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The inhabitants of seventh-century Arabia mobilized for warfare in a manner new to that region of the Near East: the effort fell, albeit gradually, under central authority.1 Arabia had long been a highly variegated cultural zone, encompassing the Syrian Desert, southern Mesopotamia, and the Arabian Peninsula. Acting in tandem, largely nomadic tribal forces accepted the leadership of sedentary townsmen, the great number of whom belonged to the Quraysh, an influential tribe of two towns of the Hejaz region, Mecca and Medina. If Yemen and south Arabia had long known the rule of kings, and, hence, more formal military organization, only now did the central and northern stretches of the Peninsula and southern Syria experience what can thereby be considered as early state formation. The effort was driven by an equally untested set of ethical and spiritual teachings. A charismatic figure, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh (570–632), preached a strict monotheism; these teachings served as the seedbed of what would soon be known as Islam.
This consolidated case out of New York considered two independent appeals, both of which concerned testamentary trusts that awarded scholarships exclusively to male students. The first, Matter of Wilson, involved a 1969 testamentary trust (the “Wilson Trust”), which directed that trust income be applied to “[defray] the education and other expenses of the first year at college of five (5) young men who shall have graduated from the Canastota High School … as may be certified by the Superintendent of Schools.
How would judicial opinions change if the judges were to use feminist methods and perspectives when deciding cases? That is the question that various groups of scholars, working around the globe and mostly independently of each other, have taken up in a series of books of “shadow opinions” – literally, rewritten judicial decisions – using precedents, authorities, theories, and approaches that were in existence at the time of the original decision to reach radically different outcomes and often using saliently different reasoning. This global sociolegal movement toward critical opinion writing originated when a group of lawyers and law professors who called themselves the Women’s Court of Canada published a series of six rewritten decisions in 2008 in the Canadian Journal of Women and the Law. Inspired by that project, scholars have produced similar projects in the United Kingdom, Australia, the United States, Ireland, and New Zealand/Aotearoa. There is an international law feminist judgments project and a Scottish project. Other feminist judgments projects are underway in India, Africa, and Mexico.
For women and other marginalized groups, the reality is that the laws regulating estates and trusts may not be treating them fairly. By using popular feminist legal theories as well as their own definitions of feminism, the authors of this volume present rewritten opinions from well-known estates and trust cases. Covering eleven important cases, this collection reflects the diversity in society and explores the need for greater diversity in the law. By re-examining these cases, the contributors are able to demonstrate how women's property rights, as well as the rights of other marginalized groups, have been limited by the law.
Wild sheep and many primitive domesticated breeds have two coats: coarse hairs covering shorter, finer fibres. Both are shed annually. Exploitation of wool for apparel in the Bronze Age encouraged breeding for denser fleeces and continuously growing white fibres. The Merino is regarded as the culmination of this process. Archaeological discoveries, ancient images and parchment records portray this as an evolutionary progression, spanning millennia. However, examination of the fleeces from feral, two-coated and woolled sheep has revealed a ready facility of the follicle population to change from shedding to continuous growth and to revert from domesticated to primitive states. Modifications to coat structure, colour and composition have occurred in timeframes and to sheep population sizes that exclude the likelihood of variations arising from mutations and natural selection. The features are characteristic of the domestication phenotype: an assemblage of developmental, physiological, skeletal and hormonal modifications common to a wide variety of species under human control. The phenotypic similarities appeared to result from an accumulation of cryptic genetic changes early during vertebrate evolution. Because they did not affect fitness in the wild, the mutations were protected from adverse selection, becoming apparent only after exposure to a domestic environment. The neural crest, a transient embryonic cell population unique to vertebrates, has been implicated in the manifestations of the domesticated phenotype. This hypothesis is discussed with reference to the development of the wool follicle population and the particular roles of Notch pathway genes, culminating in the specific cell interactions that typify follicle initiation.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended in treatment guidelines as an efficacious therapy for treatment-resistant depression. However, it has been associated with loss of autobiographical memory and short-term reduction in new learning.
To provide clinically useful guidelines to aid clinicians in informing patients regarding the cognitive side-effects of ECT and in monitoring these during a course of ECT, using complex data.
A Committee of clinical and academic experts from Australia and New Zealand met to the discuss the key issues pertaining to ECT and cognitive side-effects. Evidence regarding cognitive side-effects was reviewed, as was the limited evidence regarding how to monitor them. Both issues were supplemented by the clinical experience of the authors.
Meta-analyses suggest that new learning is impaired immediately following ECT but that group mean scores return at least to baseline by 14 days after ECT. Other cognitive functions are generally unaffected. However, the finding of a mean score that is not reduced from baseline cannot be taken to indicate that impairment, particularly of new learning, cannot occur in individuals, particularly those who are at greater risk. Therefore, monitoring is still important. Evidence suggests that ECT does cause deficits in autobiographical memory. The evidence for schedules of testing to monitor cognitive side-effects is currently limited. We therefore make practical recommendations based on clinical experience.
Despite modern ECT techniques, cognitive side-effects remain an important issue, although their nature and degree remains to be clarified fully. In these circumstances it is useful for clinicians to have guidance regarding what to tell patients and how to monitor these side-effects clinically.
In the social context individuals and society are in a complex combination for they can not exist apart one-another. The way these paralellic identities combine in a time and space with brand new dimensions is the core question held in this paper. Surely individuals gains from society space and time and gives space and time to it, as well. At the point these interchanges occur, there is the combination of the identity states staded.
Even though in such a complexity, the tendency to distinguish clearly the psycholocial from philosofical and social dimension is on the first core aims of the paper.
As the core of the paper are psychological deviances, this will be the central question with branches of Heideggerian dasein identity, the social level according to Durkheim with an analitical viewpoint of Other(s) as to Decombes.
The aim of this paper is to bring a psychological, social and philosophical viewpoint of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder model based on what Albanian Society has been through in the past and present contextes. The social interaction stands on these behavioral malfunction identities.
The selected topic is based on analitical viewpoint of Traumatic Form through related models of existece.
Theoretical conclusions given in this paper are closely related to our society in its present existent form, and previous existences.
Phobic Postural Vertigo (PPV) is the 3rd most common cause for vertigo, characterized by the combination of a dizziness and subjective disturbance of balance in the absence of objective findings during routine Neurological evaluation. In most cases the clinical presentation is indistinguishable from agoraphobia. Despite this, most clinical data does not support direct correlation between anxiety disorder and PPV.
In this case series 10 patients who suffer from PPV went through psychiatry interview after a neurologist check up has been made to confirm the diagnosis of PPV. ACQ, BCQ and HDRS were filled for all patients.
According to this preliminary case series evidence for anxiety/somatization disorder were evident in 50% (5/10) before the development of PPV while in 30% (3/10) anxiety symptoms appeared in parallel or sequential to the development of PPV. In 20% (2/10), no signs for anxiety symptoms detected during evaluation.
The results of this case series suggest that PPV is a heterogeneous diagnosis that in part includes patient with previous anxiety/somatization disorder and patient in which vertigo is the presenting sign of anxiety disorder.
Farther research is needed in order to farther characterize PPV patients and promote suitable interventions.