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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an improved growth, dietary nutrient availability and overall health of broiler chickens reared on recycled litter when fed a standardised combination of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin). To assess the effect of dietary treatments, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, availability of dietary nutrients and energy, villus morphometry, excreta sialic acid concentration, hepatic antioxidants and serum amyloid A (SAA) when fed to broiler chickens were evaluated. Counts of Eimeria spp. oocysts were also determined in excreta samples. Four experimental diets were offered, including two basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg metabolisable energy and another two diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the EO combination at 100 mg/kg diet. Each diet was fed to eight floor pens, containing two birds each, following randomisation. Birds fed the EO-supplemented diets had an improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Birds fed maize-based diet had an improved daily weight gain and FCR (P<0.05) compared with wheat-fed birds. Wheat-based diet tended (P=0.056) to have greater N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy and had greater fat retention coefficient (P<0.05) compared with maize-based diets. No differences (P>0.05) were observed in villus morphometry, sialic acid secretion, number of oocysts and SAA. Feeding the EO improved (P<0.05) the retention of dietary Ca and Na. Compared with maize, feeding wheat-based diets improved the retention coefficients for Ca, P and Na (P<0.05). Feeding dietary EO improved (P<0.05) the concentrations of the hepatic antioxidants, including carotene, coenzyme Q10 and total vitamin E. The hepatic concentration of carotene of the maize-fed birds was 55.6% greater (P<0.05) compared with the wheat-fed birds. These results demonstrated that the addition of a standardised combination of EO in wheat- and maize-based diets provided benefits in terms of feed efficiency, mineral retention and antioxidant status of the birds when reared on recycled litter.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) represent a disease continuum with common genetic causes and molecular pathology. We recently identified mutations in the T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) protein as a cause of ALS +/− FTD. TIA1 is an RNA-binding protein containing a low complexity domain (LCD) that promotes the assembly of membrane-less organelles, such as stress granules (SG). Whole exome sequencing of two family members with fALS/FTD revealed a novel missense mutation in the TIA1 LCD (P362L). Subsequent screening identified five more TIA1 mutations in six additional ALS patients, but none in controls. All mutation carriers presented with weakness, behavioral abnormalities or language impairments and had a final diagnosis of ALS +/− FTD. Autopsy on five TIA1 mutation carriers showed widespread neurodegeneration with TDP-43 pathology. Round eosinophilic inclusions in lower motor neurons were a consistent feature. Cellular assays revealed abnormal SG dynamics in the presence of TIA1 mutations. In summary, missense mutations in the LCD of TIA1 are a newly recognized cause of ALS/FTD with TDP-43 pathology and strengthen the role of RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis in this disease.
Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the activity of numerous enzymes. Supplemental zinc is considered normal for ruminant livestock to ensure that requirements are met. Although zinc deficiency is not generally recognised in the UK, there is considerable evidence that this supplemental zinc is beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of partially replacing zinc oxide with a zinc proteinate in the diet of ewes in late pregnancy and lactation on performance and health of ewes and lambs.
It is reported that supplementing pregnant ewes with supra-optimal levels of vitamin E improves neonatal lamb vigour and growth rate (Merrell, 1998). The biochemical mechanism behind these observations has yet to be elucidated as several studies report negligible placental vitamin E transfer in ruminants (Van Saun et al., 1989); consequently, lambs may be clinically deficient in this nutrient at birth and achieve a satisfactory vitamin E status via colostrum ingestion. Lamb vitamin E status may be further diminished by the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to the maternal diet. However, PUFA supplementation demonstrably enhances foetal and neonatal development in human studies (Morley, 1998) although these effects have not been investigated in ruminants to any depth. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E in combination with long-chain PUFA supplementation of ewes on ewe and lamb performance.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential components of cellular membranes and are associated with prostaglandin synthesis. Supplementing ewes with long-chain PUFAs during gestation has been demonstrated to increase gestation length and improve lamb vigour (Capper et al., 2002). Furthermore, increasing the dietary vitamin E supplied to pregnant ewes is reported to increase lamb growth rate (Gentry et al., 1992). However, fish oil supplementation during lactation may reduce milk component yield and lamb growth rate (Capper et al., 2002). The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary long-chain PUFA and vitamin E supplementation of pregnant ewes on lamb performance.
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain and are vital for its correct development and for that of the nervous system (Huang and Craig-Schmidt, 1996). Ruminant diets are low in DHA and its precursor alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, dietary PUFAs are substantially hydrogenated in the rumen. Consequently, it may be argued that the diets of pregnant and lactating ewes may be deficient in DHA and that a response to supplementation may be observed. Studies involving the supplementation of pregnant ewes with supraoptimal levels of vitamin E have shown that lambs born to supplemented dams are more vigorous immediately after birth and have higher liveweight gains (Merrell, 1998). The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary long-chain PUFA in combination with vitamin E supplementation of ewes on ewe and lamb performance.
Secondary copper deficiency in ruminant animals is induced by high dietary levels of molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe) or sulphur (S). Within the rumen, sulphur reacts with Mo to form a series of thiomolybdate molecules (TM) which may chelate copper. This reduces copper absorption or if TM is absorbed, inhibits copper metallo-enzyme activities. Parental administration of TM has resulted in an increase in Cu to the brain and an increase in Mo to the pituitaries (Haywood et al., 1998). This redistribution may alter neurological, endocrine and reproductive function. However, there are no reports on effects of endogenously produced TM on brain or pituitary trace element accumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary Mo or Fe on copper status and mineral retention in the pituitary gland and ovary of growing lambs.
Radiocarbon is an important constituent of the low level, liquid, radioactive effluent discharged from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in northwest England, but despite the fact that it gives the highest collective dose commitment of all the nuclides in the waste, its behavior in the Irish Sea is poorly defined. There is therefore a clear requirement for an improved understanding of 14C behavior in the Irish Sea, to assist with dose evaluation modeling and definition of the mixing and accumulation characteristics of the sediment in this area. In this context, results are presented here for a temporal study of 14C activities in four geochemical fractions of seawater and in a sediment core from the vicinity of the Sellafield effluent outfall. Clear 14C enrichments in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) components of seawater were observed, with temporal trends in activity that were related to variations in the Sellafield discharge. Smaller, but nevertheless detectable, enrichments were also observed for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater. The distribution of 137Cs and 241Am revealed that the sediment core could be classified into three zones in which the intensity of mixing decreased discontinuously with depth. Bulk carbonate 14C analyses of the core demonstrated the presence of glacial or pre-glacial carbonate in the system, but failed to show any evidence of contaminant 14C input or provide information on sediment accumulation processes. In contrast, analysis of bulk organic matter from the sediment provided clear evidence of the recent perturbation of a well mixed system by input of younger material, consistent with the recent input of contaminant 14C from Sellafield and possibly weapons testing fallout.
The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.
The author commenced by alluding to the disposition of geologists to draw conclusions of a general nature too hastily from the facts observed by them, illustrating this remark by referring to the various opinions successively promulgated, not only by geologists generally, but even by the same geological writer, on the subject of the till or boulder clay, the gravel, and sand, by which Great Britain is every where more or less covered. At one period, all these superficial deposits were referred to the action of water alone; now it is the fashion to explain them by the agency of glaciers.
This paper the author considered as nothing else than an abstract of the thoughts he entertained on the subject. His object was to shew there was no analogy in nature, rendering a prospective law of progressive development from lower to higher types probable; and he brought forward various examples to prove that, in all cases in which variation took place among domestic animals and vegetable productions, the varieties, though they might be regarded as improved or new, were not permanent, but required selection and care to preserve them; so that new forms and qualities appearing, could not confirm the progressive hypothesis.
Sir George Mackenzie read a paper on the Theory of the Parallel Shelves in the Glens of Lochaber, in which he first noticed the objections to the theories that ascribed the origin of these appearances to fresh-water lakes, the barriers of which had been destroyed at different periods; and to the ordinary action of the sea when the land was at a lower level than at present. The causes supposed to have removed the barriers, in the first case, being violent disruptions, the preservation of level and parallelism is totally inconsistent with such operations.
The object of this paper was to shew, that if it be assumed that glaciers had actually existed among the Cuchullin Hills, or in other parts of this country, one of two conditions must necessarily have been present—either a climate much colder than the existing climate of Scotland, or a higher position of the land where the supposed marks of glaciers are seen. With respect to the first condition, the permanency of the relative positions of the heavenly bodies, and of the inclination of the earth's axis, and the adaptation to existing climates of animal and vegetable life, were appealed to as rendering it improbable. The other condition was maintained as probable, on the ground that the changes which have undoubtedly taken place in the positions of the rocky masses forming the crust of the earth, prove that parts of these masses had been depressed, while others had been elevated; so that the probability was, that the Cuchullin Hills had stood at a higher elevation than they do at present, reaching above the line of perpetual congelation.
The author, having observed in Iceland some remarkable intermixtures of lava with volcanic tuff; and, more recently, on the coast of East Lothian, a somewhat similar intermixture of masses of greenstone in trap-tuff, conceived the idea that cavities existed underneath the crust of the earth, or deeply seated within it, containing water exposed to heat, and the agitation of which, occasioned by the production of steam, had reduced the materials of trap-tuff to the state in which we find them, which had been afterwards erupted at the bottom of the sea, or forced between the beds of superincumbent rocks.
The unique environment of the Mediterranean Sea makes fish stock assessment a major challenge. Stock identification of Mediterranean fisheries has been based mostly from data on biology, morphometrics, artificial tags, otolith shape and fish genetics, with less effort on the use of parasites as biomarkers. Here we use some case studies comparing Mediterranean vs Atlantic fish stocks in a multidisciplinary framework. The generalized Procrustes Rotation (PR) was used to assess the association between host genetics and larval Anisakis spp. datasets on demersal (hake) and pelagic (horse mackerel, swordfish) species. When discordant results emerged, they were due to the different features of the data. While fish population genetics can detect changes over an evolutionary timescale, providing indications on the cohesive action of gene flow, parasites are more suitable biomarkers when considering fish stocks over smaller temporal and spatial scales, hence giving information of fish movements over their lifespan. Future studies on the phylogeographic analysis of parasites suitable as biomarkers, and that of their fish host, performed on the same genes, will represent a further tool to be included in multidisciplinary studies on fish stock structure.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have the highest co-morbidity rates within the internalizing disorders cluster, yet no Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) programme exists for their combined treatment.
We designed a six-lesson therapist-assisted iCBT programme for mixed anxiety and depression. Study 1 was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the iCBT programme (n = 46) versus wait-list control (WLC; n = 53) for patients diagnosed by structured clinical interview with MDD, GAD or co-morbid GAD/MDD. Primary outcome measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item scale (depression), Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale (generalized anxiety), Kessler 10-item Psychological Distress scale (distress) and 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (disability). The iCBT group was followed up at 3 months post-treatment. In study 2, we investigated the adherence to, and efficacy of the same programme in a primary care setting, where patients (n = 136) completed the programme under the supervision of primary care clinicians.
The RCT showed that the iCBT programme was more effective than WLC, with large within- and between-groups effect sizes found (>0.8). Adherence was also high (89%), and gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. In study 2 in primary care, adherence to the iCBT programme was low (41%), yet effect sizes were large (>0.8). Of the non-completers, 30% experienced benefit.
Together, the results show that iCBT is effective and adherence is high in research settings, but there is a problem of adherence when translated into the ‘real world’. Future efforts need to be placed on developing improved adherence to iCBT in primary care settings.
Although I possess a collection of specimens of Chalcedony, made expressly with the view to enable me to form some plausible theory of its formation; and; although my cabinet contains a variety of forms, perhaps unequalled in any other collection, I have, for many years, refrained from describing them, because the oftener I contemplated my specimens, the less able I found myself to apply any single agent, so that its operations alone could account for their forms. It is, indeed, very long since I entertained the opinion, that no hypothesis founded on the separate agency of heat or of water, could be satisfactory to speculative minds; and that geologists could never account for the formation of individual minerals, or of the rocks containing them, without combining the power of heat with that of water. But even this combination, though it can be easily conceived capable of forming many of the productions of the mineral kingdom, leaves numerous phenomena unexplained.
The Vertebra which I now send to you, was found about two years ago, on the property of Mr Mackenzie of Hilton, in Strathpeffer, county of Ross; and that gentleman desires me to present this interesting relic of some cetaceous animal to the Royal Society of Edinburgh.