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Early behaviors that differentiate later biomarkers for psychopathology can guide preventive efforts while also facilitating pathophysiological research. We tested whether error-related negativity (ERN) moderates the link between early behavior and later psychopathology in two early childhood phenotypes: behavioral inhibition and irritability. From ages 2 to 7 years, children (n = 291) were assessed longitudinally for behavioral inhibition (BI) and irritability. Behavioral inhibition was assessed via maternal report and behavioral responses to novelty. Childhood irritability was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist. At age 12, an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while children performed a flanker task to measure ERN, a neural indicator of error monitoring. Clinical assessments of anxiety and irritability were conducted using questionnaires (i.e., Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders and Affective Reactivity Index) and clinical interviews. Error monitoring interacted with early BI and early irritability to predict later psychopathology. Among children with high BI, an enhanced ERN predicted greater social anxiety at age 12. In contrast, children with high childhood irritability and blunted ERN predicted greater irritability at age 12. This converges with previous work and provides novel insight into the specificity of pathways associated with psychopathology.
Flexible structures placed within an oncoming flow exhibit far more complex vortex-induced dynamics than flexibly mounted rigid cylinders, because they involve the distributed interaction between the structural and wake dynamics along the entire span. Hence, mapping the well-understood properties of rigid cylinder vibrations to those of strings and beams has been elusive. We show here with a combination of experiments, conducted at Reynolds number,
from 250 to 2300, and computational fluid dynamics that such a mapping is possible for flexible structures in uniform flow undergoing combined cross-flow and in-line oscillations, but only when additional concepts are introduced to model the extended coupling of the flow and the structure. The in-line response consists of largely standing waves that define cells, each cell spanning the distance between adjacent nodes, over which stable vortical patterns form, whose features (‘2S’ versus ‘P
S’) depend strongly on the true reduced velocity,
is the inflow velocity,
is the cross-flow vibration frequency and
is the cylinder diameter, and the phase angle between in-line and cross-flow response; while the cross-flow response may contain travelling waves, breaking the symmetry of the problem. The axial distribution of the highly variable effective added masses in the cross-flow and in-line directions, and the local phase angle between in-line and cross-flow motion determine the single frequency of cross-flow response, while the in-line response vibrates at twice the cross-flow frequency. The cross-flow and in-line lift coefficients in phase with velocity depend strongly on the true reduced velocity but also on the local phase angle between in-line and cross-flow motions. Modal shapes can be defined for in-line and cross-flow, based on the resemblance of the response to conventional modes, which can be in the ratio of either ‘
’ or ‘
is the order of the cross-flow response mode. We use an underwater optical tracking system to reconstruct the sectional fluid forces in a flexible structure and show that, once the cross-flow and in-line motion features are known, employing strip theory and the hydrodynamic coefficients obtained from forced rigid cylinder experiments allows us to predict the distributed forces accurately.
Tom Dishion, a pioneer in prevention science, was one of the first to recognize the importance of adapting interventions to the needs of individual families. Building towards this goal, we suggest that prevention trials be used to assess baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM), where preventive intervention effects are mediated through change in specific targets, and the resulting effect varies across baseline levels of the target. Four forms of BTMM found in recent trials are discussed including compensatory, rich-get-richer, crossover, and differential iatrogenic effects. A strategy for evaluating meaningful preventive effects is presented based on preventive thresholds for diagnostic conditions, midpoint targets and proximal risk or protective mechanisms. Methods are described for using the results from BTMM analyses of these thresholds to estimate indices of intervention risk reduction or increase as they vary over baseline target levels, and potential cut points are presented for identifying subgroups that would benefit from program adaptation because of weak or potentially iatrogenic program effects. Simulated data are used to illustrate curves for the four forms of BTMM effects and how implications for adaptation change when untreated control group outcomes also vary over baseline target levels.
There exists an ever-increasing number of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, in the field of nutrition. Concomitant with this increase is the increased use of such to guide future research as well as both practice and policy-based decisions. Given this increased production and consumption, a need exists to educate both producers and consumers of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, on how to conduct and evaluate high-quality reviews of this nature in nutrition. The purpose of this paper is to try and address this gap. In the present manuscript, the different types of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analyses, are described as well as the description of the major elements, including methodology and interpretation, with a focus on nutrition. It is hoped that this non-technical information will be helpful to producers, reviewers and consumers of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, in the field of nutrition.
We explored the role of lipid accumulation products and visceral adiposity on the association between red meat consumption and markers of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation in US adults. Data on red meat consumption, and health outcome measurements were extracted from the 2005-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Overall 16,621 participants were included in the analysis (mean age = 47.1 years, 48.3% men). Analysis of co-variance and “conceptus causal mediation” models were applied, while accounting for survey design. In adjusted models, a lower red meat consumption was significantly associated with a cardio-protective profile of IR and inflammation. Body mass index (BMI) had significant mediation effects on the associations between red meat consumption and C-reactive protein (CRP), Apolipoprotein-B, fasting glucose (FBG), insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) IR and β-cell function, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride to high density lipoprotein (TG:HDL) ratio and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index (all p < 0.05). Both waist circumference and anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT) mediated the association between red meat consumption with CRP, FBG, HbA1c, TG: HDL ratio and TyG index (all p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that adiposity, particularly the accumulation of abdominal fat, accounts for a significant proportion of the associations between red meat consumption IR and inflammation.
No data exist on the associations of dietary tomato and lycopene consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2010, we evaluted the long-term impact of tomato and lycopene intake on total and cause-specific (coronary heart disease [CHD] and cerebrovascular disease) mortality. We also assessed the changes in cardio-metabolic risk factors according to tomato and lycopene intake. Vital status through December 31, 2011 was ascertained. Cox proportional hazard regression models (followed by propensity score-matching) were used to investigate the link between tomato and lycopene consumption total, CHD and cerebrovascular mortality. Among the 23,935 participants included (mean age = 47.6 years, 48.8% men), 3403 deaths occurred during 76.4 months of follow-up. Tomato intake was inversely associated with total (risk ratio (RR):0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.81-0.92), CHD (0.76, 95%CI: 0.70-0.85) and cerebrovascular (0.70, 95%CI: 0.62-0.81) mortality. Similar inverse associations were found between lycopene consumption, total (0.76, 95%CI: 0.72-0.81), CHD (0.73, 95%CI: 0.65-0.83) and cerebrovascular (0.71, 95%CI: 0.65-0.78) mortality; these associations were independent of anthropometric, clinical and nutritional parameters. Age and obesity did not affect the associations of tomato and lycopene consumption with total, CHD and cerebrovascular mortality. C-reactive protein significantly moderated the link between lycopene and tomato intake with total, CHD and cerebrovascular mortality. Analysis of co-variance showed that participants with a higher tomato and lycopene consumption had a more cardio-protective profile compared with those with a lower intake. Our results highlighted the favorable effect of tomato and lycopene intake on total and cause-specific mortality as well as to cardio-metabolic risk factors. These findings should be taken into consideration for public health strategies.
High-intensity laser–plasma interactions produce a wide array of energetic particles and beams with promising applications. Unfortunately, the high repetition rate and high average power requirements for many applications are not satisfied by the lasers, optics, targets, and diagnostics currently employed. Here, we aim to address the need for high-repetition-rate targets and optics through the use of liquids. A novel nozzle assembly is used to generate high-velocity, laminar-flowing liquid microjets which are compatible with a low-vacuum environment, generate little to no debris, and exhibit precise positional and dimensional tolerances. Jets, droplets, submicron-thick sheets, and other exotic configurations are characterized with pump–probe shadowgraphy to evaluate their use as targets. To demonstrate a high-repetition-rate, consumable, liquid optical element, we present a plasma mirror created by a submicron-thick liquid sheet. This plasma mirror provides etalon-like anti-reflection properties in the low field of 0.1% and high reflectivity as a plasma, 69%, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Practical considerations of fluid compatibility, in-vacuum operation, and estimates of maximum repetition rate are addressed. The targets and optics presented here demonstrate a potential technique for enabling the operation of laser–plasma interactions at high repetition rates.
A multidisciplinary mineralogical, geochemical and biomarker study of Indus Fan sediments cored during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 to the Laxmi Basin was carried out to define the different compositional signatures of sand, silt and clay. Upper Pliocene – lower Pleistocene turbidites from sites U1456 and U1457 were selected as the best candidates for this study. The integrated dataset presented here was obtained by coupling traditional and innovative bulk-sediment and single-mineral techniques on the same samples. Turbiditic deposits mostly consist of medium to fine silt, including rich and diverse heavy-mineral assemblages. Such a fine grain size forced us to push the limits of high-resolution quantitative heavy-mineral analysis down to as low as 5 μm. Heavy-mineral analysis allowed us to establish a Himalayan origin of the detritus in the studied turbidites. Heavy-mineral concentrations are higher in channel-fill than in overbank deposits. Mineralogical and geochemical data concur in revealing that fast-settling ultradense minerals such as zircon are preferentially concentrated in channel-fill deposits, whereas the top of overbank deposits are notably enriched with slow-settling platy phyllosilicates. Biomarker analysis represents a most suitable complementary technique that is able to investigate the provenance signature of the finer sediment fraction, largely consisting of clay. This technique allowed us to identify a largely terrigenous origin of organic matter at Site U1456 and an open marine origin at Site U1457. The latter site lies closer to the Laxmi Ridge, where thermal maturity increases with depth to reach the early oil window (127°C at c. 320 m below the seafloor).
Staphylococci have been isolated from various sites of the body of healthy sheep, as well as from many infections of those animals, the main one being mastitis. The objective of this review is to appraise the importance and significance of staphylococci in causing mastitis in ewes. The review includes a brief classification and taxonomy of staphylococci and describes the procedures for their isolation and identification, as well as their virulence determinants and the mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents. Various staphylococcal species have been implicated in staphylococcal mastitis and the characteristics of isolates are discussed with regards to potential virulence factors. Staphylococcal mastitis is explicitly described, with reference to sources of infection, the course of the disease and the relevant control measures. Finally, the potential significance of staphylococci present in ewes’ milk for public health is discussed briefly.
The study examined (a) whether alcohol use subgroups could be identified among African Americans assessed from adolescence through early adulthood, and (b) whether subgroup membership was associated with the interaction between internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and environmental characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, community disadvantage). Participants (N = 436) were initially recruited for an elementary school-based prevention trial in a Mid-Atlantic city. Youths reported on the frequency of their past year alcohol use from ages 14–26. DNA was obtained from participants at age 21. Internalizing symptoms and antisocial behavior PRSs were created based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted by Benke et al. (2014) and Tielbeek et al. (2017), respectively. Parental monitoring and community disadvantage were assessed at age 12. Four classes of past year alcohol use were identified: (a) early-onset, increasing; (b) late-onset, moderate use; (c) low steady; and (d) early-onset, decreasing. In high community disadvantaged settings, participants with a higher internalizing symptoms PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, decreasing class than the low steady class. When exposed to elevated community disadvantage, participants with a higher antisocial behavior PRS were more likely to be in the early-onset, increasing class than the early-onset, decreasing and late-onset, moderate use classes.
We report on an initial long-term study of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC) from Sabino Creek, located in Sabino Canyon, Pima County, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in dissolved radiocarbon (14C) with time and to understand the processes contributing to these variations. Our results span the period 2009–2016 and show a mixing trend between dissolved inorganic and organic carbon modern end-members with an older component. This study provides preliminary information for more detailed research on recycling of organic components in this stream system.
The dedication of late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century German intelligentsia to collecting and consuming folk music was fostered by a belief that a repository of wisdom lay with the common people and that, by drawing together the peasant songs of various regions where German was spoken, one could grasp a German national identity [see Ch. 26 ‘Politics and Religion’] where, politically, none existed.
Perinatal maternal high-fat diet (HFD) increases susceptibility to obesity and fatty liver diseases in adult offspring, which can be attenuated by the potent hypolipidaemic action of fish oil (FO), an n-3 PUFA source, during adult life. Previously, we described that adolescent HFD offspring showed resistance to FO hypolipidaemic effects, although FO promoted hepatic molecular changes suggestive of reduced lipid accumulation. Here, we investigated whether this FO intervention only during the adolescence period could affect offspring metabolism in adulthood. Then, female Wistar rats received isoenergetic, standard (STD: 9 % fat) or high-fat (HFD: 28·6 % fat) diet before mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring received the standard diet; and from 25 to 45 d old they received oral administration of soyabean oil or FO. At 150 d old, serum and hepatic metabolic parameters were evaluated. Maternal HFD adult offspring showed increased body weight, visceral adiposity, hyperleptinaemia and decreased hepatic pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio, suggestive of hepatic leptin resistance. FO intake only during the adolescence period reduced visceral adiposity and serum leptin, regardless of maternal diet. Maternal HFD promoted dyslipidaemia and hepatic TAG accumulation, which was correlated with reduced hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1a content, suggesting lipid oxidation impairment. FO intake did not change serum lipids; however, it restored hepatic TAG content and hepatic markers of lipid oxidation to STD offspring levels. Therefore, we concluded that FO intake exclusively during adolescence programmed STD offspring and reprogrammed HFD offspring male rats to a healthier metabolic phenotype in adult life, reducing visceral adiposity, serum leptin and hepatic TAG content in offspring adulthood.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: (1) Assess if the total duration of EEG suppression during a protocolized exposure to general anesthesia predicts cognitive performance in multiple cognitive domains immediately following emergence from anesthesia. (2) Assess if the total duration of EEG suppression in the same individuals predicts the rate of cognitive recovery in a three-hour period following emergence from anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a non-specified substudy of NCT01911195, a multicenter investigation taking place at the University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. 30 healthy volunteers aged 20-40 years were recruited to receive general anesthesia. Participants in the anesthesia arm were anesthetized for three hours at isoflurane levels compatible with surgery (1.3 MAC). Multichannel sensor nets were used for EEG acquisition during the anesthetic exposure. EEG suppression was detected through automated voltage-thresholded classification of 2-second signal epochs, with concordance assessed across sensors. Following return of responsiveness to verbal commands, participants completed up to three hours of serial cognitive tests assessing executive function, reaction time, cognitive throughput, and working memory. Non-linear mixed effects models will be used to estimate the initial cognitive deficit and the rate of cognitive recovery following anesthetic exposure; these measures of cognitive function will be assessed in relation to total duration of suppression during anesthesia. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants displayed wide variability in the total amount of suppression during anesthesia, with a median of 31.2 minutes and range from 0 minutes to 115.2 minutes. Initial analyses suggest that greater duration of burst suppression had a weak relationship with participants’ initial cognitive deficits upon return of responsiveness from anesthesia. Model generation of rate of recovery following anesthetic exposure is pending, but we anticipate this will also have a weak relationship with burst suppression. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In healthy adults receiving a standardized exposure to anesthesia without surgery, burst suppression appears to be a poor predictor of post-anesthesia cognitive task performance. This suggests that burst suppression may have limited utility as a predictive marker of post-operative cognitive functioning, particularly in young adults without significant illness.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The study aimed at assessing whether M. bovis BCG infection and inflammation exacerbates the development of atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Twelve-week old male Ldlr-/- mice (n=10) were infected with M. bovis BCG (0.3–3.0x10^6 colony-forming units (CFUs)) via the intranasal route, to simulate a natural respiratory route of infection. Mice were subsequently fed a western-type diet (WD) containing 21% fat and 0.2% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Age-matched uninfected Ldlr-/- mice (n=10) fed with an identical WD served as controls. Mice were euthanized after 16 weeks of WD to examine atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root sections and en face aorta using Oil Red O staining. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic assays and lipoprotein distribution was assessed using fast protein liquid chromatography. Because of the important role of T cells and monocytes in atherosclerosis development, we assessed these cell subsets in blood using flow cytometry at 8 and 16 weeks. Experiments were conducted in duplicate. We used unpaired Student’s t-test for group comparisons of numeric variables and flow cytometry data. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: M. bovis BCG infection significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions in en face aorta (plaque size per aorta area ratio; 0.15±0.13 vs. 0.06±0.02; P<0.01), but not in the aortic root. There were no significant differences in plasma cholesterol (1,160 mg/dL vs. 1,278 mg/dL; P = 0.36), triglycerides (340 mg/dL vs. 413 mg/dL; P = 0.28), or lipoprotein profiles between infected vs. uninfected mice at 16 weeks. M. bovis BCG increased circulating T lymphocytes (1,490 cells/uL vs. 1,227 cells/uL; P = 0.03) and monocytes (901 cells/uL vs. 414 cells/uL; P<0.01) within 8 weeks post-infection. When we assessed T lymphocyte subsets, M. bovis BCG infection increased total CD4+ T cell counts (556 cells/uL vs. 416 cells/uL; P<0.01) but not CD8+ T cells. No differences in the proportion of CD44+CD25+ activated T lymphocytes were noted between groups. When we assessed monocyte subsets, M. bovis BCG infection increased the numbers of Ly6Chigh (709 cells/uL vs. 362 cells/uL; P<0.01) and Ly6Clow (145 cells/uL vs. 35 cells/uL; P<0.01) monocytes. Infection was associated with an increased proportion of Ly6Clow monocytes at week 8 (17% vs. 8%; P<0.01) and week 16 (19% vs. 5%; P<0.01), compared to uninfected mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: M. bovis BCG infection increased the extent of atherosclerosis formation in the aortas of WD-fed hyperlipidemic Ldlr-/- mice after 16 weeks. Lipid profiles were similar between infected and uninfected mice, and therefore do not explain the observed differences in atherosclerosis. Compared to uninfected controls, M. bovis BCG-infected mice exhibited increased CD4+ T cell and monocyte driven inflammation. Interestingly, M. bovis BCG-infected mice had a higher proportion of non-classical Ly6Clow monocytes, suggesting a pro-atherogenic contribution of these cells in our model. Overall, our results support a pathogenic role of mycobacterial infection in atherosclerosis development and ASCVD.
A high-temperature nanoindentation system was used to examine the steady state indentation creep behavior of CsHSO4. This high proton conductivity solid-acid material is a candidate for use as a solid-state electrolyte in intermediate temperature fuel cells. Constant strain rate indentation creep tests yielded a stress exponent and a creep activation energy in close agreement with results obtained from previous uniaxial compression testing. The large penetration depths reached during creep testing necessitated validating an indenter area function well beyond depths measurable in fused silica. The developed methodology is material agnostic meaning it can be used for indentation creep measurements in other high creep rate materials. In addition, it is shown how an analysis developed by Bower et al. (Proc. Royal Soc. 441, 97–124, 1993) can be successfully used to convert the indentation creep parameters into the more common material parameters measured in uniaxial creep tests.
Crop wild relatives (CWR) are wild plant taxa relatively closely related to crops that can contribute beneficial traits for crop improvement, such as biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Turkey has a rich flora of approximately 11,000 higher plant taxa, has two Vavilov centres of crop diversity (i.e. the Mediterranean and the Near East), is recognized as the cradle of agriculture providing the northern boundary of the Fertile Crescent, and has recently been identified as the country with the highest concentration of CWR diversity. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a gap analysis of CWR genetic diversity in Turkey using existing data sources of 458 of the 764 priority CWR taxa with available georeferenced data. In total, 27,597 presence points were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Aegean Agricultural Research Institute in Menemen and Field Crops Central Research Institute, Ankara. Geographic Information System (GIS) software was used to identify taxon richness, sampling bias, future ex situ population collection and location where existing protected sites could form the basis of national network of in situ genetic reserves. CWR taxon richness was located along the Aegean Coast, Syrian border and southern Mediterranean coast. Current ex situ representation of CWR taxa is inadequate and further collection across the entire country is required. The highest priority in situ reserve location is found in Izmir, Sanliurfa and Antalya province, which reflects overall CWR richness.
Vortex-induced vibrations of bluff bodies occur when the vortex shedding frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure. Of interest is the prediction of the lift and drag forces on the structure given some limited and scattered information on the velocity field. This is an inverse problem that is not straightforward to solve using standard computational fluid dynamics methods, especially since no information is provided for the pressure. An even greater challenge is to infer the lift and drag forces given some dye or smoke visualizations of the flow field. Here we employ deep neural networks that are extended to encode the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations coupled with the structure’s dynamic motion equation. In the first case, given scattered data in space–time on the velocity field and the structure’s motion, we use four coupled deep neural networks to infer very accurately the structural parameters, the entire time-dependent pressure field (with no prior training data), and reconstruct the velocity vector field and the structure’s dynamic motion. In the second case, given scattered data in space–time on a concentration field only, we use five coupled deep neural networks to infer very accurately the vector velocity field and all other quantities of interest as before. This new paradigm of inference in fluid mechanics for coupled multi-physics problems enables velocity and pressure quantification from flow snapshots in small subdomains and can be exploited for flow control applications and also for system identification.
Crystals within volcanic rocks record geochemical and textural signatures during magmatic evolution before eruption. Clues to this magmatic history can be examined using crystal size distribution (CSD) studies. The analysis of CSDs is a standard petrological tool, but laborious due to manual hand-drawing of crystal margins. The trainable Weka segmentation (TWS) plugin in ImageJ is a promising alternative. It uses machine learning and image segmentation to classify an image. We recorded back-scattered electron (BSE) images of three volcanic samples with different crystallinity (35, 50 and ≥85 vol. %), using scanning electron microscopes (SEM) of variable image resolutions, which we then tested using TWS. Crystal measurements obtained from the automatically segmented images are compared with those of the manual segmentation. Samples up to 50 vol. % crystallinity are successfully segmented using TWS. Segmentation at significantly higher crystallinities fails, as crystal boundaries cannot be distinguished. Accuracy performance tests for the TWS classifiers yield high F-scores (>0.930), hence, TWS is a successful and fast computing tool for outlining crystals from BSE images of glassy rocks. Finally, reliable CSD’s can be derived using a low-cost desktop SEM, paving the way for a wide range of research to take advantage of this new petrological method.