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This paper presents a series of three patients who were identified as having partial thickness involvement of the laryngotracheal complex secondary to invasive, well-differentiated thyroid cancer. These patients were managed with full thickness window resection and reconstruction using a composite nasal septal graft.
A review of the Princess Alexandra Hospital database (comprising prospectively collated data) was undertaken to identify patients who had undergone full thickness tracheal resection and reconstruction using a composite nasal septal graft; demographic, operative technique and survival outcome data were collated.
Three patients had a composite nasal septal graft performed for reconstruction of full thickness laryngotracheal defects following the excision of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. There were no cases of local recurrence after a minimum of 18 months' follow up.
This paper describes our surgical technique for reconstruction of these defects using a composite nasal septal graft. It also presents data on our three cases to date, in which the technique has been used safely. A discussion of the surgical management of locally invasive, well-differentiated thyroid cancer is provided.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
In this work, we present the first successful fabrication of an etched grooved GaN-based permeable-base transistor structure. Growth of the device structures was done by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on thick HVPE GaN quasi-substrates. The fabrication process took advantage of isolations pads via He implantation and SiN deposition, as well as submicron ICP etching of collector fingers patterned via e-beam lithography. SEM of the finished devices shows smooth etched finger structures and base layer surface with finger sidewall angles of ∼85° for 1:1 and 1:3 finger spacing. Specific contact resistivities of ∼ 3 × 10-6 Ω•cm2 for the ohmic contacts were achieved with Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization scheme. Preliminary DC testing of the devices show a collector current IC = 140 mA/mm at VCE of 5V and VBE of +0.5V. The maximum transconductance gm is ∼111 mS/mm in the measured collector-emitter bias range. These values are comparable, within the measurement tolerance, to physics-based modeling results.
Irish participation in the EU-supported DAta Food NEtworking (DAFNE) project required compliance with the overall aims and objectives. The Irish Household Budget Survey (HBS) expenditure data had to be transformed into a format compatible with the collaborative effort, by converting them into quantities of foodstuffs available per person per day.
The Irish 1987 HBS expenditure data on all commodities for 7705 households in the Republic of Ireland, collected using a 14-day diary kept by all members of the household aged 15 years and over.
Following identification of 188 food items in the HBS dataset, retail prices per unit weight were sought for each food. Adjustment of prices, collected from a number of different sources, was made to those of 1987 using the Consumer Price Index. Simple models were used to estimate household food availability through application of the adjusted retail prices per unit weight to the expenditure data. The household level data were converted to food availability per person per day. An internal validation of quantities estimated using the retail prices was made using the 12 foodstuffs for which the Irish HBS collects expenses and quantities.
The comparison of quantities published by the Irish Central Statistics Office for 12 foodstuffs in the Irish 1987 Household Budget Survey with the quantities estimated using equivalent expenditure data and corresponding retail prices showed agreement, with less than a 10% margin of error for 10 of the foods.
In spite some difficulty in converting HBS food expenditure data into food availability per person per day, the DAFNE approach is potentially useful for Irish nutrition surveillance purposes and for facilitating comparisons of the Irish HBS food data with those of other European countries.
Recasting the role of fruit and vegetables (F&V) in the diet, and planning national and international campaigns to enhance their consumption are major public health service objectives. The present study seeks to describe F&V availability patterns in ten European countries and examine compliance with current recommendations. The mean and median F&V availability (g/person per d) was estimated based on household budget survey data retrieved from the Data Food Networking (DAFNE) databank. Low F&V consumers were identified based on WHO international recommendations (minimum combined F&V intake of about 400 g/person per d) and current conservative guidelines of a minimum daily intake of three portions of vegetables and two portions of fruit. Considerable disparities in F&V availability were found among the surveyed European populations. Only in Mediterranean countries did the mean daily population intake clearly exceed combined F&V recommendations. Dietary patterns were positively skewed in all populations studied, on account of the presence of exceptionally high values among segments of the populations. Moreover, the correlation was unexpectedly weak between the proportion of low fruit and low vegetable consumers (Spearman's correlation coefficient +0·18). More than 50 % of the households in the surveyed populations are likely to consume less than the recommended daily vegetable intake of three portions, and this applies even to the two Mediterranean populations. The efficiency of F&V promoting strategies may be enhanced if F&V are addressed separately; furthermore, interventions that would specifically focus on vegetables are probably needed.
A rapid and accurate method of measuring fractal dimension of a fractured surface is described. The method uses a stereo pair of photomicrographs taken in a scanning electron microscope and digitized for computer analysis. The computer can automatically compare the offset at many places in the two images and calculate their height on the basis of the parallax angle. The sum of the area of all planes formed by an array of three-dimensional points is an approximation of the true surface area. The scale can be varied both in the microscope and in the computer; therefore, a fractal dimension can be calculated. Unlike previous methods, this one is direct and gave results intermediate between two prior indirect measurements.
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