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Reducing multifactorial stunting is a priority for the 2025 WHO Global Nutrition Target. In the plant-based complementary diets of low-income countries, deficits in several growth-limiting micronutrients may contribute to stunting. Hence the intercorrelation between multiple micronutrients in terms of their intake and impact is important. Therefore, our aim was to develop a nutrient quality score using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of Indonesian infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age and to evaluate the association of the scores with linear growth and stunting. At 6 months, 217 infants were recruited from Sumedang District, West Java, with 195 and 189 followed at 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. Complementary food intakes were assessed using 2-d weighed food records. Eight correlated nutrients (vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, Ca, Fe and Zn) were summarised using PCA into a single nutrient pattern that explained 56–65 % of the total variability. Nutrient quality scores were related to demographic, inflammation and complementary food indicator variables in hypothesised directions. While no significant relationships were apparent with linear growth, the odds of being stunted at ages 9 and 12 months was lower for infants with a higher nutrient quality score at 9 months (OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·59, 0·95 and OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·88), respectively, for the fully adjusted models. A data-driven nutrient quality score is a valid tool to assess the influence of nutrient quality on stunting in at-risk infants.
Spectroscopic data from a var iety of analyt ical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) can be obtained from small areas of samples (< 1 mm2) through the use of microscope sampling accessories. If provisions are made to scan or translate the sample, then a spectrum that is characteristic of each region of interest can be obtained. Alternatively, selective area detectors eliminate the requirement for scanning the sample. Extract ion of information about a specific energy band from each spectrum allows elucidat ion of the spatial distribution of the feature giving rise to that band. For example, the distribution of a compound could be imaged by extracting the intensity of an IR band or XRD peak due to that compound. Peak posit ion and peak width are other parameters that can be extracted as a function of posit ion. Similarly, elemental distributions could be obtained using SIMS and EDX.
The theme of the Haywain, Hieronymus Bosch's great allegory of avarice (Fig. I), seems to have enjoyed a certain vogue in Brabant during the third quarter of the sixteenth century. Two manifestations of its influence were published and extensively analyzed some years ago by Lebeer, Grauls and Keyser. One of these is an etching by Frans Hogenberg, issued in 1559 by the Antwerp print publisher Bartholomeus de Mompere (Fig. 2). It depicts a broad plain crowded with figures whose acts of folly are epitomized by the large hay cart dominating the middle distance. The cart unmistakably shows Hogenberg's debt to Bosch, although he replaced the music-making lovers seated on Bosch's wagon with a devil triumphantly displaying two tufts of hay.
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al–Cu–Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. A sixth IM type was found to be rich in Ti and B (suggesting TiB2), and a seventh IM type contained Si. EBSD patterns for the five constituent IM particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn indicated that they were isomorphous with four phases in the 2xxx series aluminium alloys including Al6(Fe, Mn), Al13(Fe, Mn)4 (two slightly different compositions), Al37Cu2Fe12 and Al7Cu2Fe. SXES revealed that Li was present in some constituent IM particles. Al SXES mapping revealed an Al-enriched (i.e., Cu, Li-depleted) zone in the grain boundary network. From the EBSD analysis, the kernel average misorientation map showed higher levels of localized misorientation in this region, suggesting greater deformation or stored energy. Proton-induced X-ray emission revealed banding of the TiB2 IM particles and Cu inter-band enrichment.
Glioblastoma is inherently resistant to radiation and drug treatments. This is mediated by the most common forms of cell death are often actively inhibited. Identifying and exploiting alternative cell death pathways are essential to overcoming or bypassing drug resistance. Ferroptosis, a newly described, morphologically and biochemically distinct, cell death mechanism is characterized by iron-dependent cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The combination of siramesine, a lysosome disruptor, and lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), synergistically induced death in glioma cancer cells. This cell death had characteristics of ferroptosis: it was blocked by the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 and the iron chelator deferoxamine. In addition, the amount of ROS and lipid peroxidation were increased in glioma cells. Iron transport protein remained unchanged but reactive iron levels increased. One target for kinase inhibitors is protein bisulfate isomerase (PDI). Knockdown of PDI in combination with siramesine increased cell death that was blocked by ferrostatin-1. Taken together, drug combinations that alter reactive iron and ROS levels might induce ferroptosis and overcome drug resistance in glioma cells.
Inflammation confounds the interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers resulting in estimates that may not reflect the true burden of deficiency. We aimed to assess and compare the micronutrient status of a cohort of Indonesian infants (n 230) at aged 6, 9 and 12 months by ignoring inflammation (unadjusted) and adjusting four micronutrient biomarkers for inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) using the following methods: (1) arithmetic correction factors with the use of a four-stage inflammation model; and (2) regression modelling. Prevalence of infants with any inflammation (CRP>5 mg/l and/or AGP>1 g/l) was about 25% at each age. Compared with unadjusted values, regression adjustment at 6, 9 and 12 months generated the lowest (P<0·001) geometric mean (GM) for serum ferritin (26·5, 14·7, 10·8 μg/l) and the highest GM for serum retinol-binding protein (0·95, 1·00, 1·01 μmol/l) and Zn (11·8, 11·0, 11·5 μmol/l). As a consequence, at 6, 9 and 12 months regression adjustment yielded the highest prevalence of Fe deficiency (20·3, 37·8, 59·5 %) and the lowest prevalence of vitamin A (26·4,16·6, 17·3 %) and Zn (16·9, 20·6, 11·0 %) deficiency, respectively. For serum Se, irrespective of adjustment, GM were low (regression: 0·73, 0·78, 0·81 μmol/l) with prevalence of deficiency >50 % across all ages. In conclusion, without inflammation adjustment, Fe deficiency was grossly under-estimated and vitamin A and Zn deficiency over-estimated, highlighting the importance of correcting for the influence of such, before implementing programmes to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. However, further work is needed to validate the proposed approaches with a particular focus on assessing the influence of varying degrees of inflammation (i.e. recurrent acute infections and low-grade chronic inflammation) on each affected nutrient biomarker.
Concern over the use of prophylactic antibiotics and the potential of them being banned has increased interest in other methods of controlling disease. Specifically postweaning diarrhoea in the pig, often associated with E Coli (F4 K88ac) is a candidate for an alternative strategy. If in-feed additives can be demonstrated which effectively block the binding of the F4 (K88)ac pilli to the surface of the pig enterocytes then the severe form of the disease could be controlled without the use of antibiotics. The work reported here provides a screening method to determine whether potential in-feed additives can block the binding of purified F4(K88)ac to isolated brush border membranes taken from neonatal F4(K88)ac positive pigs.
We report on the first successful coordinated observations of stellar flares carried out on March 28, 1984 simultaneously over a wide range of wavelengths, from UV to microwaves, using the IUE satellite, three ESO telescopes at La Silla (Chile) and the VLA at Socorro (NM, USA).
Martian Meteorite ALH84001 contains four unusual features which have been interpreted as possible signatures of relic biogenic activity. After six years of intense study by the world's scientific community, the current status of the biogenic hypothesis is reviewed and shown to still be valid. Furthermore additional features have been observed in two younger Martian meteorites. The strongest argument for possible evidence of biogenic activity within the ALH84001 meteorite is the presence of truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals which are only known on Earth to be the products of biology.
Successful hot-water drilling in the Antarctic is predicated on utilization of the abundant water supply available in the form of the Antarctic ice sheet. For WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling) field operations, a snowmelting system was developed that could adequately provide water for a 1000 kW hot-water drill. The system employs ∼100 kW of waste heat from a 225 kW generator to melt snow for initial water (known as seed water) to prime the drill’s high-pressure pumps and water heaters; once the water heaters can be engaged in snowmelting, enough water can be supplied directly to the WISSARD drill to successfully melt a 40 cm diameter hole through 800 m of ice.
This paper investigates the effectiveness of using a UAV with dual commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras, one un-modified and one modified to sense near infra-red (NIR) wavelengths to identify the onset of disease within a trial crop of potatoes. The trial was composed of 2 plots of 16 drills containing 12 tubers exposed to the blackleg disease-causing bacterial pathogen (Pectobacterium atrosepticum) in order to demonstrate best practise tuber storage and haulm destruction methods. Eleven sets of aerial data were gathered between 27/5/2016~29/7/2016 and compared with ground truth data collected on 14/7/2016. Visual analysis of the data could only detect the onset of disease and not the specific infection and resulted in a user accuracy (UA) of 83% and producer accuracy (PA) of 78%, with a total accuracy (TA) of 91% and Kappa coefficient (K) of 0.75. The building blocks of an automated classification routine have been constructed using pixel and object based image analysis (OBIA) methods, which have shown promising first results (UA 65%, PA 73%, TA 87%, K 0.61) but requires further refinement to achieve an equivalent level of accuracy as that of the visual analysis.
Background: Approximately 12-15% of patients with intracranial aneurysms (IA) have affected first-degree relatives, and are considered to have familial intracranial aneurysms (FIA). Individuals with FIA are at higher risk for aneurysm formation and subarachnoid hemorrhage. THSD1 is the only gene to be associated with nonsyndromic FIA at this time. Our study aims to find rare DNA variants that are major risk factors for FIA in our cohort of patients. Methods: To date we have enrolled 37 affected and 31 unaffected people from 16 families. We have done exome or genome sequencing on at least 1 person from each of 12 families. Results: A rare p.(R686W) variant in THSD1 was found in 1/12 families, but did not cosegregate fully with disease. While less attractive as the primary cause of FIA, we cannot rule out the potential modifying effects of THSD1 p.(R686W) in this family. A second candidate, an extracellular matrix gene within a chromosomal region previously implicated by familial mapping studies, contains rare variants in 4/12 of our families. All four variants are predicted to be damaging. Conclusions: Alongside environmental risk factors, individual FIA families may also have complex rare variant contributions to their disease, such as digenic and multi-locus contributions.