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We present a model for a class of non-local conservation laws arising in traffic flow modelling at road junctions. Instead of a single velocity function for the whole road, we consider two different road segments, which may differ for their speed law and number of lanes (hence their maximal vehicle density). We use an upwind type numerical scheme to construct a sequence of approximate solutions, and we provide uniform L∞ and total variation estimates. In particular, the solutions of the proposed model stay positive and below the maximum density of each road segment. Using a Lax–Wendroff type argument and the doubling of variables technique, we prove the well-posedness of the proposed model. Finally, some numerical simulations are provided and compared with the corresponding (discontinuous) local model.
Afternoon aortic valve replacement surgery may provide perioperative myocardial protection and improve patient outcomes compared with morning surgery. The results of our large observational study based on Swiss cardiac surgical site infection surveillance data suggest that the current evidence is insufficient to generally promote afternoon cardiac surgeries.
Based on a surgical site infection (SSI) cohort at an academic center, we showed a median potentially preventable loss per non-SSI case of $17,916 in colon surgery and of $34,741 in coronary artery bypass grafting.
Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25 % higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.
We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothesised that divergent energy intake achieved by feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate (60% v. 30% concentrate on a dry matter basis) will alter the mRNA expression of FFAR 1, 2, 3, as well as HCAR2 in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks postpartum (p.p.). For this purpose, 20 multiparous German Holstein cows were allocated to either the high concentrate ration (HC, n=10) or the low concentrate ration (LC, n=10) from day 1 to 21 p.p. Serum samples and biopsies of SCAT (tail head) and RPAT (above the peritoneum) were obtained at day −21, 1 and 21 relative to parturition. The mRNA abundances were measured by quantitative PCR. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. The FFAR1 and FFAR2 mRNA abundance in RPAT was higher at day −21 compared to day 1. At day 21 p.p. the FFAR2 mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold higher in RPAT of the LC animals compared to the HC cows. The FFAR3 mRNA abundance tended to lower values in SCAT of the LC group at day 21. The HCAR2 mRNA abundance was neither affected by time nor by feeding in both AT. On day 21 p.p. the HC group had 1.7-fold greater serum concentrations of propionic acid and lower concentrations of acetic acid (trend: 1.2-fold lower) compared with the LC group. Positive correlations between the mRNA abundance of HCAR2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2 (PPARG2) indicate a link between HCAR2 and PPARG2 in both AT. We observed an inverse regulation of FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression over time and both receptors also showed an inverse mRNA abundance as induced by different portions of concentrate. Thus, indicating divergent nutrient sensing of both receptors in AT during the transition period. We propose that the different manifestation of negative EB in both groups at day 21 after parturition affect at least FFAR2 expression in RPAT.
We present results of Herschel PACS imaging spectroscopy data toward ten massive young stellar objects taken as part of the WISH project. Our sample consists of four high mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), two hot molecular cores (HMCs), and four ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIs), and the spectra cover a broad range of wavelengths (55 to 210 μm) imaged over an ~50” field with 5×5 spaxels. By fitting the continua utilizing a modified black-body formula we estimate mass-weighted dust temperature and column density distributions of warm dust and find that UCHII regions are hottest and HMCs are most deeply embedded. We also estimate rotational temperature and column density distributions of warm CO gas using the rotational diagram analysis, which are comparable over targets in contrast to continuum results. By comparing high J CO line fluxes to the RATRAN estimates of centrally heated envelope models, we find that majority of warm CO originates from bipolar outflow shocks.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
The interaction between turbulence in a minimal supersonic channel and radiative heat transfer is studied using large-eddy simulation. The working fluid is pure water vapour with temperature-dependent specific heats and molecular transport coefficients. Its line spectra properties are represented with a statistical narrow-band correlated-k model. A grey gas model is also tested. The parallel no-slip channel walls are treated as black surfaces concerning thermal radiation and are kept at a constant temperature of 1000 K. Simulations have been performed for different optical thicknesses (based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient) and different Mach numbers. Results for the mean flow variables, Reynolds stresses and certain terms of their transport equations indicate that thermal radiation effects counteract compressibility (Mach number) effects. An analysis of the total energy balance reveals the importance of radiative heat transfer, compared to the turbulent and mean molecular heat transport.
ZnO nanostructures have proven to be versatile functional materials with promising electronic, piezoelectric and optical properties. Here, we report on the application of (CdSe) ZnS Core Shell quantum dots decorated ZnO Nanowires (ZnONWs) and Nanobelts (NBs) in solar energy harvesting. Results indicate that both as grown and decorated ZnO Nanostructures are photoactive, have a fast response time and generate photocurrent under excitation in a photoelectrochemical cell setup. An order of magnitude enhancement in the photocurrent response of (CdSe) ZnS Core Shell quantum dots decorated ZnONBs is seen as compared to response from as grown ZnONBs. Generated photocurrent decreases with time but stabilizes at higher value for (CdSe) ZnS Core Shell quantum dots coated ZnONBs. Detailed performances of these devices are discussed.
The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
The diversity of physical phenomena embraced by the study of Chemically Peculiar (CP) stars results in an associated research community with interests that are equally diverse. This fact became once more evident during the CP#Ap Workshop that took place in Vienna (Austria) in September 2007, and which gathered over 80 members of this research community. Besides the excellent scientific outcome of the meeting, during the workshop the community had the opportunity to discuss its organization and plans for the future. Following on those plans, the Working Group has submitted a proposal for a Joint Discussion during the IAU XXVII General Assembly, in Rio de Janeiro, which has meanwhile been accepted. Moreover, through an ApN newsletter forum, the Working Group has compiled requests from the community concerning atomic and related data. These requests have been put together and will be shared with Commission 14.
In this paper, we present results of epitaxial layer deposition for production needs using our hot-wall CVD multi-wafer system VP2000HW from Epigress with a capability of processing 6×100mm wafers per run. Intra-wafer and wafer-to-wafer homogeneities of doping and thickness for full-loaded 6×100mm runs will be shown and compared to results of the former 7×3″ setup. The characteristic of the run-to-run reproducibility for the 6×100mm setup will be discussed. To demonstrate the suitability of the reactor for device production results on Schottky Barrier Diodes (SBD) processed in the multi-wafer system will be given. Furthermore, we show results for n- and p-type SiC homoepitaxial growth on 3″, 4° off-oriented substrates using a single-wafer hot-wall reactor VP508GFR from Epigress for the development of PiN-diodes with blocking voltages above 6.5 kV. Characteristics of n- and p-type epilayers and doping memory effects are discussed. 6.5 kV PiN-diodes were fabricated and electrically characterized. Results on reverse blocking behaviour, forward characteristics and drift stability will be presented.
A micro-epidemic of hantavirus infections occurred in Lower Bavaria, South-East Germany, starting in April 2004. While only three cases were registered from 2001 to 2003, a dramatically increased number of clinically apparent human hantavirus infections (n=38) was observed in 2004, plus seven additional cases by June 2005. To determine the reservoir responsible for the infections, a total of 43 rodents were trapped in Lower Bavaria. Serological and genetic investigations revealed that Puumala virus (PUUV) is dominant in the local population of bank voles. Partial PUUV S segment nucleotide sequences originating from bank voles at four different trapping sites in Lower Bavaria showed a low divergence (up to 3·1%). This is contrasted by a nucleotide sequence divergence of 14–16% to PUUV strains detected in Belgium, France, Slovakia or North-Western Germany. PUUV sequences from bank voles in Lower Bavaria represent a new PUUV subtype which seems to be responsible for the observed increase of human hantavirus infections in 2004–2005.
In this paper we present results of epitaxial layer deposition for production needs using our hot-wall CVD multi-wafer system. This equipment exhibits a capacity of 7x3” wafers per run and can be upgraded to a 6x4” setup. Characteristics of epilayers and reproducibility of the proc-esses are reported. Furthermore, we show recent results of p-type SiC homoepitaxial growth on 3” 4° off-oriented substrates using a single-wafer hot-wall CVD. The dependence of layer prop-erties on growth parameters, doping and thickness uniformity as well as doping memory effects are discussed. For the characterization of epitaxially grown pn-junctions first research grade pin-diodes were fabricated. The p-type emitters were either deposited in the same growth run to-gether with the n-type buffer and drift layers (continuous growth) or the n- and p-layers were grown in two different growth runs (separate growth).