various forms of family and school problems as well as child abuse. In contrast, according to the multivariate analysis only school problems and emotional abuse were associated with various PDs. Poverty was uniquely associated with schizotypal PD, conflicts with parents with obsessive-compulsive PD, physical abuse with antisocial PD, and physical neglect with narcissistic PD. Sexual abuse was statistically significantly associated with schizotypal and borderline PD, but corresponding effect sizes were small.
Childhood adversity has a serious impact on PDs. Bullying and violence in schools and emotional abuse appear to be more salient markers of general personality pathology than other forms of childhood adversity. Associations with sexual abuse were negligible when adjusted for other forms of adversity.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
To help eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends against breastfeeding for women living with HIV, regardless of viral load or combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) status. However, cART radically improves HIV prognosis and virtually eliminates perinatal transmission, and breastfeeding's health benefits are well-established. In this setting, pregnancy is increasing among American women with HIV, and a harm reduction approach to those who breastfeed despite extensive counseling is suggested. We assess the evidence and ethical justification for current policy, with attention to pertinent racial and health disparities. We first review perinatal transmission and breastfeeding data relevant to US infants. We compare hypothetical risk of HIV transmission from breastmilk to increased mortality from sudden infant death syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis from avoiding breastfeeding, finding that benefits may outweigh risks if mothers maintain undetectable viral load on cART. We then review maternal health considerations. We conclude that avoidance of breastfeeding by women living with HIV may not maximize health outcomes and discuss our recommendation for revising national guidelines in light of autonomy, harm reduction and health inequities.
Antimicrobial use in pig farming is influenced by a range of risk factors, including herd characteristics, biosecurity level, farm performance, occurrence of clinical signs and vaccination scheme, as well as farmers’ attitudes and habits towards antimicrobial use. So far, the effect of these risk factors has been explored separately. Using an innovative method called multiblock partial least-squares regression, this study aimed to investigate, in a sample of 207 farrow-to-finish farms from Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, the relative importance of the six above mentioned categories or ‘blocks’ of risk factors for antimicrobial use in pig production. Four country separate models were developed; they showed that all six blocks provided useful contribution to explaining antimicrobial use in at least one country. The occurrence of clinical signs, especially of respiratory and nervous diseases in fatteners, was one of the largest contributing blocks in all four countries, whereas the effect of the other blocks differed between countries. In terms of risk management, it suggests that a holistic and country-specific mitigation strategy is likely to be more effective. However, further research is needed to validate our findings in larger and more representative samples, as well as in other countries.
Item response theory has its origins in educational measurement and is now commonly applied in health-related measurement of latent traits, such as function and symptoms. This application is due, in large part, to gains in the precision of measurement attributable to item response theory and corresponding decreases in response burden, study costs, and study duration. The purpose of this paper is twofold: introduce basic concepts of item response theory and demonstrate this analytic approach in a worked example, a Rasch model (1PL) analysis of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), a commonly used measure for oropharyngeal dysphagia. The results of the analysis were largely concordant with previous studies of the EAT-10 and illustrate for brain impairment clinicians and researchers how IRT analysis can yield greater precision of measurement.
During Charles Francis Hall's second Arctic expedition (1864–1869) to find survivors and/or documents of Sir John Franklin's 1845 Northwest Passage expedition, two separate Inuit testimonies were recorded of a potential burial vault of a high-ranking officer. The first testimony was provided by a Boothia Inuk named Su-pung-er. The second testimony was documented by Captain Peter Bayne who, at the time, was employed by Hall. To date the vault has not been found. Recently, both the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror have been located. The discovery of these vessels was made possible, in part, by Inuit testimony of encounters with and observations of the Franklin expedition. The findings of the Erebus and Terror have significantly bolstered the view that the Inuit accurately reported their observations and interactions with the Franklin crew. The purpose of this paper is to publish in their entirety Hall's notes from conversations with Su-pung-er focused on the vaults and to compare these observations to those reported in the Bayne testimony. It is our hope that in so doing the final major archaeological site of the Franklin expedition may be located.
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of COS-P sets the stage for further exploration of “what works for whom” in attachment intervention.
A full-pattern fitting procedure based on the Rietveld method was applied to electron diffraction ring patterns of a two-phase system, exhibiting the co-presence of zinc sulfide (sphalerite) and zinc oxide (Wurtzite). Bright and dark field (DF) images reveal the presence of micrometric aggregates, composed of quasi-spherical nanosized crystallites. These conventional transmission electron microscopy imaging methods provide a general morphological characterization of the specimens although, in the present case, they are not suitable for a detailed characterization of the microstructural features of the analyzed samples. Owing to the overlap and broadening of the diffraction rings of the two phases, DF images cannot provide a satisfactory picture of the individual crystallites of each single phase. To overcome this limit, the mentioned Rietveld approach was applied to model the electron diffraction data. The crystalline domain size and relevant shapes for both phases were successfully evaluated using the proposed methodological approach. The excellent results obtained in the microstructural characterization of the nanostructured multiphase samples demonstrate the capability of this technique, that may represents a fully quantitative method for the routine characterization of crystalline nanomaterials.
In this case study, we evaluated a point-mapping method for simultaneously collecting data while controlling three invasive woody plant species: black locust, Chinese privet, and hardy orange. The study in Arkansas Post National Memorial included seven project areas ranging in size from 2.7 to 27.3 ha and spanned six field seasons (2010 to 2015). The control techniques varied depending on plant size and always included the application of herbicide, which also varied over the course of the study to include glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr. Each person responsible for controlling plants simultaneously collected global positioning system point data to estimate the foliar cover of the plants treated. The resulting data demonstrated evidence of decreases in all three plant species in most project areas during the 6-yr period. Initial increases in area treated for some species–area combinations reflected differences in the preliminary efforts required to control invasive plants in entire project areas, but by 2012 six of seven project areas were treated in their entirety. Despite a high level of reduction, in some cases, the plants persisted at low levels even during the sixth year of the project. Our findings support the ability of this method to granularly detect changes in plant abundance while simultaneously controlling invasive plants. With several acknowledged limitations, this streamlined project-based monitoring approach provides data that allow managers to assess the effectiveness of weed control treatments.