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We want to study comorbidity between substance abuse and bipolar disorder in patients who have been examined in psychiatric department as outpatients.
We examined 48 patients with bipolar disorder for two years and we investigated how many of the patients had the diagnosis of substance abuse. The diagnosis was according to DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria. We used BPRS scale, Mini scale, GAF and self - report scale SF-36 Health Survey. Our patients were between 18 and 65 years old. They had done blood and urine tests.
Men were more often substance abusers than women but it seems that it starts to change in the younger populations. 22% of our bipolar patients were in a lifetime period substance abusers, especially alcohol and cannabis and more seldom cocaine and heroin. The results of pharmacological treatment were better in patients who weren't substance abusers.
Our findings are limited in a small population group. There is need to conduct further studies in which the patient's sample will be larger and the design of the studies will include more agents.
Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites.
The overall sample consisted of 27 001 participants (37.5% males, n = 4251 drawn from the general population). The mean age was 22.12 years (s.d. = 6.28, range 16–55 years). The SPQ was used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Multilevel CFA (ML-CFA) were used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the SPQ scores.
At the SPQ item level, the nine factor and second-order factor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit. At the SPQ subscale level, three- and four-factor models displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than other CFA models. ML-CFA showed that the intraclass correlation coefficients values were lower than 0.106. The three-factor model showed adequate goodness of fit indices in multilevel analysis. The ordinal α coefficients were high, ranging from 0.73 to 0.94 across individual samples, and from 0.84 to 0.91 for the combined sample.
The results are consistent with the conceptual notion that schizotypal personality is a multifaceted construct and support the validity and utility of SPQ in cross-cultural research. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our results for diagnostic systems, psychosis models and cross-national mental health strategies.
Recent evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) agonist-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) depends on basal PPI values, in a manner that suggests an inverted U-shaped relationship between PPI and prefrontal DA levels. This is the first study to examine possible genetic determinants of PPI and the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, the main catabolic pathway of released DA in the prefrontal cortex (PFC).
PPI was measured in 93 healthy males presented with 75-dB and 85-dB prepulses at 60-ms and 120-ms prepulse–pulse intervals. Subjects were grouped according to their COMT status into a Val/Val, a Val/Met and a Met/Met group.
ANOVAs showed that at all prepulse and interval conditions, Val/Val individuals had the lowest PPI, Met/Met the highest, and Val/Met were intermediate.
These results suggest that PPI is regulated by DA neurotransmission in the PFC and its levels depend on the COMT Val158Met gene polymorphism. These findings enhance the value of the PPI paradigm in examining individual variability of early information processing in healthy subjects and psychiatric disorders associated with changes in PFC DA activity and attentional deficits such as schizophrenia.
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